Stasi - Wikipedia
Stasi
Not to be confused with Stasis.
This article is about the secret police of East Germany. For its other common meaning, see Stasi Commission. For the regular police in East Germany, see Volkspolizei.
The Ministry for State Security (German: Ministerium für Staatssicherheit, MfS (German: [ɛmɛfˈʔɛs] (listen)) or State Security Service (​Staatssicherheitsdienst​, SSD), commonly known as the Stasi (German: [ˈʃtaːziː] (listen)),[n 1] was the official state security service of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany, GDR). It has been described as one of the most effective and repressive intelligence and secret police agencies ever to have existed.[3][4][5][6][7][8] The Stasi was headquartered in East Berlin, with an extensive complex in Berlin-Lichtenberg and several smaller facilities throughout the city. The Stasi motto was Schild und Schwert der Partei (Shield and Sword of the Party), referring to the ruling Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands, SED) and also echoing a theme of the KGB, the Soviet counterpart and close partner, with respect to its own ruling party, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). Erich Mielke was the Stasi's longest-serving chief, in power for 32 of the 40 years of the GDR's existence.
Ministry for State Security
Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS)

Seal of the Ministry of State Security of the GDR

Flag of Stasi

Part of the former Stasi compound in East Berlin, with "Haus 1" in the centre
Agency overview
Formed8 February 1950
Dissolved13 January 1990[1]
TypeSecret police, Intelligence agency
HeadquartersLichtenberg, East Berlin, German Democratic Republic
MottoSchild und Schwert der Partei
(Shield and sword of the Party)
Employees91,015 regular employees, 174,000 informal employees (or IMs) (1989)[2]
Agency executives
One of the Stasi's main tasks was spying on the population, primarily through a vast network of citizens turned informants, and fighting any opposition by overt and covert measures, including hidden psychological destruction of dissidents (Zersetzung, literally meaning "decomposition"). It arrested 250,000 people as political prisoners during its existence.[9] Its Main Directorate for Reconnaissance (Hauptverwaltung Aufklärung) was responsible both for espionage and for conducting covert operations in foreign countries. Under its long-time head Markus Wolf, this directorate gained a reputation as one of the most effective intelligence agencies of the Cold War. The Stasi also maintained contacts, and occasionally cooperated, with Western terrorists.[10][11]
Numerous Stasi officials were prosecuted for their crimes after 1990. After German reunification, the surveillance files that the Stasi had maintained on millions of East Germans were opened, so that all citizens could inspect their personal file on request. These files are now maintained by the Stasi Records Agency.
Creation
The Stasi was founded on 8 February 1950.[12]Wilhelm Zaisser was the first Minister of State Security of the GDR, and Erich Mielke was his deputy. Zaisser tried to depose SED General Secretary Walter Ulbricht after the June 1953 uprising,[13] but was instead removed by Ulbricht and replaced with Ernst Wollweber thereafter. Following the June 1953 uprising, the Politbüro decided to downgrade the apparatus to a State Secretariat and incorporate it under the Ministry of the Interior under the leadership of Willi Stoph. The Minister of State Security simultaneously became a State Secretary of State Security. The Stasi held this status until November 1955, when it was restored to a ministry.[14][15] Wollweber resigned in 1957 after clashes with Ulbricht and Erich Honecker, and was succeeded by his deputy, Erich Mielke.
In 1957, Markus Wolf became head of the Hauptverwaltung Aufklärung (HVA) (Main Reconnaissance Administration), the foreign intelligence section of the Stasi. As intelligence chief, Wolf achieved great success in penetrating the government, political and business circles of West Germany with spies. The most influential case was that of Günter Guillaume, which led to the downfall of West German Chancellor Willy Brandt in May 1974. In 1986, Wolf retired and was succeeded by Werner Grossmann.
Relationship with the KGB
See also: Eastern Bloc politics, Eastern Bloc information dissemination, and Active measures
Although Mielke's Stasi was superficially granted independence in 1957, until 1990 the KGB continued to maintain liaison officers in all eight main Stasi directorates, each with his own office inside the Stasi's Berlin compound, and in each of the fifteen Stasi district headquarters around East Germany.[16] Collaboration was so close that the KGB invited the Stasi to establish operational bases in Moscow and Leningrad to monitor visiting East German tourists and Mielke referred to the Stasi officers as "Chekists of the Soviet Union".[16] In 1978, Mielke formally granted KGB officers in East Germany the same rights and powers that they enjoyed in the Soviet Union.[16]
Organization
The Ministry for State Security was organized according to the Line principle. A high-ranking official was in charge of a particular mission of the Ministry and headed a division in the Central Apparatus (Zentrale). A corresponding division was organized in each of the 15 District Departments for State Security (Bezirksverwaltungen für Staatssicherheit in the Berlin Capital Region and 14 regional districts (Bezirke)). At the local level the Stasi had Area Precincts for State Security (Bezirksverwaltungen für Staatssicherheit — one each for the 227 cities and municipal districts and the 11 city boroughs (Stadtbezirken) of East Berlin). A single case officer held responsibility for the particular mission in each area precinct. The line principle meant that the case officers were subordinated to the specialized divisions at the district departments. The specialized divisions at the district departments were subordinated to the specialized division in the central apparatus and the whole line was under the direct command and control of the high-ranking Stasi officer in charge of the mission. The Stasi also fielded Location Detachments (Objektdienststellen) at state-owned enterprises of high importance (such as the joint USSR-East German Wismar uranium mining company). Shortly before the transformation of the Stasi into the Office of National Security the Ministry had the following structure:
Ministry for State Security
Central Apparatus (Zentrale)
Divisions directly subordinated to the Minister Army general Erich Mielke (Dem Minister für Staatssicherheit direkt unterstellte Diensteinheiten)
Divisions directly subordinated to the Deputy Minister Colonel General Werner Großmann (Dem Stellvertreter GO Großmann unterstellte Diensteinheiten) (his predecessor was the legendary Colonel general Markus Wolf)
Divisions directly subordinated to the Deputy Minister Colonel general Rudi Mittig (Dem Stellvertreter GO Mittig unterstellte Diensteinheiten)
Divisions directly subordinated to the Deputy Minister Lieutenant general Gerhard Neiber (Dem Stellvertreter GL Neiber unterstellte Diensteinheiten)
Divisions directly subordinated to the Deputy Minister Lieutenant general Wolfgang Schwanitz (Dem Stellvertreter GL Schwanitz unterstellte Diensteinheiten) (Schwanitz was appointed as the chief of the Stasi successor agency - the Office for National Security)
District Departments and Area Precincts
Selected Stasi departments:
Bautzen prison
Operations
See also: Censorship in East Germany
Personnel and recruitment
See also: Informal collaborator
Between 1950 and 1989, the Stasi employed a total of 274,000 people in an effort to root out the class enemy.[18][19][20] In 1989, the Stasi employed 91,015 people full-time, including 2,000 fully employed unofficial collaborators, 13,073 soldiers and 2,232 officers of GDR army,[21] along with 173,081 unofficial informants inside GDR[22] and 1,553 informants in West Germany.[23]
Regular commissioned Stasi officers were recruited from conscripts who had been honourably discharged from their 18 months' compulsory military service, had been members of the SED, had had a high level of participation in the Party's youth wing's activities and had been Stasi informers during their service in the Military. The candidates would then have to be recommended by their military unit political officers and Stasi agents, the local chiefs of the District (Bezirk) Stasi and Volkspolizei office, of the district in which they were permanently resident, and the District Secretary of the SED. These candidates were then made to sit through several tests and exams, which identified their intellectual capacity to be an officer, and their political reliability. University graduates who had completed their military service did not need to take these tests and exams. They then attended a two-year officer training programme at the Stasi college (Hochschule) in Potsdam. Less mentally and academically endowed candidates were made ordinary technicians and attended a one-year technology-intensive course for non-commissioned officers.
