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National Transitional Council (edit)
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===Uprising and civil war===
{{Main|2011 Libyan civil war}}
After [[Arab Spring|popular movements]] overturned the rulers of [[Tunisian revolution|Tunisia]] and [[2011 Egyptian revolution|Egypt]], Libya's immediate neighbours to the west and east, Libya experienced a full-scale [[uprising]] beginning in February 2011.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://blogs.aljazeera.net/middle-east/2011/02/17/live-blog-libya |title= Live Blog &nbsp;&ndash; Libya |publisher= [[Al Jazeera]] |date= 17 February 2011 |accessdate= 23 February 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://archive.libyafeb17.com/category/newsfeed/ |title=News &#124; Libya February 17th |publisher=Libyafeb17.com |date= |accessdate= 23 February 2011}}</ref> By 20 February, the unrest had spread to Tripoli. Much of Libya had slipped out of Gaddafi's control, falling to anti-Gaddafi forces. [[Cyrenaica|Eastern Libya]], centered around the second largest city and vital port of Benghazi, was firmly under the control of the opposition. The opposition began to organise themselves into a functioning government.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2011/02/25/world/middleeast/map-of-how-the-protests-unfolded-in-libya.html| work = [[The New York Times]] |title=Map of How the Protests Unfolded in Libya|date=25 February 2011|accessdate=26 February 2011| author author1= Burgess, Joe; |author2=Fahim, Kareem }}</ref> Anti-Gaddafi forces marched on [[Sirte]] ([[Muammar Gaddafi|Gaddafi]]'s hometown) on 28 September 2011. [[Armed forces of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya|Gaddafi loyalists]] delayed the attack with the use of their snipers. The [[Battle of Sirte (2011)|fight for Sirte]] ended on 20 October with the capture of the town and the death of Colonel Gaddafi.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-15389550| publisher = [[BBC News]] |title=Libya's Col Muammar Gaddafi killed, says NTC|date=20 October 2011|accessdate=20 October 2011}}</ref>
 
===Early efforts to form a government===
===Establishment of a national council===
{{History of Libya}}
A National Transitional Council was formed on 27 February to act as "the political face of the revolution".<ref>{{cite news |title=Anti-Gaddafi Figures Say Form National Council|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/02/27/libya-council-revolution-idUSWEB194120110227 | publisher=Reuters |date= 28 February 2011 |authorauthor1= Abbas, Mohammed and |author2=Blair, Edmund |lastauthoramp=yes |accessdate=8 August 2012}}</ref> Its spokesman, [[Abdul Hafiz Ghoga]], made clear at the launch press conference that the national council was not a provisional government and added that the newly formed council was not in contact with foreign governments and did not want them to intervene.<ref name="AJ-LybNatCons"/> He later clarified that an airstrike mandated by the United Nations would not be considered a foreign intervention.<ref>{{cite news |title=Libyan Rebels Said To Debate Seeking U.N. Airstrikes|url=http://nytimes.com/2011/03/02/world/africa/02libya.html |date=1 March 2011 |accessdate=5 March 2011 |work= [[The New York Times]] |first1=Kareem |last1=Fahim |first2=David D. |last2=Kirkpatrick}}</ref>
 
An Al Jazeera journalist in Benghazi reported that a fully fledged interim government would not be formed until Tripoli was under opposition control.<ref>Reported on Al-Jazeera English TV by Hoda Abdel-Hamid{{full citation needed|date=January 2012}}</ref> This contradicted Jalil's statement of the previous day about the formation of a provisional government. These comments were later clarified by the council as Jalil's "personal views".
 
On 5 March, the council issued a statement in which it declared itself to be the "sole representative of all Libya". Mustafa Abdul Jalil was named as chairman of the council.<ref name="news.com.au"/><ref name="ReferenceB"/><ref name="ntclibya_founding" />
In a ceremony on 8 August 2012&mdash;held in the evening due to the daytime fast of [[Ramadan]]&mdash;the NTC formally transferred power to the General National Congress. Jalil stepped down as chairman, passing the position to the GNC's oldest member, [[Mohammed Ali Salim]].<ref name=BBC88 /> The NTC was then dissolved, while the GNC members took their oath of office, led by Salim.<ref name=R88 />
 
Hundreds of people gathered in [[Tripoli]]'s [[Martyrs' Square, Tripoli|Martyrs' Square]] with candles symbolizing reconciliation.<ref name=BBC88 /> The date of the transfer&mdash;20 Ramadan on the [[Islamic calendar]]&mdash;had also been selected for symbolic reasons, as 20 Ramadan the previous year had fallen on 20 August, the date that the rebels attacked Tripoli, leading to Gaddafi's flight.<ref name=R88>{{cite web |url=http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/08/08/libya-handover-idUSL6E8J8DD320120808 |title=Libya's ruling council hands over power to new assembly |​author​author1​=Gumuchian, Marie-Louise and |author2=Shuaib, Ali |lastauthoramp=yes |date=8 August 2012 |publisher=Reuters |accessdate=8 August 2012}}</ref> As Jalil addressed the crowd, attendees chanted "Allahu Akbar!" or another phrase meaning "The blood of martyrs will not go wasted!"<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.cnn.com/2012/08/08/world/meast/libya-power-transition/ |title=Libya's transitional council hands over power |date=8 August 2012 |publisher=CNN |accessdate=8 August 2012}}</ref>
 
According to [[BBC News]], the transfer was "the first peaceful transition of power in Libya's modern history",<ref name=BBC88>{{cite web |url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-19183300 |title=Libya's NTC hands power to newly elected assembly |date=8 August 2012 |publisher=BBC News |accessdate=8 August 2012}}</ref> meaning the history since the end of the monarchy.
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