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[[File:Great Mosque of Kairouan Panorama - Grande Mosquée de Kairouan Panorama.jpg|thumb|upright=1.45|right|The [[Mosque of Uqba|Great Mosque of Kairouan]] (also called the Mosque of Uqba) was founded in 670 by the Arab general and conqueror Uqba ibn Nafi.<ref>{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=sm0BfUKwct0C&q=kairouan+oldest+mosques+arab+world&pg=PA248 |title=Hans Kung, ''Tracing the Way: Spiritual Dimensions of the World Religions'', éd. Continuum International Publishing Group, 2006, p. 248 |date=31 August 2006 |accessdate=17 October 2011|isbn=9780826494238 |last1=Kng |first1=Hans }}</ref> The [[Mosque of Uqba|Great Mosque of Kairouan]] is located in the historic city of [[Kairouan]] in [[Tunisia]].]]
 
The [[Arab people|Arabs]] historically originate as a [[Central Semitic languages|Central Semitic]] group in thesouthern [[Levant]] and northern [[Arabian peninsula]].<ref>{{cite web |last1=al-Jallad |first1=Ahmad |title=Ancient Levantine Arabic: A Reconstruction Based on the Earliest Sources and the Modern Dialects |url=https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED547427}}</ref> Arab tribes and federations such as [[Nabataeans]], [[Tanukhids]], [[Salihids]], [[Ghassanids]], and numerous other groups were prevalent in southern Levant ([[Syrian Desert]]) and northern Arabia. Their expansion beyond Arabia and the [[Syrian desert]] is due to the [[Muslim conquests]] of the 7th and 8th centuries. [[MesopotamiaIraq]] (modern Iraq) was conquered in 633, [[Levant]] (modern Syria, Israel, Palestine, Jordan, and Lebanon and tine) between 636 and 640 CE.
 
[[History of Muslim Egypt|Egypt]] was conquered in 639, and gradually Arabized during the medieval period. A distinctively [[Egyptian Arabic]] language emerged by the 16th century.
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