By 1995, some 174,000 inoffizielle Mitarbeiter (IMs) Stasi informants had been identified, almost 2.5% of East Germany's population between the ages of 18 and 60.[18] 10,000 IMs were under 18 years of age.[18] From the volume of material destroyed in the final days of the regime, the office of the Federal Commissioner for the Stasi Records (BStU) believes that there could have been as many as 500,000 informers.[18] A former Stasi colonel who served in the counterintelligence directorate estimated that the figure could be as high as 2 million if occasional informants were included.[18] There is significant debate about how many IMs were actually employed.
Infiltration
The main entrance to the Stasi headquarters in Berlin
Full-time officers were posted to all major industrial plants (the extent of any surveillance largely depended on how valuable a product was to the economy)[19] and one tenant in every apartment building was designated as a watchdog reporting to an area representative of the Volkspolizei (Vopo). Spies reported every relative or friend who stayed the night at another's apartment. Tiny holes were drilled in apartment and hotel room walls through which Stasi agents filmed citizens with special video cameras. Schools, universities, and hospitals were extensively infiltrated,[24] as were organizations, such as computer clubs where teenagers exchanged Western video games.[25]
The Stasi had formal categorizations of each type of informant, and had official guidelines on how to extract information from, and control, those with whom they came into contact.[26] The roles of informants ranged from those already in some way involved in state security (such as the police and the armed services) to those in the dissident movements (such as in the arts and the Protestant Church).[27] Information gathered about the latter groups was frequently used to divide or discredit members.[28] Informants were made to feel important, given material or social incentives, and were imbued with a sense of adventure, and only around 7.7%, according to official figures, were coerced into cooperating. A significant proportion of those informing were members of the SED. Use of some form of blackmail was not uncommon.[27] A large number of Stasi informants were tram conductors, janitors, doctors, nurses and teachers. Mielke believed that the best informants were those whose jobs entailed frequent contact with the public.[29]
The Stasi's ranks swelled considerably after Eastern Bloc countries signed the 1975 Helsinki accords, which GDR leader Erich Honecker viewed as a grave threat to his regime because they contained language binding signatories to respect "human and basic rights, including freedom of thought, conscience, religion, and conviction".[30] The number of IMs peaked at around 180,000 in that year, having slowly risen from 20,000 to 30,000 in the early 1950s, and reaching 100,000 for the first time in 1968, in response to Ostpolitik and protests worldwide.[31] The Stasi also acted as a proxy for KGB to conduct activities in other Eastern Bloc countries, such as Poland, where the Soviets were despised.[32]
The Stasi infiltrated almost every aspect of GDR life. In the mid-1980s, a network of IMs began growing in both German states. By the time that East Germany collapsed in 1989, the Stasi employed 91,015 employees and 173,081 informants.[33] About one out of every 63 East Germans collaborated with the Stasi. By at least one estimate, the Stasi maintained greater surveillance over its own people than any secret police force in history.[34] The Stasi employed one secret policeman for every 166 East Germans. By comparison, the Gestapo deployed one secret policeman per 2,000 people. As ubiquitous as this was, the ratios swelled when informers were factored in: counting part-time informers, the Stasi had one agent per 6.5 people. This comparison led Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal to call the Stasi even more oppressive than the Gestapo.[35] Stasi agents infiltrated and undermined West Germany's government and spy agencies.[citation needed]
In some cases, spouses even spied on each other. A high-profile example of this was peace activist Vera Lengsfeld, whose husband, Knud Wollenberger, was a Stasi informant.[29]
Zersetzung
Main article: Zersetzung
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The Stasi perfected the technique of psychological harassment of perceived enemies known as Zersetzung (pronounced [ʦɛɐ̯ˈzɛtsʊŋ]) – a term borrowed from chemistry which literally means "decomposition".
...the Stasi often used a method which was really diabolic. It was called Zersetzung, and it's described in another guideline. The word is difficult to translate because it means originally "biodegradation". But actually, it's a quite accurate description. The goal was to destroy secretly the self-confidence of people, for example by damaging their reputation, by organizing failures in their work, and by destroying their personal relationships. Considering this, East Germany was a very modern dictatorship. The Stasi didn't try to arrest every dissident. It preferred to paralyze them, and it could do so because it had access to so much personal information and to so many institutions.
—Hubertus Knabe, German historian [36]
By the 1970s, the Stasi had decided that the methods of overt persecution that had been employed up to that time, such as arrest and torture, were too crude and obvious. It was realised that psychological harassment was far less likely to be recognised for what it was, so its victims, and their supporters, were less likely to be provoked into active resistance, given that they would often not be aware of the source of their problems, or even its exact nature. Zersetzung was designed to side-track and "switch off" perceived enemies so that they would lose the will to continue any "inappropriate" activities.
