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National Transitional Council (edit)
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{{short description|De facto government of Libya from 2011 to 2012}}
{{about|the Libyan government|the Congolese entity|National Transitional Council (Congo)}}
{{Use dmy dates|date=​February​September 20112020}}
{{Infobox organization
| name = National Transitional Council <br/>{{lang|ar| المجلس الوطني الانتقالي }} <br/>''{{transl|ar|al-majlis al-waṭanī al-intiqālī}}''
{{Politics of Libya}}
The '''National Transitional Council of Libya''' ({{lang-ar|المجلس الوطني الإنتقالي}} ''{{transl|ar|ALA-LC|al-[[majlis]] al-waṭanī al-intiqālī}}'' ), sometimes known as the '''Transitional National Council''',<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.wsws.org/articles/2011/jul2011/pers-j20.shtml|publisher=[[World Socialist Web Site]]|title=The US recognises Libya's Transitional National Council|date=20 July 2011|accessdate=29 July 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110724153337/http://www.wsws.org/articles/2011/jul2011/pers-j20.shtml|archive-date=24 July 2011|url-status=live}}</ref> was the ''de facto'' government of [[Libya]] for a period during and after the [[Libyan Civil War (2011)|Libyan Civil War]], in which [[anti-Gaddafi forces|rebel forces]] overthrew the [[Libyan Arab Jamahiriya]] of [[Muammar Gaddafi]]. The '''NTC''' governed Libya for a period of ten months after the end of the war, holding [[2012 Libyan General National Congress election|elections]] to a [[General National Congress]] on 7 July 2012, and handing power to the newly elected assembly on 8 August.<ref>[https://www.boston.com/news/world/middle-east/2012/08/08/libya-transitional-rulers-hand-over-power/uMPkXd9vTSSHg589mU9ykJ/story.html Libya's transitional rulers hand over power] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121208121751/http://www.boston.com/news/world/middle-east/2012/08/08/libya-transitional-rulers-hand-over-power/uMPkXd9vTSSHg589mU9ykJ/story.html |date=8 December 2012 }}, ''Boston.com'', 8 August 2012.</ref>
The formation of the NTC was announced in the city of [[Benghazi]] on 27 February 2011 with the purpose to act as the "political face of the revolution". On 5 March 2011, the council issued a statement in which it declared itself to be the "only legitimate body representing the people of Libya and the Libyan state".<ref name="news.com.au">{{cite news |title=Ferocious Battles in Libya as National Council Meets for First Time |url=http://www.news.com.au/breaking-news/ferocious-battles-in-libya-as-national-council-meets-for-first-time/story-e6frfku0-1226016536676 |date=6 March 2011 |accessdate=6 March 2011 |publisher=[[NewsCore]] (via [[news.com.au]]) |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190822083631/https://www.news.com.au/world/ferocious-battles-in-libya-as-national-council-meets-for-first-time/news-story/77a9c3d6f7ffdb00ee111056a8447ac8 |archive-date=22 August 2019 |url-status=live }}</ref><ref name="ReferenceB">The Interim Transitional National Council Decree 3. 5 March 2011.</ref><ref name="ntclibya_founding" /> An executive board, chaired by [[Mahmoud Jibril]], was formed by the council on 23 March 2011 after being ''de facto'' assembled as an "executive team" since 5 March 2011. The NTC issued a [[Libyan interim Constitutional Declaration|Constitutional Declaration]] in August 2011 in which it set up a road-map for the transition of the country to a [[constitutional democracy]] with an elected government.
