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Hama (edit)
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{{distinguish|Hamas}}
{{Use dmy dates|date=AprilJuly 20132019}}
 
{{Infobox settlement
| official_name = Hama
| native_name = {{lang|ar|حماة}}‎
| native_name_lang = ar
| other_name =
| settlement_type = City<!--For Town or Village (leave blank for the default City)-->
| nicknames = {{lang|ar|أم النواعير}}<br />{{lang|ar|مدينة أبي الفداء}}
<!-- images and maps ----------->
| image_skyline = {{Photomontage
| photo1a = Hama.jpg
| photo2a = Noria and houses in Hama, Syria.JPG
| border = 0
}}
| image_caption = Clockwise from top: <br> Hama skyline, [[Azm Palace (Hama)|Azem Palace]], Al-Hassanein Mosque, [[Nur al-Din Mosque]], Khan Rustem Pasha, [[Norias of Hama]]
| image_flag =
| image_seal =
| image_shield =
| motto =
| image_map =
| map_caption =
| pushpin_map = Syria <!-- the name of a location map as per http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Template:Location_map -->
| pushpin_label_position = bottom
| pushpin_mapsize = 250
| pushpin_map_caption = Location in Syria
<!-- Location ------------------>
| coordinates = {{coord|35|08|N|36|45|E|region:SY|display=inline,title}}
| subdivision_type = Country
| subdivision_name = [[Syria]]
| subdivision_type1 = [[Governorates of Syria|Governorate]]
| subdivision_name1 = [[Hama Governorate|Hama]]
| subdivision_type2 = [[Districts of Syria|District]]
| subdivision_name2 = [[Hama District|Hama]]
| subdivision_type3 = [[Nahiyah|Subdistrict]]
| subdivision_name3 = Hama
| established_title = <!-- Settled -->
| established_date =
| government_type =
<!-- Politics ----------------->
| government_footnotes =
| leader_title = Governor
| leader_name = Abdul Razzaq al-Qutaini
<!-- Area --------------------->
| unit_pref = Metric <!--Enter: Imperial, if Imperial (metric) is desired-->
| area_footnotes =
| area_total_km2 = <!-- ALL fields dealing with a measurements are subject to automatic unit conversion-->
| area_total_sq_mi =
| area_land_km2 = <!--See table @ Template:Infobox settlement for details on automatic unit conversion-->
| area_land_sq_mi =
| area_water_km2 =
| area_water_sq_mi =
| area_water_percent =
| elevation_footnotes = <!--for references: use<ref> </ref> tags-->
| elevation_m =305
| elevation_ft =
<!-- Population ----------------------->
| population_footnotes =
| population_total = 312,994<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cbssyr.org/General%20census/census%202004/pop-man.pdf |title=2004 official census |publisher=cbss |accessdate=2013-11-04 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130310211017/http://www.cbssyr.org/General%20census/census%202004/pop-man.pdf |archivedate=10 March 2013 |df= }}</ref>
| population_as_of = 2004 census
| population_density_km2 =
| population_density_sq_mi =
| population_blank1_title = Ethnicities
| population_blank1 = [[Syrians]]
| population_blank2_title = Religions
| population_blank2 = [[Sunni Islam]] <br /> [[Syriac Orthodox Church]] <br /> [[Greek Orthodox Church]]
| population_note =
| population_demonym = {{lang-ar|حموي|Ḥamwi}}
<!-- General information --------------->
| timezone = [[Eastern European Time|EET]]
| utc_offset = +2
| timezone_DST = [[Eastern European Summer Time|EEST]]
| utc_offset_DST = +3
<!-- Area/postal codes & others -------->
| postal_code_type = <!-- enter ZIP code, Postcode, Post code, Postal code... -->
| postal_code =
| area_code = 33
| geocode = C2987
| blank_name = [[Köppen climate classification|Climate]]
| blank_info = [[Semi-arid climate#Hot semi-arid climates|BSh]]
| website = {{url|http://www.ehama.sy/}}
| footnotes =
}}
 
 
====Hamath in the Bible====
The few [[Bible|Biblical]] reports state that Hamath was the capital of a [[Canaan]]ite kingdom (Genesis 10:18; 2 Kings 23:33; 25:21), whose king congratulated [[King David]] on his victory over [[Hadadezer bar Rehob|Hadadezer]], king of [[Zobah]] (2 Samuel 8:9-11; 1 Chronicles 18:9-11). In God’sGod's instructions to [[Moses]], Hamath is specified as part of the northern border of the land that will fall to the children of Israel as an inheritance when they enter the land of Canaan.<ref>Numbers 34.1-91–9</ref> [[Solomon]], it would seem, took possession of Hamath and its territory and built store cities.<ref>1 Kings 4:21–24; 2 Chronicles 8:4</ref> 1 Kings 8:65 names the "entrance of Hamath", or [[Lebo-hamath|Lebo-Hamath]], as the northern border of Israel at the time of the dedication of the [[first temple]] in [[Jerusalem]]. The area was subsequently lost to the Syrians, but [[Jeroboam II]], king of [[Northern Kingdom of Israel|Israel]], is said to have "restored the territory of Israel from the entrance of Hamath to the Sea of the [[Arabah]] (the [[Dead Sea]])".<ref>{{bibleverse|2|Kings|14:25|NKJV}}: [[NKJV]] translation; cf. [[NIV]] translation, which refers to the Dead Sea</ref>
 
