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Realis mood (edit)
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A '''realis mood''' is a [[grammatical mood]] which is used principally to indicate that something is actually the case (or actually not the case) – in other words, to express what the speaker considers to be a known state of affairs, as in [[declarative sentence]]s. TheMost mostlanguages commonhave a single realis mood iscalled the '''indicative mood''', although some languages have additional realis moods, for example to express different levels of certainty. By contrast, an [[irrealis mood]] is used to express something that is not known to be the case in reality.
An example of the contrast between realis and irrealis moods is seen in the [[English grammar|English]] sentences "He works" and "It is necessary that he work". In the first sentence ''works'' is a [[present indicative]] (realis) form of the verb, and is used to make a direct assertion about the real world. In the second sentence ''work'' is in the [[English subjunctive|subjunctive mood]], which is an irrealis mood – here ''that he work'' does not express (necessarily) a fact about the real world, but refers to what would be a desirable state of affairs.
However, since mood is a [[grammatical category]], referring to the form a verb takes rather than theits purpose for which it is usedmeaning in a given instance, a given language may use realis forms for a number of purposes other than their principal one of making direct factual statements. For example, many languages use indicative verb forms to ask questions (this is sometimes called [[interrogative mood]]) and in various other situations where the meaning is in fact of the irrealis type (as in the English "I hope it works", where the indicative ''works'' is used even though it refers to a desired rather than real state of affairs).
Realis mood can be indicated by the [[list of glossing abbreviations|glossing abbreviation]] {{sc|'''real'''}} (and indicative mood by {{sc|'''ind'''}}).
Victor Yus
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