===Early efforts to form a government===
[[File:Al Bayda opposition meeting.PNG|thumb|left|Opposition meeting in Bayda, 24 February 2011]]
On 24 February 2011, politicians, former military officers, tribal leaders, academics and businessmen held a meeting in the eastern city of [[Bayda, Libya|Bayda]].<ref>{{cite web |url=http://english.aljazeera.net/indepth/spotlight/libya/ |title=Spotlight Libya |publisher=[[Al Jazeera English]] |date= |accessdate=25 March 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110319100552/http://english.aljazeera.net/indepth/spotlight/libya/ |archive-date=19 March 2011 |url-status=live }}</ref> The meeting was chaired by former justice minister [[Mustafa Abdul Jalil]], who [[List of Libyan officials who protested or resigned during 2011 protests|quit the Jamahiriya government]] a few days before. The delegates discussed proposals for interim administration with many delegates asking for UN intervention in Libya.<ref>{{cite news | author = Staff | date = 25 February 2011 | title = Discussions Under Way for Provisional Government in Libya | url = http://maltastar.com/pages/r1/ms10dart.asp?a=14356 | work = Malta Star | accessdate = 17 August 2011 | archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20111003071612/http://maltastar.com/pages/r1/ms10dart.asp?a=14356 | archive-date = 3 October 2011 | url-status = dead }}</ref> The podium at the meeting displayed the pre-Jamahiriya flag.<ref name="ReferenceA">{{cite news | publisher = [[NPR]] | date = 23 February 2011 | url = https://www.npr.org/2011/02/23/134003954/New-Government-Forms-In-Eastern-Libya | title = New Government Forms in Eastern Libya | access-date = 3 April 2018 | archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20180513000630/https://www.npr.org/2011/02/23/134003954/New-Government-Forms-In-Eastern-Libya | archive-date = 13 May 2018 | url-status = live }}</ref><ref>{{cite news|work=[[Bloomberg Businessweek]] |date=25 February 2011 |url=http://www.businessweek.com/news/2011-02-25/libya-s-eastern-rebels-long-time-qaddafi-foes-driving-revolt.html |title=Libya's Eastern Rebels Long Time Qaddafi Foes Driving Revolt |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110228232031/http://www.businessweek.com/news/2011-02-25/libya-s-eastern-rebels-long-time-qaddafi-foes-driving-revolt.html |archivedate=28 February 2011 }}</ref>
On 25 February, [[Al Jazeera]] TV reported that talks were taking place between "personalities from eastern and western Libya" to form an interim government for the post-Gaddafi era.<ref name="ReferenceA"/> The following day, former justice minister Mustafa Abdul Jalil was announced to be leading the process of forming an interim body, to be based in Benghazi.<ref>{{cite news | publisher = [[CBN News]] | date = 26 February 2011 | url = http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/global-filipino/world/02/26/11/terror-tripoli-pressure-builds-yemen | title = Terror in Tripoli as pressure builds in Yemen | accessdate = 8 August 2012 | agency = Agence France-Presse | archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20121004104249/http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/global-filipino/world/02/26/11/terror-tripoli-pressure-builds-yemen | archive-date = 4 October 2012 | url-status = live }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |work=[[Al Jazeera]] |title=Live Blog |url=http://blogs.aljazeera.net/live/africa/live-blog-libya-feb-26 |date=26 February 2011 |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110301015859/http://blogs.aljazeera.net/live/africa/live-blog-libya-feb-26 |archivedate=1 March 2011 |access-date=5 March 2011 }}</ref> Jalil stated that "Gaddafi alone bore responsibility for the crimes that have occurred" in Libya; he also insisted on the unity of Libya and that Tripoli was the national capital.