Assyria's defeat of Hamath made a profound impression on [[Isaiah]].<ref>Isaiah 10:9</ref> The prophet [[Amos (prophet)|Amos]] also named the town "Hamath the Great".<ref>Amos 6:2</ref> Indeed, the name appears to stem from [[Phoenician language|Phoenician]] ''khamat'', "fort."<ref>Room, Adrian. ''Placenames of the World''. London: MacFarland and Company, Inc., 1997.</ref>
Political insurgency by Sunni Islamic groups, particularly the [[Muslim Brotherhood]], occurred in the city, which was reputed as a stronghold of conservative Sunni Islam. As early as the spring of 1964, Hama became the epicenter of an [[1964 Hama riot|uprising]] by conservative forces, encouraged by speeches from mosque preachers, denouncing the policies of the Ba'ath. The Syrian government sent tanks and troops into the quarters of Hama's old city to put down the insurrection.<ref name="DSA164"/>
 
In the early 1980s, Hama had emerged as a major source of opposition to the Ba'ath government during the Sunni armed [[Islamic uprising in Syria|Islamist uprising]], which had begun in 1976. The city was a focal point for bloody events in the [[April 1981 Hama massacre|1981 massacre]] and the most notable [[1982 Hama massacre]].<ref>{{cite web|author=[[Larbi Sadiki]] |url=http://english.aljazeera.net/indepth/opinion/2011/07/201173113293285318.html |title=In Syria, the government is the real rebel – Opinion |publisher=Al Jazeera English |accessdate=2011-07-31}}</ref> The most serious insurrection of the [[Islamic uprising in Syria|Syrian Islamic uprising]] happened in Hama during February 1982, when Government forces, led by the president's brother, [[Rifaat al-Assad]], quelled the [[Hama massacre|revolt]] in Hama with very harsh means.<ref>[http://bikyamasr.com/wordpress/?p=38546 ]{{dead link|date=February 2012}}</ref> Tanks and artillery shelled the neighbourhoods held by the insurgents indiscriminately, and government forces are alleged to have executed thousands of prisoners and civilian residents after subduing the revolt, which became known as the [[Hama massacre]]. The story is suppressed and regarded as highly sensitive in Syria.<ref>{{cite web |author=<!--[if IE 6]> <![endif]--> |url=http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2011/07/09/156879.html |title=English.alarabiya.net |publisher=English.alarabiya.net |date=9 July 2011 |accessdate=2011-07-31 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110714075113/http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2011/07/09/156879.html |archive-date=14 July 2011 |dead-url=yes |df=dmy-all }}</ref> The Hama Massacre led to the military term "Hama Rules" meaning the complete large-scale destruction of a military objective or target. The city was the site of conflict between the Syrian military and opposition forces as one of the main arenas of the [[Syrian civil war]] during the [[siege of Hama (2011)|2011 siege of Hama]].
 
==Climate==
| title = Hama Climate Normals 1961–1990
| publisher = [[National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration]]
| accessdate = April 26, April 2017}}</ref>
|source 2 = [[Deutscher Wetterdienst]] (extremes 1956–2004, and humidity 1973–1993)<ref name = DWD>
{{cite web
| url = http://www.dwd.de/DWD/klima/beratung/ak/ak_400300_kt.pdf
| title = Klimatafel von Hama / Syrien
| work = Baseline climate means (​1961-1990​1961–1990​) from stations all over the world
| publisher = Deutscher Wetterdienst
| language = German
| accessdate = April 26, April 2017}}</ref>
}}
 
[[File:Hama-RomanOrthodoxChurch.jpg|thumb|A [[Greek Orthodox]] church.]]
 
According to Josiah C. Russel, during the 12th century, Hama had a population of 6,750.<ref>Shatzmiller, 1994, p.59.</ref> James Reilly accounts the historical population as: 1812-1812– 30,000 (Burckhardt) 1830-1830– 20,000 (Robinson) 1839-1839– 30–44,000 (Bowring) 1850-1850– 30,000 (Porter) 1862-1862– 10–12,000 (Guys) 1880-1880– 27,656 (Parliamentary Papers) 1901-1901– 60,000 (Parliamentary Papers) 1902-1907​1902–1907 80,000 (Trade Reports) 1906-1906– 40,000 (al-Sabuni) 1909-1909– 60,000 (Trade Reports)<ref>James Reilly, ''A Small Town in Syria, Ottoman Hama in the 18th and 19th Centuries'', p73. Peter Lang Publishing (2002)</ref>
In 1932, while Hama was under the French Mandate, there were approximately 50,000 residents. In the 1960 census, there were 110,000 inhabitants. The population continued to rise, reaching 180,000 in 1978 and 273,000 in 1994.<ref>Wincler, 1998, p.72.</ref> The infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births in the [[Hama Governorate]] was 99.4.<ref>Wincler, 1998, p.44.</ref> A 2005 estimate had Hama's population at around 325,000 inhabitants.<ref name="DSA162"/>
 
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