Tactics employed under Zersetzung generally involved the disruption of the victim's private or family life. This often included psychological attacks, such as breaking into homes and subtly manipulating the contents, in a form of gaslighting – moving furniture, altering the timing of an alarm, removing pictures from walls or replacing one variety of tea with another. Other practices included property damage, sabotage of cars, purposely incorrect medical treatment, smear campaigns including sending falsified compromising photos or documents to the victim's family, denunciation, provocation, psychological warfare, psychological subversion, wiretapping, bugging, mysterious phone calls or unnecessary deliveries, even including sending a vibrator to a target's wife. Usually, victims had no idea that the Stasi were responsible. Many thought that they were losing their minds, and mental breakdowns and suicide could result.
One great advantage of the harassment perpetrated under Zersetzung was that its subtle nature meant that it was able to be plausibly denied. This was important given that the GDR was trying to improve its international standing during the 1970s and 80s, especially in conjunction with the Ostpolitik of West German Chancellor Willy Brandt massively improving relations between the two German states.
International operations
See also: Hauptverwaltung Aufklärung
After German reunification, revelations of the Stasi's international activities were publicized, such as its military training of the West German Red Army Faction.[37]
Examples
Fall of the Soviet Union
Recruitment of informants became increasingly difficult towards the end of the GDR's existence, and, after 1986, there was a negative turnover rate of IMs. This had a significant impact on the Stasi's ability to survey the populace, in a period of growing unrest, and knowledge of the Stasi's activities became more widespread.[70] Stasi had been tasked during this period with preventing the country's economic difficulties becoming a political problem, through suppression of the very worst problems the state faced, but it failed to do so.[19]
Stasi officers reportedly had discussed re-branding East Germany as a democratic capitalist country to the West, which in actuality would have been taken over by Stasi officers. The plan specified 2,587 OibE officers (Offiziere im besonderen Einsatz, "officers on special assignment") who would have assumed power as detailed in the Top Secret Document 0008-6/86 of 17 March 1986.[71][72] According to Ion Mihai Pacepa, the chief intelligence officer in communist Romania, other communist intelligence services had similar plans. On 12 March 1990, Der Spiegel reported that the Stasi was indeed attempting to implement 0008-6/86.[71] Pacepa has noted that what happened in Russia and how KGB Colonel Vladimir Putin took over Russia resembles these plans.[72] See Putinism.
On 7 November 1989, in response to the rapidly changing political and social situation in the GDR in late 1989, Erich Mielke resigned. On 17 November 1989, the Council of Ministers (Ministerrat der DDR) renamed the Stasi the "Office for National Security" (Amt für Nationale Sicherheit – AfNS), which was headed by Generalleutnant Wolfgang Schwanitz. On 8 December 1989, GDR Prime Minister Hans Modrow directed the dissolution of the AfNS, which was confirmed by a decision of the Ministerrat on 14 December 1989.
As part of this decision, the Ministerrat originally called for the evolution of the AfNS into two separate organizations: a new foreign intelligence service (Nachrichtendienst der DDR) and an "Office for the Protection of the Constitution of the GDR" (Verfassungsschutz der DDR), along the lines of the West German Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz, however, the public reaction was extremely negative, and under pressure from the "Round Table" (Runder Tisch), the government dropped the creation of the Verfassungsschutz der DDR and directed the immediate dissolution of the AfNS on 13 January 1990. Certain functions of the AfNS reasonably related to law enforcement were handed over to the GDR Ministry of Internal Affairs. The same ministry also took guardianship of remaining AfNS facilities.
When the parliament of Germany investigated public funds that disappeared after the Fall of the Berlin Wall, it found out that East Germany had transferred large amounts of money to Martin Schlaff through accounts in Vaduz, the capital of Liechtenstein, in return for goods "under Western embargo".
Moreover, high-ranking Stasi officers continued their post-GDR careers in management positions in Schlaff's group of companies. For example, in 1990, Herbert Kohler, Stasi commander in Dresden, transferred 170 million marks to Schlaff for "harddisks" and months later went to work for him.[47][73] The investigations concluded that "Schlaff's empire of companies played a crucial role" in the Stasi attempts to secure the financial future of Stasi agents and keep the intelligence network alive.[47] The Stern magazine noted that KGB officer (and future Russian President) Vladimir Putin worked with his Stasi colleagues in Dresden in 1989.[73]
Recovery of Stasi files
During the Peaceful Revolution of 1989, Stasi offices and prisons throughout the country were occupied by citizens, but not before the Stasi destroyed a number of documents (approximately 5%)[74] consisting of, by one calculation, 1 billion sheets of paper.[75]
Storming the Stasi headquarters
Citizens protesting and entering the Stasi building in Berlin; the sign accuses the Stasi and SED of being Nazi-like dictators (1990)
With the fall of the GDR the Stasi was dissolved. Stasi employees began to destroy the extensive files and documents they held, by hand, fire and with the use of shredders. When these activities became known, a protest began in front of the Stasi headquarters.[76] The evening of 15 January 1990 saw a large crowd form outside the gates calling for a stop to the destruction of sensitive files. The building contained vast records of personal files, many of which would form important evidence in convicting those who had committed crimes for the Stasi. The protesters continued to grow in number until they were able to overcome the police and gain entry into the complex. Once inside, specific targets of the protesters' anger were portraits of Erich Honecker and Erich Mielke which were trampled on or burnt. Among the protesters were former Stasi collaborators seeking to destroy incriminating documents.[citation needed]
Controversy of the Stasi files
With the German reunification on 3 October 1990, a new government agency was founded called the Federal Commissioner for the Records of the State Security Service of the former German Democratic Republic (German: Der Bundesbeauftragte für die Unterlagen des Staatssicherheitsdienstes der ehemaligen Deutschen Demokratischen Republik), officially abbreviated "BStU".[77] There was a debate about what should happen to the files, whether they should be opened to the people or kept closed.