<ref>{{cite news| publisher = lse.co.uk| title = Ex-Libyan Minister Forms Interim Government: report| agency = Reuters| url = http://www.lse.co.uk/FinanceNews.asp?ArticleCode=77c8l0riig2uluz&ArticleHeadline=Ex_Libyan_minister_forms_interim_govtreport| date = 26 February 2011| accessdate = 8 August 2012| archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20110513045506/http://www.lse.co.uk/FinanceNews.asp?ArticleCode=77c8l0riig2uluz&ArticleHeadline=Ex_Libyan_minister_forms_interim_govtreport| archive-date = 13 May 2011| url-status = live}}</ref> The efforts to form an alternative government have been supported by the Libyan ambassador in the [[United States]], [[Ali Suleiman Aujali]].<ref>{{cite news | publisher = [[Reuters]] | url = https://af.reuters.com/article/energyOilNews/idAFN2613766620110226 | title = Update 1-Exclusive-Libya Envoy to U.S. Backs Interim Government | date = 26 February 2011 | accessdate = 8 August 2012 | author = Arshad Mohammed | archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20120725175410/http://af.reuters.com/article/energyOilNews/idAFN2613766620110226 | archive-date = 25 July 2012 | url-status = live }}</ref><ref>{{cite news|work=[[Al Jazeera]] |title=Live Blog&nbsp;&ndash; Libya |date=27 February 2011 |url=http://blogs.aljazeera.net/live/africa/live-blog-libya-feb-27 |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110308080819/http://blogs.aljazeera.net/live/africa/live-blog-libya-feb-27 |archivedate=8 March 2011 }}</ref> The Libyan deputy ambassador to the United Nations, [[Ibrahim Omar Al Dabashi]], stated that he supported a new alternative government "in principle".<ref>{{cite news|date=27 February 2011|url=http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/02/201122702915408866.html#|title=Interim Libyan Govt Wins Support|publisher=[[Al Jazeera]]|accessdate=17 August 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110629083820/http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/02/201122702915408866.html|archive-date=29 June 2011|url-status=live}}</ref>
In a ceremony on 8 August 2012&mdash;held​2012—held in the evening due to the daytime fast of [[Ramadan]]​&mdash;the​—the NTC formally transferred power to the General National Congress. Jalil stepped down as chairman, passing the position to the GNC's oldest member, [[Mohammed Ali Salim]].<ref name=BBC88 /> The NTC was then dissolved, while the GNC members took their oath of office, led by Salim.<ref name=R88 />
Hundreds of people gathered in [[Tripoli]]'s [[Martyrs' Square, Tripoli|Martyrs' Square]] with candles symbolizing reconciliation.<ref name=BBC88 /> The date of the transfer&mdash;20​transfer—20 Ramadan on the [[Islamic calendar]]​&mdash;had​—had also been selected for symbolic reasons, as 20 Ramadan the previous year had fallen on 20 August, the date that the rebels attacked Tripoli, leading to Gaddafi's flight.<ref name=R88>{{cite web |url=https://www.reuters.com/article/2012/08/08/libya-handover-idUSL6E8J8DD320120808 |title=Libya's ruling council hands over power to new assembly |author1=Gumuchian, Marie-Louise |author2=Shuaib, Ali |lastauthoramp=yes |date=8 August 2012 |publisher=Reuters |accessdate=8 August 2012 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130508182836/http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/08/08/libya-handover-idUSL6E8J8DD320120808 |archive-date=8 May 2013 |url-status=live }}</ref> As Jalil addressed the crowd, attendees chanted "Allahu Akbar!" or another phrase meaning "The blood of martyrs will not go wasted!"<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.cnn.com/2012/08/08/world/meast/libya-power-transition/ |title=Libya's transitional council hands over power |date=8 August 2012 |publisher=CNN |accessdate=8 August 2012 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120810074335/http://www.cnn.com/2012/08/08/world/meast/libya-power-transition/ |archive-date=10 August 2012 |url-status=live }}</ref>
According to [[BBC News]], the transfer was "the first peaceful transition of power in Libya's modern history",<ref name=BBC88>{{cite web |url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-19183300 |title=Libya's NTC hands power to newly elected assembly |date=8 August 2012 |publisher=BBC News |accessdate=8 August 2012 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120808192952/http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-19183300 |archive-date=8 August 2012 |url-status=live }}</ref> meaning the history since the end of the monarchy.
