A standard language
(also standard variety
, standard dialect
, and standard
) is a language variety
that has undergone substantial codification
of grammar and usage and is employed by a population for public communication.
The term standard language
occasionally refers to the entirety of a language that includes a standardized form as one of its varieties.
Typically, the language varieties that undergo substantive standardization are the dialects
spoken and written in centers of commerce and government.
By processes that linguistic anthropologists call "referential displacement"
and that sociolinguists call "elaboration of function",
these varieties acquire the social prestige
associated with commerce and government. As a sociological effect of these processes, most users of this language come to believe that the standard language is inherently superior or consider it the linguistic baseline against which to judge other varieties of language.
The standardization of a language is a continual process, because a language-in-use cannot be permanently standardized like the parts of a machine.
Typically, the standardization process includes efforts to stabilize the spelling
of the prestige dialect, to codify
usages and particular (denotative
) meanings through formal grammars
, and to encourage public acceptance of the codifications as intrinsically correct.
In that vein, a pluricentric language
has interacting standard varieties;
examples are English
, and Portuguese
, and Serbo-Croatian
and Mandarin Chinese
whereas monocentric languages, such as Russian
, have one standardized idiom.
In Europe, a standardized written language
is sometimes identified with the German word Schriftsprache
(written language). The term literary language
is occasionally used as a synonym for standard language
, especially with respect to the Slavic languages
where a naming convention still prevalent in the linguistic traditions of Eastern Europe.
In contemporary linguistic usage, the terms standard dialect
and standard variety
are neutral synonyms for the term standard language
, usages that indicate that the standard is one of many dialects and varieties of a language, rather than the totality of the language, whilst minimizing the negative implication of social subordination
that the standard is the only idiom worthy of the appellation "language".
The term standard language
identifies a repertoire of broadly recognizable conventions in spoken and written communications used in a society and does not imply either a socially ideal idiom or a culturally superior form of speech.
A standard language is developed from related dialects, either by social action (ethnic and cultural unification) to elevate a given dialect, such as that used in culture and in government, or by defining the norms of standard language with selected linguistic features drawn from the existing dialects.
Typically, a standard language includes a relatively fixed orthography codified in grammars
and normative dictionaries
, in which users can also sometimes find illustrative examples drawn from literary, legal, or religious texts.
Whether grammars and dictionaries are created by the state or by private citizens (e.g. Webster's Dictionary
), some users regard such linguistic codifications as authoritative for correcting the spoken and written forms of the language.
Effects of such codifications include slowing the pace of diachronic
change in the standardized variety and affording a basis for further linguistic development (Ausbau
In the practices of broadcasting and of official communications, the standard usually functions as a normalizing reference for speech and writing. In educational contexts, it usually informs the version of the language taught to non-native learners.
In those ways, the standard variety acquires social prestige
and greater functional importance than nonstandard dialects
which depend upon or are heteronomous
with respect to the standard idiom. Standard usage serves as the linguistic authority, as in the case of specialist terminology
; moreover, the standardization of spoken forms is oriented towards the codified standard.
Historically, a standard language arises in two ways: (i) in the case of Standard English
, linguistic standardization occurs informally and piecemeal, without formal government intervention; (ii) in the cases of the French and Spanish languages, linguistic standardization occurs formally, directed by prescriptive
language institutions, such as the Académie Française
and the Royal Spanish Academy
, which respectively produce Le bon français
and El buen español
A standard variety can be conceptualized in two ways: (i) as the sociolect
of a given socio-economic stratum
or (ii) as the normative codification of a dialect
, an idealized abstraction.
Hence, the full standardization of a language is impractical, because a standardized dialect cannot fully function as a real entity, but does function as set of linguistic norms observed to varying degrees in the course of usus
– of how people actually speak and write the language.
In practice, the language varieties identified as standard are neither uniform nor fully stabilized, especially in their spoken forms.
From that perspective, the linguist Suzanne Romaine
says that standard languages can be conceptually compared to the imagined communities
, as described by the political scientist Benedict Anderson
which indicates that linguistic standardization is the result of a society's history and sociology, and thus is not a universal phenomenon;
of the approximately 7,000 contemporary spoken languages, most do not have a codified standard dialect.
Politically, in the formation of a nation-state, identifying and cultivating a standard variety can serve efforts to establish a shared culture among the social and economic groups who compose the new nation-state.
Different national standards, derived from a continuum of dialects
, might be treated as discrete languages (along with heteronomous vernacular dialects)
even if there are mutually intelligible
varieties among them,
such as the North Germanic languages
of Scandinavia (Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish).
Moreover, in political praxis, either a government or a neighboring population might deny the cultural status of a standard language.
In response to such political interference, linguists develop a standard variety from elements of the different dialects used by a society.