Those who opposed opening the files cited privacy as a reason.[citation needed] They felt that the information in the files would lead to negative feelings about former Stasi members, and, in turn, cause violence. Pastor Rainer Eppelmann, who became Minister of Defense and Disarmament after March 1990, felt that new political freedoms for former Stasi members would be jeopardized by acts of revenge. Prime Minister Lothar de Maizière even went so far as to predict murder. They also argued against the use of the files to capture former Stasi members and prosecute them, arguing that not all former members were criminals and should not be punished solely for being a member. There were also some who believed that everyone was guilty of something. Peter-Michael Diestel, the Minister of Interior, opined that these files could not be used to determine innocence and guilt, claiming that "there were only two types of individuals who were truly innocent in this system, the newborn and the alcoholic". Other opinions, such as the one of West German Interior Minister Wolfgang Schäuble, believed in putting the Stasi behind them and working on German reunification.
But why did the Stasi collect all this information in its archives? The main purpose was to control the society. In nearly every speech, the Stasi minister gave the order to find out who is who, which meant who thinks what. He didn't want to wait until somebody tried to act against the regime. He wanted to know in advance what people were thinking and planning. The East Germans knew, of course, that they were surrounded by informers, in a totalitarian regime that created mistrust and a state of widespread fear, the most important tools to oppress people in any dictatorship.
—Hubertus Knabe, German historian[36]
Others argued that everyone should have the right to see their own file, and that the files should be opened to investigate former Stasi members and prosecute them, as well as not allow them to hold office. Opening the files would also help clear up some of the rumors that were currently circulating. Some also believed that politicians involved with the Stasi should be investigated.
The fate of the files was finally decided under the Unification Treaty between the GDR and West Germany. This treaty took the Volkskammer law further and allowed more access and use of the files. Along with the decision to keep the files in a central location in the East, they also decided who could see and use the files, allowing people to see their own files.
In 1992, following a declassification ruling by the German government, the Stasi files were opened, leading people to look for their files. Timothy Garton Ash, an English historian, after reading his file, wrote The File: A Personal History.[78]
Between 1991 and 2011, around 2.75 million individuals, mostly GDR citizens, requested to see their own files.[79] The ruling also gave people the ability to make duplicates of their documents. Another big issue was how the media could use and benefit from the documents. It was decided that the media could obtain files as long as they were depersonalized and not regarding an individual under the age of 18 or a former Stasi member. This ruling not only gave the media access to the files, but also gave schools access.
Tracking down former Stasi informers with the files
Even though groups of this sort were active in the community, those who were tracking down ex-members were, as well. Many of these hunters succeeded in catching ex-Stasi; however, charges could not be made for merely being a member. The person in question would have to have participated in an illegal act, not just be a registered Stasi member. Among the high-profile individuals who were arrested and tried were Erich Mielke, Third Minister of State Security of the GDR, and Erich Honecker, head of state for the GDR. Mielke was sentenced to six years prison for the murder of two policemen in 1931. Honecker was charged with authorizing the killing of would-be escapees on the east–west frontier and the Berlin Wall. During his trial, he went through cancer treatment. Because he was nearing death, Honecker was allowed to spend his final time in freedom. He died in Chile in May 1994.
Reassembling the destroyed files
Reassembling the destroyed files has been relatively easy due to the number of archives and the failure of shredding machines (in some cases "shredding" meant tearing paper in two by hand and documents could be recovered easily). In 1995, the BStU began reassembling the shredded documents; 13 years later, the three dozen archivists commissioned to the projects had reassembled only 327 bags; they are now using computer-assisted data recovery to reassemble the remaining 16,000 bags – estimated at 45 million pages. It is estimated that this task may be completed at a cost of 30 million dollars.[80]
The CIA acquired some Stasi records during the looting of the Stasi's archives. West Germany asked for their return and received some in April 2000.[81] See also Rosenholz files.
Museums
Part of the former Stasi compound in Berlin, with "Haus 1" in the centre
There are a number of memorial sites and museums relating to the Stasi in former Stasi prisons and administration buildings. In addition, offices of the Stasi Records Agency in Berlin, Dresden, Erfurt, Frankfurt-an-der-Oder and Halle (Saale) all have permanent and changing exhibitions relating to the activities of the Stasi in their region.[82]
Berlin
Erfurt
The former Stasi Prison, Erfurt
Memorial and Education Centre Andreasstrasse - a museum in Erfurt which is housed in a former Stasi remand prison. From 1952 until 1989, over 5000 political prisoners were held on remand and interrogated in the Andreasstrasse prison, which was one of 17 Stasi remand prisons in the GDR.[85][86] On 4 December 1989, local citizens occupied the prison and the neighbouring Stasi district headquarters to stop the mass destruction of Stasi files. It was the first time East Germans had undertaken such resistance against the Stasi and it instigated the take over of Stasi buildings throughout the country.[87]
Dresden
Cells in Bautzner Strasse Memorial, Dresden
Gedenkstätte Bautzner Straße Dresden [de] (The Bautzner Strasse Memorial in Dresden) - A Stasi remand prison and the Stasi's regional head office in Dresden. It was used as a prison by the Soviet occupying forces from 1945 to 1953, and from 1953 to 1989 by the Stasi. The Stasi held and interrogated between 12,000 and 15,000 people during the time they used the prison. The building was originally a 19th-century paper mill. It was converted into a block of flats in 1933 before being confiscated by the Soviet army in 1945. The Stasi prison and offices were occupied by local citizens on 5 December 1989, during a wave of such takeovers across the country. The museum and memorial site was opened to the public in 1994.[88]
Frankfurt-an-der-Oder
