Pinker is the Johnstone Family Professor of Psychology at Harvard University
, and his academic specializations are visual cognition
. His experimental subjects include mental imagery, shape recognition, visual attention, children's language development, regular and irregular phenomena in language, the neural bases of words and grammar
, and the psychology of cooperation and communication, including euphemism
, emotional expression, and common knowledge. He has written two technical books that proposed a general theory of language acquisition
and applied it to children's learning of verbs. In particular, his work with Alan Prince
published in 1989 critiqued the connectionist
model of how children acquire the past tense of English verbs, arguing instead that children use default rules such as adding "-ed" to make regular forms, sometimes in error, but are obliged to learn irregular forms one by one.
Pinker's book The Better Angels of Our Nature
(2011) argues that violence in human societies has generally steadily declined over time, and identifies six major trends and five historical forces of this decline. Enlightenment Now
(2018) uses social science data to show a general improvement of the human condition over recent history.
Pinker married Nancy Etcoff
in 1980 and they divorced in 1992; he married again in 1995 and again divorced.
His third wife, whom he married in 2007, is the novelist and philosopher Rebecca Goldstein
He has two stepdaughters: the novelist Yael Goldstein Love
and the poet Danielle Blau.
Pinker's research on visual cognition, begun in collaboration with his thesis adviser, Stephen Kosslyn, showed that mental images represent scenes and objects as they appear from a specific vantage point (rather than capturing their intrinsic three-dimensional structure), and thus correspond to the neuroscientist David Marr's theory of a "two-and-a-half-dimensional sketch."
He also showed that this level of representation is used in visual attention, and in object recognition (at least for asymmetrical shapes), contrary to Marr's theory that recognition uses viewpoint-independent representations.
In psycholinguistics, Pinker became known early in his career for promoting computational learning theory
as a way to understand language acquisition
in children. He wrote a tutorial review of the field followed by two books that advanced his own theory of language acquisition, and a series of experiments on how children acquire the passive, dative, and locative constructions. These books were Language Learnability and Language Development
(1984), in Pinker's words "outlin[ing] a theory of how children acquire the words and grammatical structures of their mother tongue",
and Learnability and Cognition: The Acquisition of Argument Structure
(1989), in Pinker's words "focus[ing] on one aspect of this process, the ability to use different kinds of verbs in appropriate sentences, such as intransitive verbs, transitive verbs, and verbs taking different combinations of complements and indirect objects".
He then focused on verbs of two kinds that illustrate what he considers to be the processes required for human language: retrieving whole words from memory, like the past form of the irregular verb
"bring", namely "brought"; and using rules to combine (parts of) words, like the past form of the regular verb "walk", namely "walked".
In 1988 Pinker and Alan Prince
published a critique of a connectionist
model of the acquisition of the past tense (a textbook problem in language acquisition), followed by a series of studies of how people use and acquire the past tense. This included a monograph on children's regularization
of irregular forms and his popular 1999 book, Words and Rules: The Ingredients of Language
. Pinker argued that language depends on two things, the associative remembering of sounds and their meanings in words, and the use of rules to manipulate symbols for grammar
. He presented evidence against connectionism, where a child would have to learn all forms of all words and would simply retrieve each needed form from memory, in favour of the older alternative theory, the use of words and rules combined by generative phonology
. He showed that mistakes made by children indicate the use of default rules to add suffixes such as "-ed": for instance 'breaked' and 'comed' for 'broke' and 'came'. He argued that this shows that irregular verb-forms in English have to be learnt and retrieved from memory individually, and that the children making these errors were predicting the regular "-ed" ending in an open-ended way by applying a mental rule. This rule for combining verb stems and the usual suffix can be expressed as
+ d, where V is a verb and d is the regular ending. Pinker further argued that since the ten most frequently occurring English verbs (be, have, do, say, make ... ) are all irregular, while 98.2% of the thousand least common verbs are regular, there is a "massive correlation" of frequency and irregularity. He explains this by arguing that every irregular form, such as 'took', 'came' and 'got', has to be committed to memory by the children in each generation, or else lost, and that the common forms are the most easily memorized. Any irregular verb that falls in popularity past a certain point is lost, and all future generations will treat it as a regular verb instead.
