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During the [[Muslim conquest of Syria]] in the 7th century, Hama was conquered by [[Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah]] in 638 or 639 and the town regained its ancient name, and has since retained it. Following its capture, it came under the administration of [[Jund Hims]] and remained so throughout the rule of [[Umayyad dynasty|Umayyad]]s until the 9th century.<ref name="DSA163">Dumper, Stanley, and Abu-Lughod, 2007, p.163.</ref>
 
[[Arab]] geographer [[al-Muqaddasi]] writes Hama became a part of [[Jund Qinnasrin]] during [[Abbasid]] rule.<ref>le Strange, 1890, p.39.</ref> Although the city's history is obscure at this time period, it is known that Hama was a walled market town with a ring of outlying cities. ItOncame29 underNovember the control of903, the [[Hamdanid]]Abbasid rulers of [[AleppoCaliphate]] indefeated the 10th century and was consequently drawn into the orbit of that city where it remained until the 12th century.<ref name="DSA163"/> These were considered the "dark years" of Hama as the local rulers of northern and southern Syria struggled for dominance in the region. The Byzantines under emperor [[Nikephoros II Phokas|Nicephorus PhocasQarmatians]] raided the town in 968 and burned the [[Great MosqueBattle of Hama|Great Mosque]]. By the 11th century, thewhich [[Fatimid]]seliminated gainedof suzeraintythemover northern Syria and during this period,from the [[Mirdasid]]s sacked Hama.<ref name="DSA163"/>​western [[PersianSyrian people|Persian​Desert​]] geographer [[Nasir Khusraw]] noted in 1047 that Hama was "well populated" and stood on the banks of the Orontes River.<ref>le Strange, 1890, p.357.</ref>
 
It came under the control of the [[Hamdanid]] rulers of [[Aleppo]] in the 10th century and was consequently drawn into the orbit of that city where it remained until the 12th century.<ref name="DSA163"/> These were considered the "dark years" of Hama as the local rulers of northern and southern Syria struggled for dominance in the region. The Byzantines under emperor [[Nikephoros II Phokas|Nicephorus Phocas]] raided the town in 968 and burned the [[Great Mosque of Hama|Great Mosque]]. By the 11th century, the [[Fatimid]]s gained suzerainty over northern Syria and during this period, the [[Mirdasid]]s sacked Hama.<ref name="DSA163"/> [[Persian people|Persian]] geographer [[Nasir Khusraw]] noted in 1047 that Hama was "well populated" and stood on the banks of the Orontes River.<ref>le Strange, 1890, p.357.</ref>
 
[[Tancred, Prince of Galilee]], took it in 1108,<ref name="britannica"/> but in 1114 the [[Crusaders]] lost it definitively to the [[Great Seljuq Empire|Seljuk]]s. The governor of Hama in the early 12th century was Ali Kurd, and his sons, Nasir and Kurdanshah became vassals of [[Toghtekin]].<ref>Chaliand, Gerard (1993). A People Without a Country: The Kurds and Kurdistan. London: Interlink Books.</ref> In [[1157 Hama earthquake|1157 an earthquake]] shattered the city.<ref>Robinson 1908:9.</ref> For the next sixty years, Hama was battled for by competing rulers. [[Nur ad-Din Zangi|Nur al-Din]], the [[Zengid]] sultan, erected a [[Nur al-Din Mosque|mosque]] with a tall, square [[minaret]] in the city in 1172.<ref>[http://www.archnet.org/library/sites/one-site.jsp?site_id=7506 Nur al-Din Mosque] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130703000453/http://archnet.org/library/sites/one-site.jsp?site_id=7506 |date=3 July 2013 }}. Archnet Digital Library.</ref> In 1175, Hama was taken from the Zengids by [[Saladin]]. He granted the city to his nephew, [[al-Muzaffar Umar]], four years later, putting it under the rule of his [[Ayyubid]] family. This ushered in an era of stability and prosperity in Hama as the Ayyubids ruled it almost continuously until 1342.<ref name="DSA163"/> Geographer [[Yaqut al-Hamawi]], who was born in Hama, described it in 1225 as a large town surrounded by a strongly built wall.<ref>le Strange, 1890, p.359.</ref> Hama was sacked by the [[Mongol invasion of Syria|Mongols]] in 1260, as were most other Syrian cities, but the Mongols were [[Battle of Marj al-Saffar (1303)|defeated]] that same year and then again in 1303 by the [[Mamluks]] who succeeded the Ayyubids as rulers of the region.<ref name="Ring2">Ring, 1996, p.317.</ref> Hama briefly passed to Mamluk control in 1299 after the death of governor al-Mansur Mahmoud II. However, unlike other former Ayyubid cities, the Mamluks reinstated Ayyubid rule in Hama by making [[Abu al-Fida]], the historian and geographer, governor of the city and he reigned from 1310 to 1332.<ref name="DSA163"/> He described his city as "very ancient... mentioned in the book of the [[Israelite]]s. It is one of the pleasantest places in Syria."<ref name="Strange360"/> After his death, he was succeeded by his son [[al-Afdal Muhammad]] who eventually lost Mamluk favor and was deposed. Thus, Hama came under direct Mamluk control.<ref name="DSA163"/>
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