Remembrance and Documentation Centre for "Victims of political tyranny" [de] - A memorial and museum at Collegienstraße 10 in Frankfurt-an-der-Oder​, in a building that was used as a detention centre by the Gestapo, the Soviet occupying forces and the Stasi. The building was the Stasi district offices and a remand prison from 1950 until 1969, after which the Volkspolizei used the prison. From 1950 to 1952 it was an execution site where 12 people sentenced to death were executed. The prison closed in 1990. It has been a cultural centre and a memorial to the victims of political tyranny since June 1994, managed by the Museum Viadrina.[89][90]
Gera
Gedenkstätte Amthordurchgang [de], a memorial and 'centre of encounter' in Gera in a former remand prison, originally opened in 1874, that was used by the Gestapo from 1933 to 1945, the Soviet occupying forces from 1945 to 1949, and from 1952 to 1989 by the Stasi. The building was also the district offices of the Stasi administration. Between 1952 and 1989 over 2,800 people were held in the prison on political grounds. The memorial site opened with the official name "Die Gedenk- und Begegnungsstätte im Torhaus der politischen Haftanstalt von 1933 bis 1945 und 1945 bis 1989" in November 2005.[91][92]
Halle (Saale)
The Roter Ochse [de] (Red Ox) is a museum and memorial site at the prison at Am Kirchtor 20, Halle (Saale). Part of the prison, built 1842, was used by the Stasi from 1950 until 1989, during with time over 9,000 political prisoners were held in the prison. From 1954 it was mainly used for women prisoners. The name "Roter Ochse" is the informal name of the prison, possibly originating in the 19th century from the colour of the external walls. It still operates as a prison for young people. Since 1996, the building which was used as an interrogation centre by the Stasi and an execution site by the Nazis has been a museum and memorial centre for victims of political persecution.[93]
Leipzig
Entrance to the "Runde Ecke" museum, Leipzig, 2009
Magdeburg
Gedenkstätte Moritzplatz Magdeburg [de] - The memorial site at Moritzplatz in Magdeburg is a museum on the site of a former prison, built from 1873 to 1876, that was used by the Soviet administration from 1945 to 1949 and the Stasi from 1958 until 1989 to hold political prisoners. Between 1950 and 1958 the Stasi shared another prison with the civil police. The prison at Moritzplatz was used by the Volkspolizei from 1952 until 1958. Between 1945 and 1989, more than 10,000 political prisoners were held in the prison. The memorial site and museum was founded in December 1990.[97]
Potsdam
Façade of the Memorial Site, Lindenstrasse, Potsdam
Gedenkstätte Lindenstraße [de] The memorial site and museum at Lindenstraße 54/55 in Potsdam, examines political persecution in the Nazi, Soviet occupation and GDR eras. The original building was built 1733-1737 as a baroque palace; it became a court and prison in 1820. From 1933, the Nazi regime held political prisoners there, many of whom were arrested for racial reasons, for example Jews who refused to wear the yellow star on their clothing.[98]
The Soviet administration took over the prison in 1945, also using it as a prison for holding political prisoners on remand. The Stasi then used it as a remand prison, mainly for political prisoners from 1952 until 1989. Over 6,000 people were held in the prison by the Stasi during that time. On 27 October 1989, the prison freed all political prisoners due to a nationwide amnesty. On 5 December 1989, the Stasi Headquarters in Potsdam and the Lindenstrasse Prison were occupied by protesters. From January 1990 the building was used as offices for various citizens initiatives and new political groups, such as the Neue Forum. The building was opened to the public from 20 January 1990 and people were taken on tours of the site. It officially became a Memorial site in 1995.[98]
Rostock
Documentation Centre and Memorial site, former Stasi remand prison, Rostock [de] - The memorial site is in a former Stasi remand prison at Hermanstrasse 34b. It is on what was part of a Stasi compound in Rostock, where its district headquarters were also located. Most of the site is now used by the Rostock county court and the University of Rostock. The complex was built 1958–1960. The remand prison was used by the Stasi from 1960 until 1989. About 4,900 people were held in the prison during that time, most of them were political prisoners.[99] Most of prisoners were released after an amnesty issued on 27 October 1989. The Stasi prison in the Rostock compound was occupied by protesters on 4 December 1989 following a wave of such occupation across East Germany starting in Erfurt on the same day.[100]
The prison closed in the early 1990s. The state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern took ownership of it in 1998, and the memorial site and museum were established in 1999. An extensive restoration of the site began in December 2018.[101]
Stasi officers after the reunification
Recruitment by Russian companies
Former Stasi agent Matthias Warnig (codename "Arthur") is currently the head of Nord Stream.[102] Investigations have revealed that some of the key Gazprom Germania managers are former Stasi agents.[103][104]
Lobbying
Former Stasi officers continue to be politically active via the Gesellschaft zur Rechtlichen und Humanitären Unterstützung (GRH, Society for Legal and Humanitarian Support). Former high-ranking officers and employees of the Stasi, including the last Stasi director, Wolfgang Schwanitz, make up the majority of the organization's members, and it receives support from the German Communist Party, among others.
The impetus for the establishment of the GRH was provided by the criminal charges filed against the Stasi in the early 1990s. The GRH, decrying the charges as "victor's justice", called for them to be dropped. Today the group provides an alternative if a somewhat utopian voice in the public debate on the GDR legacy. It calls for the closure of the Berlin-Hohenschönhausen Memorial and can be a vocal presence at memorial services and public events. In March 2006 in Berlin, GRH members disrupted a museum event; a political scandal ensued when the Berlin Senator (Minister) of Culture refused to confront them.[105]
Behind the scenes, the GRH also lobbies people and institutions promoting opposing viewpoints. For example, in March 2006, the Berlin Senator for Education received a letter from a GRH member and former Stasi officer attacking the Museum for promoting "falsehoods, anti-communist agitation and psychological terror against minors".[106] Similar letters have also been received by schools organizing field trips to the museum.[107]
Stasi agents
Alleged informants
See also
East Germany portal
Notes
^ An abbreviation of Staatssicherheit.
References
  1. ^ Vilasi, Antonella Colonna (9 March 2015). The History of the Stasi. AuthorHouse. ISBN 9781504937054.
  2. ^ Eternal Return: Berlin Journal, 1989–2009 - jstor
  3. ^ Chambers, Madeline,No remorse from Stasi as Berlin marks fall of Wall, Reuters, 4 November 2009.
  4. ^ Angela Merkel 'turned down' job from Stasi, The Daily Telegraph, 14 November 2012.
  5. ^ Connolly, Kate,'Puzzlers' reassemble shredded Stasi files, bit by bit, The Los Angeles Times, 1 November 2009.
  6. ^ Calio, Jim, The Stasi Prison Ghosts, The Huffington Post, 18 November 2009.
  7. ^ Rosenberg, Steve, Computers to solve Stasi puzzle, BBC, 25 May 2007.
  8. ^ New Study Finds More Stasi Spooks, Der Spiegel, 11 March 2008.