In 1990, Pinker, with Paul Bloom
, published a paper arguing that the human language faculty must have evolved through natural selection
The article provided arguments for a continuity based view of language evolution, contrary to then current discontinuity based theories that see language as suddenly appearing with the advent of Homo sapiens
as a kind of evolutionary accident. This discontinuity based view was prominently argued by two of the main authorities, linguist Noam Chomsky
and Stephen Jay Gould
The paper became widely cited and created renewed interest in the evolutionary prehistory of language, and has been credited with shifting the central question of the debate from "did language evolve?" to "how did language evolve".
The article also presaged Pinker's argument in The Language Instinct
In 2007, Pinker gave his expert interpretation as a linguist of the wording of a federal law to Alan Dershowitz
who was the defense attorney for Jeffrey Epstein
In 2019, Pinker stated that he was unaware of the nature of the charges against Epstein, and that he engaged in an unpaid favor for his Harvard colleague Alan Dershowitz
, as he had regularly done. He stated that he regrets writing the letter.
Pinker met Epstein three times over more than a dozen years,
and said he could never stand Epstein and tried to keep his distance.
Popularization of science
Human cognition and natural language
Pinker's 1994 The Language Instinct
was the first of several books to combine cognitive science
with behavioral genetics
and evolutionary psychology
. It introduces the science of language and popularizes Noam Chomsky
's theory that language is an innate faculty of mind, with the controversial twist that the faculty for language evolved by natural selection as an adaptation for communication. Pinker criticizes several widely held ideas about language – that it needs to be taught, that people's grammar
is poor and getting worse with new ways of speaking, the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis
that language limits the kinds of thoughts a person can have, and that other great apes can learn languages
. Pinker sees language as unique to humans, evolved to solve the specific problem of communication among social hunter-gatherers. He argues that it is as much an instinct
as specialized adaptative behavior in other species, such as a spider
's web-weaving or a beaver
Pinker states in his introduction that his ideas are "deeply influenced"
by Chomsky; he also lists scientists whom Chomsky influenced to "open up whole new areas of language study, from child development and speech perception to neurology and genetics"
— Eric Lenneberg
, George Miller
, Roger Brown
, Morris Halle
and Alvin Liberman
Brown mentored Pinker through his thesis; Pinker stated that Brown's "funny and instructive"
book Words and Things
(1958) was one of the inspirations for The Language Instinct
There has been debate about the explanatory adequacy of the theory. By 2015, the nativist
views of Pinker and Chomsky had a number of challenges on the grounds that they had incorrect core assumptions and were inconsistent with research evidence from psycholinguistics
and child language acquisition
The reality of Pinker's proposed language instinct, and the related claim that grammar is innate and genetically based, has been contested by linguists such as Geoffrey Sampson
in his 1997 book, Educating Eve: The 'Language Instinct' Debate' '.
Sampson argues that "while it may seem attractive to argue the nature side of the 'nature versus nurture' debate, the nurture side may better support the creativity and nobility of the human mind." Sampson denies there is a language instinct, and argues that children can learn language because people can learn anything.
Others have sought a middle ground between Pinker's nativism and Sampson's culturalism.
The assumptions underlying the nativist
view have also been questioned in Jeffrey Elman
's Rethinking Innateness: A Connectionist Perspective on Development
, which defends the connectionist approach that Pinker attacked. In his 1996 book Impossible Minds
, the machine intelligence
researcher Igor Aleksander
calls The Language Instinct
excellent, and argues that Pinker presents a relatively soft claim for innatism, accompanied by a strong dislike of the 'Standard Social Sciences Model' or SSSM (Pinker's term), which supposes that development is purely dependent on culture. Further, Aleksander writes that while Pinker criticises some attempts to explain language processing with neural nets, Pinker later makes use of a neural net to create past tense verb forms correctly. Aleksander concludes that while he doesn't support the SSSM, "a cultural repository of language just seems the easy trick for an efficient evolutionary system armed with an iconic state machine
Two other books, How the Mind Works
(1997) and The Blank Slate
(2002), broadly surveyed the mind and defended the idea of a complex human nature with many mental faculties that are genetically adaptive
(Pinker is an ally of Daniel Dennett
and Richard Dawkins
in many disputes surrounding adaptationism
). Another major theme in Pinker's theories is that human cognition works, in part, by combinatorial symbol-manipulation, not just associations among sensory features, as in many connectionist models. On the debate around The Blank Slate
, Pinker called Thomas Sowell
's book A Conflict of Visions
and explained that "The Tragic Vision" and the "Utopian Vision" are the views of human nature behind right-
and left-wing ideologies.
