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[[File:Epiphaneia1.jpg|thumb|[[aqueduct (bridge)|Aqueduct]] in '''Epiphania''' (= Hama).]]
 
In the second half of the 4th century BC the modern region of Syria came under the influence of Greco-Roman culture, following long lasting semitic and Persian cultures. [[Alexander the Great]]'s campaign from 334 to 323 BC brought Syria under [[Hellenistic civilization|Hellenic]] rule. Since the country lay on the trade routes from Asia to Greece, Hama and many other Syrian cities again grew rich through trade. After the death of Alexander the Great his Near East conquests were divided between his generals, and [[Seleucus Nicator]] became ruler of Syria and the founder of the [[Seleucid dynasty]]. Under the Seleucids there was a revival in the fortunes of Hama. The Aramaeans were allowed to return to the city, which was renamed '''Epiphaneia'''<ref name="Hawkins, J.D 1975"/> (in [[Ancient Greek|Greek]]: ''Επιφανεία''), after the Seleucid Emperor [[Antiochus IV Epiphanes]]. Seleucid rule began to decline, however, in the next two centuries, and Arab dynasties began to gain control of cities in this part of Syria, including Hama.<ref name="Ring2"/>
{{lang-grc|Ἐπιφάνεια}})<ref>[https://topostext.org/work/241#E274.17 Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica, §E274.17]</ref>, after the Seleucid Emperor [[Antiochus IV Epiphanes]]. Seleucid rule began to decline, however, in the next two centuries, and Arab dynasties began to gain control of cities in this part of Syria, including Hama.<ref name="Ring2"/>
 
The [[Roman Empire|Romans]] took over original settlements such as ''Hama'' and made them their own. They met little resistance when they invaded Syria under [[Pompey]] and annexed it in 64 BC, whereupon Hama became part of the [[Syria (Roman province)|Roman province of Syria]], ruled from Rome by a proconsul. Hama was an important city during the Greek and Roman periods, but very little archaeological evidence remains.<ref name="Ring2"/>
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