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====Assyrian inscriptions====
When the Assyrian king [[Shalmaneser III]] (858–824 BC) conquered the north of [[Aramea]], he reached Hamath ([[Assyrian Neo-Aramaic|Assyrian]]: ''Amat'' or ''Hamata'')<ref name="Hawkins, J.D 1975"/> in 835 BC; this marks the beginning of Assyrian inscriptions relating to the kingdom.<ref>Hamath's history from the inscriptions was encapsulated by George L. Robinson, "The Entrance of Hamath" ''The Biblical World'' '''32'''.1 (July 1908:7–18), in discussing the topography evoked by the Biblical phrase "the entrance of Hamath".<!--a better summary history could probably be cited--></ref> [[Irhuleni]] of Hamath and [[Hadadezer]] of [[Aram-Damascus]] (biblical "Bar-Hadad") led a coalition of [[Aramean]] cities against the encroaching Assyrian armies. According to Assyrian sources, they were confronted by 4,000 chariots, 2,000 horsemen, 62,000 foot-soldiers and 1,000 Arab camel-riders in the [[Battle of Qarqar]]. The Assyrian victory seems to have been more of a draw, although Shalmaneser III continued on to the shore and even took a ship to open sea. In the following years, Shalmaneser III failed to conquer Hamath or Aram-Damascus. After the death of Shalmaneser III, the former allies Hamath and Aram-Damascus fell out, and Aram-Damascus seems to have taken over some of Hamath's territory.
 
An Aramaic inscription of [[Zakkur]], dual king of Hamath and [[Luhuti]], tells of an attack by a coalition including [[Sam'al]] under [[Ben-Hadad III]], son of [[Hazael]], king of Aram-Damascus. Zakir was besieged in his fortress of [[Tell Afis|Hazrak]], but saved by intervention of the God [[Baalshamin]]. Later on, the state of [[Sam'al]] came to rule both Hamath and Aram. {{Citation needed|reason=No historical evidence for this claim|date=December 2016}}
BobKilcoyne
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