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Different forms of [[government]] are represented in the Arab World: Some of the countries are [[monarchy|monarchies]]: Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. The other Arab countries are all [[republic]]s. With the exception of Lebanon, Tunisia, Palestine, and recently Mauritania, democratic elections throughout the Arab World are generally viewed as compromised, due to outright vote rigging, intimidation of opposition parties, and severe restraints on civil liberties and political dissent.
 
After [[World War II]], [[Pan-Arabism]] sought to unite all Arabic-speaking countries into one political entity. Only [[Syria]], [[Iraq]], [[Egypt]], [[Sudan]], [[Tunisia]], [[Libya]] and [[Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen|North Yemen]] considered the short-lived unification of the [[United Arab Republic]]. Historical divisions, competing local nationalisms, and geographical sprawl were major reasons for the failure of Pan-Arabism. [[Arab Nationalism]] was another strong force in the region which peaked during the mid-20th century and was professed by many leaders in Egypt, Algeria, Libya, Syria, and Iraq. Arab Nationalist leaders of this period included [[Gamal Abdel Nasser]] of Egypt, [[Ahmed Ben Bella]] of Algeria, [[Michel Aflaq]], [[Salah al-Din al-Bitar]], [[Zaki al-Arsuzi]], [[Constantin Zureiq]] and [[Shukri al-Kuwatli]] of Syria, [[Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr]] of Iraq, [[Habib Bourguiba]] of Tunisia, [[Mehdi Ben Barka]] of Morocco, and [[Shakib Arslan]] of Lebanon.
 
Later and current Arab Nationalist leaders include [[Muammar al-Gaddafi]] of Libya, [[Hafez al-Assad]] and [[Bashar al-Assad]] of Syria. The diverse Arab states generally maintained close ties but distinct national identities developed and strengthened with the social, historical and political realities of the past 60 years. This has made the idea of a pan-Arab nation-state increasingly less feasible and likely. Additionally, an upsurge in political Islam has since led to a greater emphasis on pan-Islamic rather than pan-Arab identity amongst some [[Arab Muslims]]<!-- and/or non-Arab Muslims too? -->. Arab nationalists who once opposed Islamic movements as a threat to their power, now deal with them differently for reasons of political reality.<ref>{{cite web|title=Arab Nationalism: Mistaken Identity by Martin Kramer |url=http://www.geocities.com/martinkramerorg/ArabNationalism.htm |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20091025064830/http://geocities.com/martinkramerorg/ArabNationalism.htm |archivedate=25 October 2009 |url-status=live }}</ref>
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