en.m.wikipedia.org
Hama: Difference between revisions
← Previous edit
Next edit →
Hama (edit)
Revision as of 19:35, 18 February 2020
30 BYTES ADDED
,  1 YEAR AGO
→‎History: edited bronze age categories
{{see also|Timeline of Hama}}
 
The ancient settlement of Hamath was occupied from the early [[Neolithic]] to the [[Iron Age]].[[File:Alley in Hama.jpg|left|thumb|An alley in Old Hama]]
===Ancient era===
[[File:Alley in Hama.jpg|left|thumb|An alley in Old Hama]]
The ancient settlement of Hamath was occupied from the early [[Neolithic]] to the [[Iron Age]]. Remains from the [[Chalcolithic]] have been uncovered by Danish archaeologists on the mount on which the former citadel once stood.<ref name="Ring1">Ring, 1996, p.315.</ref> The excavation took place between 1931 and 1938 under the direction of Harald Ingholt. The stratigraphy is very generalized, which makes detailed comparison to other sites difficult. Level M ({{convert|6|m|ft|abbr=on|disp=or}} thick) contained both white ware (lime-plaster) and true pottery. It may be contemporary with [[Ugarit|Ras Shamra V]] (6000–5000 BC). The overlying level L dates to the Chalcolithic [[Halaf culture]].
 
===Neolithic===
The stratigraphy is very generalized, which makes detailed comparison to other sites difficult. Level M ({{convert|6|m|ft|abbr=on|disp=or}} thick) contained both white ware (lime-plaster) and true pottery. It may be contemporary with [[Ugarit|Ras Shamra V]] (6000–5000 BC).
 
===Chalcolithic===
The ancient settlement of Hamath was occupied from the early [[Neolithic]] to the [[Iron Age]]. Remains from the [[Chalcolithic]] have been uncovered by Danish archaeologists on the mount on which the former citadel once stood.<ref name="Ring1">Ring, 1996, p.315.</ref> The excavation took place between 1931 and 1938 under the direction of Harald Ingholt. The stratigraphy is very generalized, which makes detailed comparison to other sites difficult. Level M ({{convert|6|m|ft|abbr=on|disp=or}} thick) contained both white ware (lime-plaster) and true pottery. It may be contemporary with [[Ugarit|Ras Shamra V]] (6000–5000 BC). The overlying level L dates to the Chalcolithic [[Halaf culture]].
 
===AncientBronze eraAge===
====Amorite period and the Mittanni====
Although the town appears to be unmentioned in [[cuneiform]] sources before the first millennium BC,<ref name="Hawkins, J.D 1975">Hawkins, J.D. "Hamath." ''Reallexikon der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Archäologie'', Vol. 4. Walter de Gruyter, 1975.</ref> the site appears to have been prosperous around 1500&nbsp;BC, when it was presumably an Amorite dependency of [[Mitanni]], an empire along the [[Euphrates]] in northeastern Syria.<ref name="Ring1"/> Mitanni was subsequently overthrown by the [[Hittites]], who controlled all of northern Syria following the famous [[Battle of Kadesh]] against [[Ancient Egypt]] under [[Ramesses II]] near [[Homs]] in 1285&nbsp;BC.
 
===Iron Age===
In early 19th century, [[Johann Ludwig Burckhardt]] was the first to discover Hittite or [[Anatolian hieroglyphs|Luwian hieroglyphic]] script at Hama.<ref>[http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/hittite.htm The Decipherment of Hittite] James Norman (Schmidt), Ancestral Voices: Decoding Ancient Languages, Four Winds Press, New York, 1975.</ref>
 
The site also shows signs of [[Assyria]]n and [[Arameans|Aramaean]] settlement.<ref name="Ring1"/>
 
====Neo-Hittites====
By the turn of the millennium, the centralized old Hittite Empire had fallen, and Hama is attested as the capital of one of the prosperous [[Syro-Hittite states]] known from the [[Hebrew Bible]] as Hamath ([[Aramaic language|Aramaic]]: ''Ḥmt''; [[Hittite language|Hittite]]: ''Amatuwana'';<ref name="Hawkins, J.D 1975"/> {{lang-he|{{hebrew|חֲמָת}}}} ''Ḥəmåṯ''), which traded extensively, particularly with Israel and Judah.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/7125-hamath |work=Jewish Encyclopedia |title=Hamath |publisher=Jewishencyclopedia.com |accessdate=4 February 2013}}</ref>
 
Raven rs
EXTENDED CONFIRMED USERS
759
EDITS
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted.
Privacy policy
Terms of Use
Desktop
HomeRandomNearbyLog inSettingsDonateAbout WikipediaDisclaimers