  9. ^ East Germany's inescapable Hohenschönhausen prison, Deutsche Welle, 9 October 2014.
  10. ^ a b c d Blumenau, Bernhard (2018). "Unholy Alliance: The Connection between the East German Stasi and the Right-Wing Terrorist Odfried Hepp". Studies in Conflict & Terrorism. 43: 47–68. doi​:​10.1080/1057610X.2018.1471969​.
  11. ^ a b Blumenau, Bernhard (2014). The United Nations and Terrorism: Germany, Multilateralism, and Antiterrorism Efforts in the 1970s. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 29–32. ISBN 978-1-137-39196-4.
  12. ^ Glees, Anthony (1996). Reinventing Germany: German political development since 1945. Berg. p. 213. ISBN 978-1-85973-185-7.
  13. ^ Grieder, Peter (1999). The East German Leadership, 1946-73: Conflict and Crisis. pp. 53–85. ISBN 9780719054983.
  14. ^ Gieseke, Jens (2014). The History of the Stasi: East Germany's Secret Police, 1945-1990 (1st ed.). Oxford: Berghahn Books. pp. 41–42. ISBN 978-1-78238-254-6.
  15. ^ Ghouas, Nessim (2004). The Conditions, Means and Methods of the MfS in the GDR; An Analysis of the Post and Telephone Control (1st ed.). Göttingen: Cuvillier Verlag. p. 80. ISBN 3-89873-988-0.
  16. ^ a b c Koehler 2000, p. 74
  17. ^ "East Germany - Agencies of the Ministry of State Security". Country-data.com. July 1987. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
  18. ^ a b c d e Koehler 2000, pp. 8–9
  19. ^ a b c Fulbrook 2005, pp. 228
  20. ^ "Political prisoners in the German Democratic Republic". Political prisoners in the German Democratic Republic | Communist Crimes. Retrieved 24 November 2020.
  21. ^ Gieseke 2001, pp. 86–87
  22. ^ Müller-Enbergs 1993, p. 55
  23. ^ Gieseke 2001, p. 58
  24. ^ Koehler 2000, p. 9
  25. ^ Gießler, Denis (21 November 2018). "Video Games in East Germany: The Stasi Played Along". Die Zeit (in German). Retrieved 30 November 2018.
  26. ^ Fulbrook 2005, p. 241
  27. ^ a b Fulbrook 2005, pp. 242–243
  28. ^ Fulbrook 2005, pp. 245
  29. ^ a b Sebetsyen, Victor (2009). Revolution 1989: The Fall of the Soviet Empire. New York City: Pantheon Books. ISBN 978-0-375-42532-5.
  30. ^ Koehler 2000, p. 142
  31. ^ Fulbrook 2005, pp. 240
  32. ^ Koehler 2000, p. 76
  33. ^ Gieseke 2001, p. 54
  34. ^ Computers to solve stasi puzzle-BBC, Friday 25 May 2007.
  35. ^ "Stasi". The New York Times.
  36. ^ a b Hubertus Knabe: The dark secrets of a surveillance state, TED Salon, Berlin, 2014
  37. ^ Kinzer, Steven (28 March 1991). "Spy Charges Widen in Germany's East". The New York Times.
  38. ^ A brave woman seeks justice and historical recognition for past wrongs. 27 September 2007. The Economist.
  39. ^ a b c d THE FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE-GATHERING OF THE MfS' HAUPTVERWALTUNG AUFKLÄRUNG. Jérôme Mellon. 16 October 2001.
  40. ^ Seduced by Secrets: Inside the Stasi's Spy-Tech World. Kristie Macrakis. P. 166–171.
  41. ^ The Culture of Conflict in Modern Cuba. Nicholas A. Robins. P. 45.
  42. ^ Rafiq Hariri and the Fate of Lebanon (2009). Marwān Iskandar. P. 201.
  43. ^ Gareth M. Winrow. The Foreign Policy of the GDR in Africa, p. 141
  44. ^ Stasi: The Untold Story of the East German Secret Police (1999). John O. Koehler.
  45. ^ Craig R. Whitney (12 April 1995). "Gunter Guillaume, 68, Is Dead; Spy Caused Willy Brandt's Fall". The New York Times.
  46. ^ Where Have All His Spies Gone?. New York Times. 12 August 1990
  47. ^ a b c "The Schlaff Saga / Laundered funds & 'business' ties to the Stasi". Haaretz. 7 September 2010.
  48. ^ Olympiakos soccer chief was 'spy for Stasi'. The Independent. 24 February 2002.
  49. ^ Koehler (1999), The Stasi, pages 387-401.
  50. ^ a b E. Germany Ran Antisemitic Campaign in West in '60s. Washington Post, 28 February 1993.
  51. ^ Neo-Nazism: a threat to Europe? Jillian Becker, Institute for European Defence & Strategic Studies. P. 16.
  52. ^ Blumenau, Bernhard (2014). The United Nations and Terrorism: Germany, Multilateralism, and Antiterrorism Efforts in the 1970s. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-137-39196-4.
  53. ^ The Truth about the Gunshot that Changed Germany. Spiegel Online. 28 May 2009.
  54. ^ The gunshot that hoaxed a generation. The Economist. 28 May 2009.
  55. ^ Kulish, Nicholas (26 May 2009). "East German Stasi Spy Killed Protester, Ohnesorg, in 1967". The New York Times.
  56. ^ "Karl-Heinz Kurras: Erschoss er Benno Ohnesorg? Gab Mielke den Schießbefehl?".
  57. ^ Koehler, John O. (1999) Stasi: The Untold Story of the East German Secret Police ISBN 0-8133-3409-8.
  58. ^ Operation INFEKTION - Soviet Bloc Intelligence and Its AIDS Disinformation Campaign. Thomas Boghardt. 2009.
  59. ^ "KGB ordered Swiss explosion to distract attention from Chernobyl." United Press International. 27 November 2000.
  60. ^ Stasi accused of Swiss disaster. The Irish Times. 23 November 2000.
  61. ^ Sehnsucht Natur: Ökologisierung des Denkens (2009). Johannes Straubinger.
  62. ^ Hall, Thomas (25 September 2003). "Svensk tv-reporter mördades av DDR" (in Swedish). Dagens Nyheter. Archived from the original on 16 December 2004.
