Hama: Difference between revisions
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During the [[Muslim conquest of Syria]] in the 7th century, Hama was conquered by [[Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah]] in 638 or 639 and the town regained its ancient name, and has since retained it. Following its capture, it came under the administration of [[Jund Hims]] and remained so throughout the rule of [[Umayyad dynasty|Umayyad]]s until the 9th century.<ref name="DSA163">Dumper, Stanley, and Abu-Lughod, 2007, p.163.</ref>
[[Arab]] geographer [[al-Muqaddasi]] writes Hama became a part of [[Jund Qinnasrin]] during [[Abbasid]] rule.<ref>le Strange, 1890, p.39.</ref> Although the city's history is obscure at this time period, it is known that Hama was a walled market town with a ring of outlying cities. It came under the control of the [[Hamdanid]] rulers of [[Aleppo]] in the 10th century and was consequently drawn into the orbit of that city where it remained until the 12th century.<ref name="DSA163"/> These were considered the "dark years" of Hama as the local rulers of northern and southern Syria struggled for dominance in the region. The Byzantines under emperor [[Nikephoros II Phokas|Nicephorus Phocas]] raided the town in 968 and burned the [[Great Mosque of Hama|Great Mosque]]. By the 11th century, the [[Fatimid]]s gained suzerainty over northern Syria and during this period, the [[Mirdasid]]s sacked Hama.<ref name="DSA163"/> [[Persian people|Persian]] geographer [[Nasir Khusraw]] noted in 1047 that Hama was "well populated" and stood on the banks of the Orontes River.<ref>le Strange, 1890, p.357.</ref>
[[Tancred, Prince of Galilee]], took it in 1108,<ref name="britannica"/> but in 1114 the [[Crusaders]] lost it definitively to the [[Great Seljuq Empire|Seljuk]]s. The governor of Hama in the early 12th century was Ali Kurd, and his sons, Nasir and Kurdanshah became vassals of [[Toghtekin]].<ref>Chaliand, Gerard (1993). A People Without a Country: The Kurds and Kurdistan. London: Interlink Books.</ref> In [[1157 Hama earthquake|1157 an earthquake]] shattered the city.<ref>Robinson 1908:9.</ref> For the next sixty years, Hama was battled for by competing rulers. [[Nur ad-Din Zangi|Nur al-Din]], the [[Zengid]] sultan, erected a [[Nur al-Din Mosque|mosque]] with a tall, square [[minaret]] in the city in 1172.<ref>[http://www.archnet.org/library/sites/one-site.jsp?site_id=7506 Nur al-Din Mosque] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130703000453/http://archnet.org/library/sites/one-site.jsp?site_id=7506 |date=3 July 2013 }}. Archnet Digital Library.</ref> In 1175, Hama was taken from the Zengids by [[Saladin]]. He granted the city to his nephew, [[al-Muzaffar Umar]], four years later, putting it under the rule of his [[Ayyubid]] family. This ushered in an era of stability and prosperity in Hama as the Ayyubids ruled it almost continuously until 1342.<ref name="DSA163"/> Geographer [[Yaqut al-Hamawi]], who was born in Hama, described it in 1225 as a large town surrounded by a strongly built wall.<ref>le Strange, 1890, p.359.</ref> Hama was sacked by the [[Mongol invasion of Syria|Mongols]] in 1260, as were most other Syrian cities, but the Mongols were [[Battle of Marj al-Saffar (1303)|defeated]] that same year and then again in 1303 by the [[Mamluks]] who succeeded the Ayyubids as rulers of the region.<ref name="Ring2">Ring, 1996, p.317.</ref> Hama briefly passed to Mamluk control in 1299 after the death of governor al-Mansur Mahmoud II. However, unlike other former Ayyubid cities, the Mamluks reinstated Ayyubid rule in Hama by making [[Abu al-Fida]], the historian and geographer, governor of the city and he reigned from 1310 to 1332.<ref name="DSA163"/> He described his city as "very ancient... mentioned in the book of the [[Israelite]]s. It is one of the pleasantest places in Syria."<ref name="Strange360"/> After his death, he was succeeded by his son [[al-Afdal Muhammad]] who eventually lost Mamluk favor and was deposed. Thus, Hama came under direct Mamluk control.<ref name="DSA163"/>
Hama grew prosperous during the Ayyubid period, as well as the Mamluk period. It gradually expanded to both banks of the Orontes River, with the suburb on the right bank being connected to the town proper by a newly built bridge. The town on the left bank was divided into upper and lower parts, each of which was surrounded by a wall. The city was filled with palaces, markets, mosques, ''[[madrasa]]s'', and a hospital, and over thirty different sized [[noria]]s (water-wheels). In addition, there stood a massive citadel in Hama.<ref name="DSA163"/> Moreover, a special aqueduct brought drinking water to Hama from the neighboring town of [[Salamiyah]].<ref name="DSA163"/>
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