Nicaragua: Difference between revisions
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Nicaragua (edit)
Revision as of 21:27, 23 March 2021
→‎Nicaraguan Revolution (1960s–1990): Added a little info related to ICJ ruling
[[File:10th anniversary of the Nicaraguan revolution in Managua, 1989.jpg|thumb|10th anniversary of the Nicaraguan revolution in Managua, 1989]]
They engaged in a systematic campaign of terror among the rural Nicaraguan population to disrupt the social reform projects of the Sandinistas. Several historians have criticized the contra campaign and the [[Foreign policy of the Ronald Reagan administration|Reagan administration's support for it]], citing the brutality and numerous human rights violations of the contras. LaRamee and Polakoff, for example, describe the destruction of health centers, schools, and cooperatives at the hands of the rebels,<ref>{{cite book|author=LaRamee, Pierre |author2=Polakoff, Erica|isbn=9780333751992|title=The Undermining of the Sandinista Revolution|year=1999|publisher=Palgrave Macmillan|location=New York|pages=141–205}}</ref> and others have contended that murder, rape, and torture occurred on a large scale in contra-dominated areas.<ref>{{cite book|last=Chomsky|first=Noam|title=Turning the Tide|url=https://archive.org/details/turningtideusint00chom|url-access=registration|year=1985|publisher=South End Press|location=Boston, MA}}</ref> The United States also carried out a campaign of economic sabotage, and disrupted shipping by planting underwater mines in Nicaragua's port of [[Corinto, Nicaragua|Corinto]],<ref>{{cite news|last=Truver |first=SC |title=Mines and Underwater IEDs in U.S. Ports and Waterways... |url=http://www.mast.udel.edu/873/Spring%202007/ScottTruves.pdf |page=4 |access-date=2007-08-21 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080428050841/http://www.mast.udel.edu/873/Spring%202007/ScottTruves.pdf |archive-date=2008-04-28 }}</ref> an action condemned by the [[International Court of Justice]] as illegal.<ref>[http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/index.php?sum=360&code=nus&p1=3&p2=3&case=70&k=66&p3=5 Summary of the Order] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071107024852/http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/index.php?sum=360&code=nus&p1=3&p2=3&case=70&k=66&p3=5 |date=2007-11-07 }} of the [[International Court of Justice]] of 10 May 1984</ref> The court also found that the U.S. encouraged acts contrary to humanitarian law by producing the manual ''[[Psychological Operations in Guerrilla Warfare]]'' and disseminating it to the contras.<ref>"...Finds that the United States of America, by producing in 1983 a manual entitled "Operaciones sicológicas en guerra de guerrillas", and disseminating it to contra forces, has encouraged the commission by them of acts contrary to general principles of humanitarian law." As seen at: International Court of Justice 1986, (9)</ref> The manual, amongst other things, advised on how to rationalize killings of civilians<ref name="ReferenceC">"In the case of shooting "a citizen who was trying to leave the town or city in which the guerrillas are carrying out armed propaganda or political proselytism," the manual suggests that the contras "...explain that if that citizen had managed to escape, he would have alerted the enemy." As seen at: Sklar 1988, p. 179</ref>. The U.S. also sought to place economic pressure on the Sandinistas, and the Reagan administration imposed a full trade embargo.<ref>{{cite news|title=US Policy: Economic Embargo: The War Goes On|publisher=Central American University – UCA|url=http://www.envio.org.ni/articulo/2695|work=Envío|access-date=2007-08-21}}</ref> The Sandinistas were also accused of human rights abuses.<ref>Moore, John Norton (1987) ''The Secret War in Central America''. University Publications of America. p. 143. {{ISBN|978-0890939611}}</ref><ref>Miranda, Roger and Ratliff, William (1993) ''The Civil War in Nicaragua''. Transaction. p. 193. {{ISBN|9781412819688}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cidh.oas.org/annualrep/92eng/chap.4b.htm|title=Annual Report 1992–1993|date=1993-03-12|publisher=Inter-American Commission on Human Rights|access-date=2009-03-30}}</ref>
In the [[Nicaraguan general election, 1984|Nicaraguan general elections of 1984]], which were judged to have been free and fair, the Sandinistas won the parliamentary election and their leader [[Daniel Ortega]] won the presidential election.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/5/newsid_2538000/2538379.stm|title=1984: Sandinistas claim election victory|work=BBC News|date=November 5, 1984}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|title=NICARAGUAN VOTE:'FREE, FAIR, HOTLY CONTESTED'|work=The New York Times|page=30|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1984/11/16/opinion/l-nicaraguan-vote-free-fair-hotly-contested-089345.html}}</ref> The Reagan administration criticized the elections as a "sham" based on the charge that [[Arturo Cruz]], the candidate nominated by the [[Coordinadora Democrática Nicaragüense]], comprising three right wing political parties, did not participate in the elections. However, the administration privately argued against Cruz's participation for fear his involvement would legitimize the elections, and thus weaken the case for American aid to the contras.<ref>{{cite news|last=Taubman|first=Philip|title=KEY AIDES DISPUTE U.S. ROLE IN NICARAGUAN VOTE|work=The New York Times|page=12|date=21 October 1984|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1984/10/21/world/key-aides-dispute-us-role-in-nicaraguan-vote.html}}</ref> According to Martin Kriele, the results of the election were rigged.<ref>{{cite book|author=Kriele, Martin |chapter=Power and Human Rights in Nicaragua|year=1986|pages= 56–57, 63–67|title=Nicaragua: Das blutende Herz Amerikas |publisher=Piper}}</ref><ref>Leiken, Robert S. (December 5, 1985) [https://www.nybooks.com/articles/1985/12/05/the-nicaraguan-tangle/ "The Nicaraguan Tangle,"] New York Review of Books.</ref><ref>[https://www.nybooks.com/articles/1986/06/26/the-nicaraguan-tangle-another-exchange/ "The Nicaraguan Tangle: Another Exchange,"] New York Review of Books, June 26, 1986</ref><ref>Cuzan, Alfred G. (Summer 1994) Letter, Commentary, December 1985 and "The Latin American Studies Association vs. the United States," Academic Questions.</ref>
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