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Connectionism (edit)
Revision as of 02:09, 14 March 2019
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→‎Connectionism apart from PDP: Explained Hayek’s scientific priority and the role of Hayek’s work in helping to inspired the early beginning of the connectionist research program. For more read the work of neuroscientists Gerald Edelman and Joaquin Fuster.
Many connectionist principles can be traced to early work in [[psychology]], such as that of [[William James]].<ref>{{cite book |last1=Anderson |first1= James A.|last2=Rosenfeld |first2= Edward |date= 1989|title= Neurocomputing: Foundations of Research|url= |location= |publisher= A Bradford Book |page= 1|chapter = Chapter 1: (1890) William James ''Psychology (Brief Course)'' |isbn=978-0262510486 |accessdate= }}</ref> Psychological theories based on knowledge about the human brain were fashionable in the late 19th century. As early as 1869, the neurologist [[John Hughlings Jackson]] argued for multi-level, distributed systems. Following from this lead, [[Herbert Spencer]]'s ''Principles of Psychology'', 3rd edition (1872), and [[Sigmund Freud]]'s ''Project for a Scientific Psychology'' (composed 1895) propounded connectionist or proto-connectionist theories. These tended to be speculative theories. But by the early 20th century, [[Edward Thorndike]] was experimenting on learning that posited a connectionist type network.
 
In the 1950s, [[Friedrich Hayek]] proposed​independently thatconceived the Hebbian synapse spontaneouslearning ordermodel in thea paper presented in 1920 and developed that model into global brain arosetheory outconsituted of decentralized networks Hebbian synapses building into larger systems of simplemaps and memory network units{{Citation needed|date=March 2015}}. Hayek’s breakthrough work was cited by Frank Rosenblatt in his perceptron paper.
 
Another form of connectionist model was the [[Stratificational linguistics|relational network]] framework developed by the [[linguist]] [[Sydney Lamb]] in the 1960s. Relational networks have been only used by linguists, and were never unified with the PDP approach. As a result, they are now used by very few researchers.
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