In Words and Rules: the Ingredients of Language
(1999), Pinker argues from his own research that regular and irregular phenomena are products of computation and memory lookup, respectively, and that language can be understood as an interaction between the two.
"Words and Rules" is also the title of an essay by Pinker outlining many of the topics discussed in the book.
Critiqueing the book from the perspective of generative linguistics Charles Yang
, in the London Review of Books
, writes that "this book never runs low on hubris
The book's topic, the English past tense, is in Yang's view unglamorous, and Pinker's attempts at compromise risk being in no man's land between rival theories. Giving the example of German, Yang argues that irregular nouns in that language at least all belong to classes, governed by rules, and that things get even worse in languages that attach prefixes and suffixes to make up long 'words': they can't be learnt individually, as there are untold numbers of combinations. "All Pinker (and the connectionists) are doing is turning over the rocks at the base of the intellectual landslide caused by the Chomskian revolution."
In The Stuff of Thought
(2007), Pinker looks at a wide range of issues around the way words related to thoughts on the one hand, and to the world outside ourselves on the other. Given his evolutionary perspective, a central question is how an intelligent mind capable of abstract thought evolved: how a mind adapted to Stone Age
life could work in the modern world. Many quirks of language are the result.
Pinker is critical of theories about the evolutionary origins of language
that argue that linguistic cognition might have evolved from earlier musical cognition. He sees language as being tied primarily to the capacity for logical reasoning, and speculates that human proclivity for music may be a spandrel
— a feature not adaptive in its own right, but that has persisted through other traits that are more broadly practical, and thus selected for. In How the Mind Works
, Pinker reiterates Immanuel Kant
's view that music is not in itself an important cognitive phenomenon, but that it happens to stimulate important auditory and spatio-motor cognitive functions. Pinker compares music to "auditory cheesecake", stating that "As far as biological cause and effect is concerned, music is useless". This argument has been rejected by Daniel Levitin
and Joseph Carroll
, experts in music cognition
, who argue that music has had an important role in the evolution of human cognition.
In his book This Is Your Brain On Music
, Levitin argues that music could provide adaptive advantage through sexual selection
, social bonding
, and cognitive development
; he questions the assumption that music is the antecedent to language, as opposed to its progenitor, noting that many species display music-like habits that could be seen as precursors to human music.
Pinker has also been critical of "whole language
" reading instruction techniques, stating in How the Mind Works
, "... the dominant technique, called 'whole language,' the insight that [spoken] language is a naturally developing human instinct has been garbled into the evolutionarily improbable claim that reading
is a naturally developing human instinct."
In the appendix to the 2007 reprinted edition of The Language Instinct
, Pinker cited Why Our Children Can't Read
by cognitive psychologist Diane McGuinness
as his favorite book on the subject and noted:
One raging public debate involving language went unmentioned in The Language Instinct
: the "reading wars," or dispute over whether children should be explicitly taught to read by decoding the sounds of words from their spelling (loosely known as "phonics
") or whether they can develop it instinctively by being immersed in a text-rich environment (often called "whole language"). I tipped my hand in the paragraph in [the sixth chapter of the book] which said that language is an instinct but reading is not.
Like most psycholinguists (but apparently unlike many school boards), I think it's essential for children to be taught to become aware of speech sounds and how they are coded in strings of letters.
The Better Angels of Our Nature
Violence in the middle ages
: detail from "Mars" in Das Mittelalterliche Hausbuch
, c. 1475 – 1480. The image is used by Pinker in The Better Angels of Our Nature
, with the comment "as the Housebook
illustrations suggest, [the knights] did not restrict their killing to other knights".
In The Better Angels of Our Nature, published in 2011, Pinker argues that violence, including tribal warfare, homicide, cruel punishments, child abuse, animal cruelty, domestic violence, lynching, pogroms, and international and civil wars, has decreased over multiple scales of time and magnitude. Pinker considers it unlikely that human nature has changed. In his view, it is more likely that human nature comprises inclinations toward violence and those that counteract them, the "better angels of our nature". He outlines six 'major historical declines of violence' that all have their own socio/cultural/economic causes:
- "The Pacification Process" – The rise of organized systems of government has a correlative relationship with the decline in violent deaths. As states expand they prevent tribal feuding, reducing losses.
- "The Civilizing Process" – Consolidation of centralized states and kingdoms throughout Europe results in the rise of criminal justice and commercial infrastructure, organizing previously chaotic systems that could lead to raiding and mass violence.