For example, when Norway became independent from Denmark in 1814, the only written language was Danish. Different Norwegian dialects were spoken in rural districts and provincial cities, but people with higher education and upper-class urban people spoke ″Danish with a Norwegian pronunciation". Based upon the bourgeois speech of the capital Oslo
(Christiania) and other major cities, several orthographic reforms, notably in 1907 and 1917, resulted in the official standard Riksmål
, in 1929 renamed Bokmål
('book tongue'). The philologist Ivar Aasen
(1813–1896) considered urban and upper-class Dano-Norwegian
too similar to Danish, so he developed Landsmål
('country tongue'), the standard based upon the dialects of western Norway. In 1885 the Storting
(parliament) declared both forms official and equal. In 1929 it was officially renamed Nynorsk
Likewise, in Yugoslavia
(1945–1992), when the Socialist Republic of Macedonia
(1963–1991) developed their national language from the dialect continuum demarcated by Serbia to the north and Bulgaria to the east, their Standard Macedonian
was based upon vernaculars from the west of the republic, which were the dialects most linguistically different from standard Bulgarian
, the previous linguistic norm used in that region of the Balkan peninsula
. Although Macedonian functions as the standard language of the Republic of North Macedonia
, nonetheless, for political and cultural reasons, Bulgarians treat Macedonian as a Bulgarian dialect.
consists of hundreds of local varieties
, many of which are not mutually intelligible, usually classified into seven to ten major groups, including Mandarin
. Before the 20th century, most Chinese spoke only their local variety. For two millennia, formal writing had been done in Literary Chinese
(or Classical Chinese), a style modelled on the classics
and far removed from any contemporary speech.
As a practical measure, officials of the late imperial dynasties carried out the administration of the empire using a common language based on Mandarin varieties
, known as Guānhuà
(literally "speech of officials").
In the early 20th century, many Chinese intellectuals argued that the country needed a standardized language. By the 1920s, Literary Chinese had been replaced as the written standard by written vernacular Chinese
, which was based on Mandarin dialects.
In the 1930s, Standard Chinese
was adopted, with its pronunciation based on the Beijing dialect
, but with vocabulary also drawn from other Mandarin varieties and its syntax based on the written vernacular.
It is the official spoken language of the People's Republic of China
(where it is called Pǔtōnghuà
"common speech"), the de facto official language of the Republic of China
governing Taiwan (as Guóyǔ
"national language") and one of the official languages of Singapore
Standard Chinese now dominates public life, and is much more widely studied than any other variety of Chinese.
English in the United Kingdom
In the United Kingdom, the standard language is British English
, which is based upon the language of the mediaeval court of Chancery
of England and Wales.
In the late-seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, Standard English
became established as the linguistic norm of the upper class
, composed of the peerage
and the gentry
Socially, the accent of the spoken version of the standard language then indicated that the speaker was a man or a woman possessed of a good education, and thus of high social prestige
In practise, speakers of Standard English speak the language with any accent (Australian, Canadian, American, etc.) although it usually is associated with Received Pronunciation
, "the standard accent of English as spoken in the south of England
An Caighdeán Oifigiúil
('The Official Standard'), often shortened to An Caighdeán
, is the official standard of the Irish language
. It was first published by the translators in Dáil Éireann
in the 1950s.
As of September 2013,
the first major revision of the Caighdeán Oifigiúil is available, both online
and in print.
Among the changes to be found in the revised version are, for example, various attempts to bring the recommendations of the Caighdeán closer to the spoken dialect of Gaeltacht speakers,
including allowing further use of the nominative case where the genitive would historically have been found.
The standard language in the Roman Republic
(509 BC – 27 BC) and the Roman Empire
(27 BC – AD 1453) was Classical Latin
, the literary dialect spoken by upper classes of Roman society, whilst Vulgar Latin
was the sociolect
(colloquial language) spoken by the educated and uneducated peoples of the middle and the lower social classes of Roman society. The Latin language that Roman armies introduced to Gaul
, and Dacia
was of a different grammar, syntax, and vocabulary than the Classical Latin spoken and written by the statesman Cicero
In Brazil, actors and journalists usually adopt an unofficial, but de facto, spoken standard Portuguese
, originally derived from the middle-class dialects of Rio de Janeiro
, but that now encompasses educated urban pronunciations from the different speech communities in the southeast. In that standard, ⟨s⟩ represents the phoneme /s/ when it appears at the end of a syllable (whereas in Rio de Janeiro this represents /ʃ/) and the rhotic consonant
spelled ⟨r⟩ is pronounced [h] in the same situation (whereas in São Paulo
this is usually an alveolar flap
). European and African dialects have differing realizations of /ʁ/ than Brazilian dialects, with the former using [ʁ] and [r] and the latter using [x], [h], or [χ].
Four standard variants of the pluricentric Serbo-Croatian
are spoken in Bosnia and Herzegovina
, and Serbia
They all have the same dialect
These variants do differ slightly, as is the case with other pluricentric languages,
but not to a degree that would justify considering them as different languages
. The differences between the variants do not hinder mutual intelligibility and do not undermine the integrity of the system as a whole.
Compared to the differences between the variants of English, German, French, Spanish, or Portuguese, the distinctions between the variants of Serbo-Croatian are less significant.
Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro in their constitution have all named the language differently.
, Northern Somali
(or North-Central Somali) forms the basis for Standard Somali
particularly the Mudug
dialect of the northern Darod
clan. Northern Central Somali has frequently been used by famous Somali poets
as well as the political elite, and thus has the most prestige among other Somali dialects.
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