  63. ^ Svensson, Leif (26 September 2003). "Misstänkt mördare från DDR gripen" (in Swedish). Dagens Nyheter/Tidningarnas Telegrambyrå. Archived from the original on 16 December 2004.
  64. ^ "Misstänkte DDR-mördaren släppt" (in Swedish). Dagens Nyheter/Tidningarnas Telegrambyrå. 17 December 2003. Archived from the original on 17 December 2004.
  65. ^ Seduced by Secrets: Inside the Stasi's Spy-Tech World. Kristie Macrakis. P. 176.
  66. ^ "Stasi Files Implicate KGB in Pope Shooting". Deutche Welle.
  67. ^ The Kremlin's Killing Ways—A long tradition continues. 28 November 2006. National Review.
  68. ^ "Stasi Aid and the Modernization of the Vietnamese Secret Police". 20 August 2014.
  69. ^ Stasi: Shield and Sword of the Party (2008). John C. Schmeidel. P. 138.
  70. ^ Fulbrook 2005, pp. 242
  71. ^ a b Von OibE durchsetzt. Der Spiegel 12.03 1990
  72. ^ a b "Symposium: From Russia With Death" (a partial transcript: part1[permanent dead link], part2[permanent dead link]) on 19 January 2007. The panel contained Oleg Kalugin, Richard Pipes, Vladimir Bukovsky, Jim Woolsey, Lt. Gen. Ion Mihai Pacepa, David Satter, Yuri Yarim-Agaev and Andrei Piontkovsk.
  73. ^ a b A tale of gazoviki, money and greedArchived 28 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Stern magazine, 13 September 2007
  74. ^ "Piecing Together the Dark Legacy of East Germany's Secret Police". Wired. 18 January 2008.
  75. ^ Murphy, Cullen (17 January 2012). God's Jury: The Inquisition and the Making of the Modern World. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 978-0-618-09156-0. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
  76. ^ The Stasi Headquarters now a museum open to the public.
  77. ^ Functions of the BStU Archived 9 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine, from the English version of the official BStU website
  78. ^ The File, Information about "The File"
  79. ^ Pidd, Helen (13 March 2011). "Germans piece together millions of lives spied on by Stasi". The Guardian – via www.theguardian.com.
  80. ^ Wired: "Piecing Together the Dark Legacy of East Germany's Secret Police"
  81. ^ BBC: "MfS files return to Germany."
  82. ^ Stasi Records Agency. History of the Records. Retrieved 18 August 2019
  83. ^ Stasi Museum Berlin. Retrieved 18 August 2019
  84. ^ Gedenkstätte Berlin-Hohenschönhausen. History. Retrieved 18 August 2019
  85. ^ Wüstenberg, Jenny (2017). Civil Society and Memory in Postwar Germany. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-1071-7746-8.
  86. ^ Stiftung Ettersberg. Andreasstrasse. Retrieved 18 August 2019
  87. ^ How ordinary people smashed the Stasi in The Local.de, 4 December 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2019
  88. ^ The Bautzner Straße Memorial in Dresden website. Retrieved 18 August 2019
  89. ^ Rost, Susanne (25 May 2002) Frankfurt (Oder) baut sein altes Gefängnis zum Kulturzentrum um / Gedenkstättenbeirat entsetzt Der einstige Hinrichtungsraum wird ein Café . Retrieved 18 August 2019
  90. ^ Museum Viadrina. Gedenk- und Dokumentationsstätte „Opfer politischer Gewaltherrschaft“. Retrieved 18 August 2019
  91. ^ Torhaus Gera Archived 24 September 2020 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 18 August 2019
  92. ^ Geschichtsverbund Thüringen Arbeitsgemeinschaft zur Aufarbeitung der SED-Diktatur. Gedenkstätte Amthordurchgang Gera e.V. . Retrieved 18 August 1990
  93. ^ Stiftung Gedenkstätten Sachsen-Anhalt. Gedenkstätte Roter Ochse Halle (Saale). Retrieved 18 August 2019
  94. ^ Runde Ecke Leipzig (in English). Retrieved 18 August 2019
  95. ^ Runde Ecke Leipzig. Stasi Bunker Museum. Retrieved 18 August 2019
  96. ^ Runde Ecke Leipzig. Execution site. Retrieved 18 August 2019
  97. ^ Gedenkstätte Moritzplatz Magdeburg. Zur Geschicte der Gedenkstätte. Retrieved 18 August 2019
  98. ^ a b Stiftung Gedenkstaette Lindenstrasse. Retrieved 18 August 2019
  99. ^ DDR Museum. Dokumentations- und Gedenkstätte in der ehemaligen U-Haft der Stasi in Rostock, 14 October 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2019
  100. ^ Vilasi, Antonella Colonna (2015). The History of the Stasi. Bloomington, Indiana: AuthorHouse.
  101. ^ BBL-MV. Sanierung einer Dokumentations- und Gedenkstätte in Rostock[permanent dead link], 3 December 2018.Retrieved 18 August 2019
  102. ^ Nord Stream, Matthias Warnig (codename "Arthur") and the Gazprom Lobby Eurasia Daily Monitor Volume: 6 Issue: 114
  103. ^ Gazprom's Loyalists in Berlin and Brussels. Eurasia Daily Monitor Volume: 6 Issue: 100. 26 May 2009
  104. ^ "Police investigate Gazprom executive's Stasi past". 7 May 2008.
  105. ^ Berliner Morgenpost 16 March 2006. Stasi_Offiziere_leugnen_den_Terror​(subscription required)
  106. ^ Backmann, Christa (25 March 2006). "Stasi-Anhänger schreiben an Bildungssenator Böger" [Stasi supporters write to Education Senator Böger]. Berliner Morgenpost. Archived from the original on 10 July 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2006.
  107. ^ Schomaker, Gilbert. Die Welt, 26 March 2006. Ehemalige Stasi-Kader schreiben Schulen an
  108. ^ a b "I regret nothing, says Stasi spy". BBC. 20 September 1999.
