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Entries in this table giving figures other than the figures given in this source are bracketed by asterisks () in the Notes field, and the rationale for the figure used are explained in the associated Note.
===Early history===
{{further|Arabization}}
[[File:Great Mosque of Kairouan Panorama - Grande Mosquée de Kairouan Panorama.jpg|thumb|upright=1.45|right|The [[Mosque of Uqba|Great Mosque of Kairouan]] (also called the Mosque of Uqba) was founded in 670 by the Arab general and conqueror Uqba ibn Nafi.<ref>{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/​books​?id=sm0BfUKwct0C&​pg=PA248&dq​q​=kairouan+oldest+mosques+arab+world​#v=onepage​&​q&f​pg​=​false​PA248 |title=Hans Kung, ''Tracing the Way: Spiritual Dimensions of the World Religions'', éd. Continuum International Publishing Group, 2006, p. 248 |date=31 August 2006 |accessdate=17 October 2011|isbn=9780826494238 |last1=Kng |first1=Hans }}</ref> The [[Mosque of Uqba|Great Mosque of Kairouan]] is located in the historic city of [[Kairouan]] in [[Tunisia]].]]
 
The [[Arab people|Arabs]] historically originate as a [[Central Semitic languages|Central Semitic]] group in the [[Arabian peninsula]]. Their expansion beyond Arabia and the [[Syrian desert]] is due to the [[Muslim conquests]] of the 7th and 8th centuries. [[Mesopotamia]] (modern Iraq) was conquered in 633, [[Levant]] (modern Syria, Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon and tine) between 636 and 640 CE.
 
==References==
*{{Cite book | last = Baumann | first = Andrea | title = Influences of culture on the styles of business behaviour between Western and Arab managers | publisher = GRIN| year = 2006 | location = [[Norderstedt]], [[Germany]] | url = https://books.google.com/​books​?id=S33VxDyW0bAC | isbn = 978-3-638-86642-2}}
*{{Cite book | last = Deng | first = Francis Mading | authorlink = Francis Deng| title = War of visions: Conflict of identities in the Sudan | publisher = [[The Brookings Institution]] | year = 1995 | location = [[Washington, D.C.]] | url = https://books.google.com/​books​?id=iAPLHidx8MkC| isbn = 0-8157-1794-6 }}
*{{Cite book | last = Frishkopf | first = Michael| contribution = Introduction: Music and media in the Arab world and ''Music and media in the Arab world'' as music and media in the Arab world: A metadiscourse | title = Music and media in the Arab world | editor-last = Frishkopf | editor-first = Michael | publisher = [[The American University in Cairo Press]] | year = 2010 | location = [[Cairo]] | url = https://books.google.com/​books​?id=KANOAYzkhA8C| isbn = 978-977-416-293-0}}
* [[Albert Hourani|Hourani, Albert Habib]] (1991). ''A History of the Arab Peoples.'' Cambridge, Mass.: Warner Books. {{ISBN|978-0-674-39565-7}}.
*{{Cite book | last = Kronholm | first = Tryggve | contribution = Arab culture: Reality or fiction? | title = The Middle East: Unity and diversity: Papers from the second Nordic conference on Middle Eastern studies | editor1-last = Palva | editor1-first = Heikki | editor2-last = Vikør | editor2-first = Knut S. | publisher = Nordic Institute of Asian Studies | series = Nordic proceedings in Asian studies | volume = 5 | year = 1993 | location = [[Copenhagen]] | url = https://books.google.com/​books​?id=aluD22J9SG8C | isbn = 87-87062-24-0}}
* Reader, John (1997). ''Africa: A Biography of the Continent.'' New York: Vintage. {{ISBN|978-0-679-40979-3}}.
*{{Cite book | last = Rejwan | first = Nissim| title = Nasserist ideology: its exponents and critics | publisher = Halsted Press| year = 1974 | location = [[New York City|New York]]| url = https://books.google.com/​books​?id=AkQDAxVwaOEC| isbn = 0-470-71628-2}}
*{{Cite book | last = Rinnawi | first = Khalil| title = Instant nationalism: McArabism, al-Jazeera and transnational media in the Arab world | publisher = [[University Press of America]] | year = 2006 | location = [[Lanham, Maryland]]| url = https://books.google.com/​books​?id=xJYLNUBgSeUC | isbn = 978-0-7618-3439-7 }}
*{{Cite book | editor1-last = Sullivan | editor1-first = Earl L. | editor2-last = Ismael | editor2-first = Jacqueline S.| contribution = Preface | title = The contemporary study of the Arab world | publisher = The [[University of Alberta Press]]| year = 1991 | location = [[Edmonton]], [[Alberta]] | url = https://books.google.com/​books​?id=YTkHGis-yYEC | isbn = 0-88864-211-3}}
* [[Charles Saint-Prot|Saint-Prot, Charles]] (2003). ''French Policy toward the Arab World''. AbuDhabi: Emirates Center for Strategic Studies and Research. {{ISBN|978-9948-00-336-6}}.
 
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