*Guide the conduct of foreign policy, and the regulation of relations with other countries and international and regional organizations, and the representation of the Libyan people
In another statement clarifying the goals for a post-Gaddafi Libya, the council committed itself an eight-point plan to hold free and fair elections, draft a national constitution, form political and civil institutions, uphold intellectual and political pluralism, and guarantee citizens' inalienable human rights and the ability of free expression of their aspirations. The council also emphasized its rejection of racism, intolerance, discrimination, and terrorism.<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2011/mar/29/vision-democratic-libya-interim-national-council |title=A vision of a democratic Libya |date=29 March 2011 |work=The Guardian |accessdate=8 August 2012 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130921211659/http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2011/mar/29/vision-democratic-libya-interim-national-council |archive-date=21 September 2013 |url-status=live }}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.aljazeera.com/mritems/Documents/2011/3/29/2011329113923943811The%20Interim%20Transitional%20National%20Council%20Statement.pdf |format=PDF |title=A Vision of a Democratic Libya |date=29 March 2011 |publisher=[[Al Jazeera]] |accessdate=8 August 2012 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121106021050/http://www.aljazeera.com/mritems/Documents/2011/3/29/2011329113923943811The%20Interim%20Transitional%20National%20Council%20Statement.pdf |archive-date=6 November 2012 |url-status=live }}</ref> Article 1 further declares [[Tripoli]] the state capital and [[Standard Arabic|Arabic]] the official language while reserving the linguistic and cultural rights of ethnic minorities as well as the [[freedom of religion]] for religious minorities.
The stated aim of the NTC was to form a ''de jure'' interim government based in [[Tripoli]] and hold elections for a General National Congress to replace it. The GNC would then elect a prime minister, appoint a Constituent Assembly to draft a constitution subject to its approval by the Public National Conference (PNC) and by referendum, and then oversee free elections for a representative government.<ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.reuters.com/article/2011/08/31/libya-constitution-idUSL5E7JV2CF20110831|agency=Reuters|title=Libya's new rulers set out steps to elections|first=Robert|last=Birsel|date=31 August 2011|accessdate=24 October 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111122015132/http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/08/31/libya-constitution-idUSL5E7JV2CF20110831|archive-date=22 November 2011|url-status=live}}</ref>
| footnotes =
The National Transitional Council claimed to be, and was [[International recognition of the National Transitional Council|widely recognized as]], the "only legitimate body representing the people of Libya and the Libyan state".<ref>{{cite web |url=http://ntclibya.org/english/about/ |title=Introducing the Council &#124; The Libyan Republic - The Interim Transitional National Council |publisher=National Transitional Council |accessdate=10 March 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110310042042/http://ntclibya.org/english/about/ |archive-date=10 March 2011 |url-status=dead }}</ref> Starting off at 33 members, it rose to 51,<ref name="LibyaTVARaK">{{cite news|work=[[Libya TV]] |url=http://english.libya.tv/2011/11/01/abdul-raheem-al-keeb-elected-libyas-interim-pm/ |title=Abdul Raheem al-Keeb elected Libya's interim PM |date=1 November 2011 |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20111103211927/http://english.libya.tv/2011/11/01/abdul-raheem-al-keeb-elected-libyas-interim-pm/ |archivedate=3 November 2011 }}</ref> with proposals to increase its size further to 75 or even 125.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.omarturbi.org/NDI-ReportOnTNC62911.pdf|title=The National Democratic Institute Update on Libya June 29, 2011|date=29 June 2011|accessdate=19 September 2011​|format=PDF​|author=David Rolfes|publisher=omarturbi.org|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120619025720/http://www.omarturbi.org/NDI-ReportOnTNC62911.pdf|archive-date=19 June 2012|url-status=dead}}</ref>