  109. ^ Bernd-Rainer Barth; Jan Wielgohs. "Aris, Helmut * 11.5.1908, † 22.11.1987 Präsident des Verbandes der Jüdischen Gemeinden". Bundesstiftung zur Aufarbeitung der SED-Diktatur: Biographische Datenbanken. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
  110. ^ Lothar Mertens (2006). Lexikon der DDR-Historiker. Biographien und Bibliographien zu den Geschichtswissenschaftlern aus der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik. K. G. Saur, München. p. 114. ISBN 3-598-11673-X.
  111. ^ "Mandatsentzug läßt Beck kalt: "Ich bin ein Schlachtroß"". Rhein-Zeitung. 29 April 1999. Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  112. ^ "Neues Maueropfer". Die SED-Nachfolgepartei PDS nutzt den Freitod eines Genossen für den Versuch, die Stasi-Debatte abzuwürgen. Die SED-Nachfolgepartei PDS nutzt den Freitod eines Genossen für den Versuch, die Stasi-Debatte abzuwürgen. Vol. 9/1992. Der Spiegel (online). 24 February 1992.
  113. ^ "Perfektes Dopen mit der Stasi" [Perfect doping with the Stasi]. Tagesschau (in German). 3 August 2013.
  114. ^ February 11, 1992 New York Times article on Czudaj's espionage involvement. - accessed 12 April 2008.
  115. ^ "H-Soz-u-Kult / Mielke, Macht und Meisterschaft". hsozkult.geschichte.hu-berlin.de​.
  116. ^ Pleil, Ingolf (11 June 2018). "Was der Geheimdienst der DDR mit dem Sport zu tun hatte". Dresdner Neueste Nachrichten (in German). Hannover: Verlagsgesellschaft Madsack GmbH & Co. KG. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  117. ^ "Spying Who's Who". BBC. 22 September 1999.
  118. ^ Uwe Müller (22 November 2009). "Das Stasi-Geheimnis der Hotelchefin Uta Felgner". WeltN24 GmbH, Berlin.
  119. ^ "Cottbus-Trainer Geyer horchte Kirsten und Sammer aus". Spiegel (in German). Hamburg: DER SPIEGEL GmbH & Co. KG. 27 August 2000. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  120. ^ I Was DEFA's Goebbels. Die Zeit, 12 March 2003.
  121. ^ "Vaterlandsverräter". Film homepage. IT WORKS! Medien GmbH. Retrieved 11 August 2013.
  122. ^ BStU, MfS, BV Leipzig, AIM 321/56
  123. ^ Martin Sabrow: Das Diktat des Konsenses: Geschichtswissenschaft in der DDR 1949–1969. Oldenbourg, München 2001, ISBN 3-486-56559-1, pp. 172-173.
  124. ^ Strafjustiz und DDR-Unrecht: Dokumentation (in German). Klaus Marxen, Gerhard Werle (eds.). Berlin; New York: De Gruyter. 2000. pp. 19–20. ISBN 3110161346.
  125. ^ Rogalla, Thomas. "Eine Stasi-Debatte, die nicht beendet wurde". Berliner Zeitung (in German). Retrieved 5 January 2017.
  126. ^ Müller, Uwe (25 September 2007). "DDR: Birthler-Behörde ließ Stasi-Spitzel einladen - WELT". DIE WELT. Retrieved 5 January 2017.
  127. ^ "Heinz Kahlau ist tot". Dichter und Drehbuchautor .... Er zählte zu den bekanntesten Lyrikern der DDR: Heinz Kahlau ist im Alter von 81 Jahren an Herzschwäche gestorben. Berühmt wurde der Autor unter anderem durch seine Liebesgedichte - doch er verfasste auch kritische Verse. Der Spiegel (online). 9 April 2012.
  128. ^ Bernd-Rainer Barth. "Kamnitzer, Heinz * 10.5.1917, † 21.5.2001 Präsident des PEN-Zentrums DDR". Bundesstiftung zur Aufarbeitung der SED-Diktatur: Biographische Datenbanken. Retrieved 20 December 2014.
  129. ^ "Olympiakos soccer chief was 'spy for Stasi'". The Independent. 24 February 2002.
  130. ^ "Socrates Kokkalis and the STASI". cryptome.org.
  131. ^ "Stasi spy claims hit Greek magnate". BBC News. 20 February 2002.
  132. ^ Helmut Müller-Enbergs. "Luft, Christa geb. geb. Hecht * 22.02.1938 Stellv. Vorsitzende des Ministerrats u. Ministerin für Wirtschaft". Wer war wer in der DDR?. Ch. Links Verlag, Berlin & Bundesstiftung zur Aufarbeitung der SED-Diktatur, Berlin. Retrieved 5 November 2018.
  133. ^ "Biography: Lothar de Maizière - Biographies - Chronik der Wende". www.chronikderwende.de​. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  134. ^ "Stellungnahme Homepage" [Opinion Homepage] (PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  135. ^ Bundesstiftung Aufarbeitung
  136. ^ "Respected lecturer's double life". BBC News. 20 September 1999.
  137. ^ "Wie ein Jenaer Stasi-Spitzel Menschen verriet, die ihm eigentlich vertrauen" (in German). Thueringer Allgemeine. 27 October 2014.
  138. ^ "The Stasi spy (cont)". The Guardian. London. 14 June 2003.
  139. ^ Reyburn, Scott (26 January 2009). "Former Stasi Agent Bernd Runge Gets Phillips Top Job (Update1)". Bloomberg.
  140. ^ "The Schlaff Saga / Laundered funds & 'business' ties to the Stasi". Haaretz. 7 September 2010.
  141. ^ Palmer, Carolyn (25 March 2008). "E.German Stasi informant wins battle to conceal past". Reuters.
  142. ^ "Court Decision Paves Olympics Way for Stasi-linked Coach - Germany - DW - 06.02.2006". Deutsche Welle.
  143. ^ Klaus Schroeder (16 July 1999). "Projektgruppe moralische Entsorgung: Linke Gesinnungswächter denunzieren die Gauck-Behörde". Frankfurter Allgemeine (Feuilleton section).
  144. ^ Christa Wolf obituary, The Telegraph, 2 December 2011.
Bibliography
External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ministerium für Staatssicherheit.
Last edited on 9 May 2021, at 06:56
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted.
Privacy policy
Terms of Use
Desktop
HomeRandomNearbyLog inSettingsDonateAbout WikipediaDisclaimers
LanguageWatchEdit