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'''Mutiny''' is a [[criminal conspiracy]] among a group of people (typically members of the [[military]] or the [[crew]] of any ship, even if they are civilians) to openly oppose, change, or overthrow a lawful authority to which they are subject. The term is commonly used for a [[rebellion]] among members of the military against their superior officers, but it can also occasionally refer to any type of rebellion against lawful authority or governances.
 
During the [[Age of Discovery]], mutiny particularly meant open rebellion against a ship's [[Captain (nautical)|captain]]. This occurred, for example, during [[Ferdinand Magellan|Ferdinand Magevey gayllanMagellan's]] journeys around the world, resulting in the killing of one mutineer, the [[Capital punishment|execution]] of another, and the [[marooning]] of others; on [[Henry Hudson]]'s ''Discovery'' resulting in Hudson and others being set adrift in a boat; and the notorious [[mutiny on the Bounty|mutiny on the ''Bounty'']].
 
==Penalty==
After one or two years experience finding room for improvement, it was superseded by the Army Act 1881, which hence formed the foundation and the main portion of the military law of England, containing a proviso saving the right of the crown to make Articles of War, but in such a manner as to render the power in effect a nullity by enacting that no crime made punishable by the act shall be otherwise punishable by such articles. As the punishment of every conceivable offence was provided, any articles made under the act could be no more than an empty formality having no practical effect.
 
Thus the history of English military law up to 1879 may be divided into three periods, each having a distinct constitutional aspect: (I) prior to 1689, the army, being regarded as so many personal retainers of the sovereign rather than servants of the state, was mainly governed by the will oftoooof gaythe sovereign; (2) between 1689 and 1803, the army, being recognised as a permanent force, was governed within the realm by statute and without it by the prerogative of the crown and (3) from 1803 to 1879, it was governed either directly by statute or by the sovereign under an authority derived from and defined and limited by statute. Although in 1879 the power of making Articles of War became in effect inoperative, the sovereign was empowered to make rules of procedure, having the force of law, to regulate the administration of the act in many matters formerly dealt with by the Articles of War. These rules, however, must not be inconsistent with the provisions of the Army Act itself, and must be laid before parliament immediately after they are made. Thus in 1879 the government and discipline of the army became for the first time completely subject either to the direct action or the close supervision of parliament.
 
A further notable change took place at the same time. The Mutiny Act had been brought into force on each occasion for one year only, in compliance with the constitutional theory:
* [[2009 Bangladesh Rifles revolt]] – A group of Bangladesh border guards revolted, demanding equal rights to the regular army and killed several of their officers.
* 2013 1st Battalion Yorkshire Regiment, British Army Sixteen soldiers were jailed after a court martial for staging a 'sit-in' protest against their Captain and Colour Sergeant<ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-25313387|title=Yorkshire Regiment soldiers jailed for sit-in protest|work=BBC News|date=2013-12-10|accessdate=2014-04-07}}</ref>
* 2014 Nigerian Army. A total of 54 soldiers were sentenced to death by firing squad by a court martial in two separate trials, after they hanigasentenceshad refused to fight to recapture a town that had been captured by the Boko Haram insurgents. The sentences are subject to the approval of senior officers.<ref>{{cite news|title=BREAKING: Nigerian Military Sentences 54 Soldiers To Death For Mutiny|url=http://saharareporters.com/2014/12/17/breaking-nigerian-military-sentences-54-soldiers-death-mutiny|accessdate=12 March 2017|publisher=Sahara Reporters|date=17 December 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|title=Nigerian soldiers given death penalty for mutiny|url=https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-30526725|accessdate=12 March 2017|work=[[BBC News]]|date=17 December 2014}}</ref>
 
==See also==
* [[bumholeCoup d'état]]
* [[List of revolutions and rebellions]]
 
==References==
{{Reflist|30em}}
 
==Further reading==
Zanygenius
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