Al Jazeera English reported that each city or town under opposition control will be given five seats on the new council and that contact will be established with new cities that come under opposition control to allow them to join the council. The identities of members of the council were not disclosed at the launch conference. Human Rights lawyer [[Hafiz Ghoga]] was the spokesperson for the new council. An Al Jazeera English journalist in Benghazi stated that Mustafa Abdul Jalil still had a leadership role within the new council.<ref name="AJ-LybNatCons">{{cite news|title=Libya Opposition Launches Council|url=http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/02/2011227175955221853.html|work=[[Al Jazeera]]|date=27 February 2011|accessdate=5 March 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110227232201/http://english.aljazeera.net//news/africa/2011/02/2011227175955221853.html|archive-date=27 February 2011|url-status=live}}</ref> The Council declared that Jalil was the head of the council.<ref name="ntclibya_founding" /> The council met formally for the first time on 5 March 2011<ref name="ntclibya_founding">{{cite web| title = Founding Statement of the Interim Transitional National Council| publisher = National Transitional Council| date = 5 March 2011| url = http://ntclibya.org/english/founding-statement-of-the-interim-transitional-national-council/| accessdate = 7 March 2011| archiveurl = https://web.archive.org/web/20110310051658/http://ntclibya.org/english/founding-statement-of-the-interim-transitional-national-council/| archivedate = 10 March 2011| url-status = dead}}</ref> when it was announced that the council had 33 members.<ref name="ntclibya_membership">{{cite web | title =Council Members | publisher =National Transitional Council | date =5 March 2011 | url =http://ntclibya.org/english/council-members/ | accessdate =7 March 2011 | archiveurl =https://www.webcitation.org/5x0zNNNFG?url=http://ntclibya.org/english/council-members/ | archivedate =7 March 2011 | url-status =dead }}</ref> The names of some of the members were kept secret to prevent threats to their families that were still in Gaddafi-held areas of Libya.<ref>{{cite news|work=[[The National (Abu Dhabi)|The National]]|url=http://www.thenational.ae/news/worldwide/council-says-its-libyas-sole-representative|title=Council Says It's Libya's Sole Representative|author=Rolla Scolari|date=6 March 2011|accessdate=8 August 2012|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110307224715/http://www.thenational.ae/news/worldwide/council-says-its-libyas-sole-representative|archive-date=7 March 2011|url-status=live}}</ref>
In September 2011, some of the NTC's members were in [[Benghazi]], while some had moved to the ''de jure'' capital [[Tripoli]]. On 8 September, the head of government Mahmoud Jibril became the highest-ranking NTC official yet to move to Tripoli. Prior to Jibril's relocation, Deputy Chairman Ali Tarhouni was the ''de facto'' leader of the NTC in Tripoli.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://blogs.aljazeera.net/liveblog/libya-sep-8-2011-1928|publisher=Al Jazeera|title=Thursday, September 8, 2011 - 17:28 GMT+3 - Libya|date=8 September 2011|accessdate=8 September 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111117201408/http://blogs.aljazeera.net/liveblog/libya-sep-8-2011-1928|archive-date=17 November 2011|url-status=live}}</ref>
{{div col end}}
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====Members (October 2011)====
A new cabinet was unveiled in early October 2011, though not all of its members were announced at once. Individuals confirmed to be part of the new board included<ref>{{cite news|url=http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/10/2011102181154543584.html|publisher=Al Jazeera|title=New cabinet takes shape in Libya|date=2 October 2011|accessdate=2 October 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111002231518/http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/10/2011102181154543584.html|archive-date=2 October 2011|url-status=live}}</ref> Mahmoud Jibril as prime minister, [[Ali Tarhouni]] as deputy prime minister, and [[Jalal al-Digheily]] as defence minister. On 23 October, Jibril resigned as Mustafa Abdul Jalil declared an end to the Libyan civil war,<ref name="declib">{{cite news|url=http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/f459749a-fd86-11e0-a9db-00144feabdc0.html?ftcamp=rss#axzz1bdQwjJL8|title=Libya declares liberation after Gaddafi's death|date=23 October 2011|accessdate=23 October 2011|first=Borzou|last=Daragahi|work=Financial Times}}</ref> and [[Abdurrahim El-Keib]] succeeded him as prime minister on 31 October.<ref name="LibyaTVARaK"/>
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