- "The Humanitarian Revolution" – The 18th to 20th century abandonment of institutionalized violence by the state (breaking on the wheel, burning at the stake). Suggests this is likely due to the spike in literacy after the invention of the printing press thereby allowing the proletariat to question conventional wisdom.
- "The Long Peace" – The powers of 20th Century believed that period of time to be the bloodiest in history. This led to a largely peaceful 65-year period post World War I and World War II. Developed countries have stopped warring (against each other and colonially), adopted democracy, and this has led a massive decline (on average) of deaths.
- "The New Peace" – The decline in organized conflicts of all kinds since the end of the Cold War.
- "The Rights Revolutions" – The reduction of systemic violence at smaller scales against vulnerable populations (racial minorities, women, children, homosexuals, animals).
The book was welcomed by many critics and reviewers, who found its arguments convincing and its synthesis of a large volume of historical evidence compelling.
It also aroused criticism on a variety of grounds, such as whether deaths per capita was an appropriate metric, Pinker's liberal humanism, excessive focus on Europe (though the book covers other areas), the interpretation of historical data, choice of methodologies, and its image of indigenous people.
English writing style in the 21st century
Pinker and Nils Brose speaking at a neuroscience conference.
Pinker is a frequent participant in public debates surrounding the contributions of science to contemporary society. Social commentators such as Ed West, author of The Diversity Illusion
, consider Pinker important and daring in his willingness to confront taboos, as in The Blank Slate
. This doctrine (the tabula rasa
), writes West, remained accepted "as fact, rather than fantasy"
a decade after the book's publication. West describes Pinker as "no polemicist, and he leaves readers to draw their own conclusions".
In January 2005, Pinker defended comments by then-President of Harvard University Lawrence Summers
. Summers had speculated that "different availability of aptitude at the high end" may contribute to gender gaps in mathematics and science
In a debate between Pinker and Elizabeth Spelke
on gender and science, Pinker argued in favor of the proposition that the gender difference in representation in elite universities was "explainable by some combination of biological differences in average temperaments and talents interacting with socialization and bias".
In 2009, in The New York Times
, Pinker wrote a mixed review of Malcolm Gladwell
's essays, criticizing his analytical methods.
Gladwell replied, disputing Pinker's comments about the importance of IQ
on teaching performance and by analogy, the effect, if any, of draft order on quarterback performance in the National Football League
. Advanced NFL Stats
addressed the issue statistically, siding with Pinker and showing that differences in methodology could explain the two men's differing opinions.
In 2009, Pinker wrote an article about the Personal Genome Project
and its possible impact on the understanding of human nature in The New York Times
He discussed the new developments in epigenetics and gene-environment interactions in the afterword to the 2016 edition of his book "The Blank Slate".
In an appearance for BBC World Service
's "Exchanges At The Frontier" programme, an audience member questioned whether the virtuous developments in culture and human nature (documented in The Better Angels of Our Nature
) could have expressed in our biology either through genetic or epigenetic expression. Pinker responded that it was unlikely since "some of the declines have occurred far too rapidly for them to be explicable by biological evolution which has a speed limit measured in generations, but crime can plummet in a span of 15 years and some of these humanitarian reforms like eliminating slavery and torture occurred in say 50 years".
Helga Vierich and Cathryn Townsend wrote a critical review of Pinker's sweeping "civilizational" explanations for patterns of human violence and warfare in response to a lecture he gave at Cambridge University
in September 2015.
Steven Pinker is also noted for having identified the rename of Phillip Morris to Altria
as an "egregious example" of phonesthesia
, with the company attempting to "switch its image from bad people who sell addictive carcinogens to a place or state marked by altruism and other lofty values".
In his 2018 book Enlightenment Now
, Pinker argued that enlightenment rationality should be defended against attacks from both the political left and political right.
The book received both stellar and critical reviews.
In a debate with Pinker, post-colonial theorist Homi Bhabha
argued that, in Enlightenment Now,
Pinker downplayed the immoral consequences of Enlightenment philosophy, such as inequality, slavery, imperialism, world wars, and genocide. Pinker responded that humanity, prior to the Enlightenment, had been characterized by poverty and disease.
Pinker also wrote a detailed response to many such objections to the thesis presented in "Enlightenment Now".
Letter to the LSA
In 2020, an open letter to the Linguistic Society of America
requesting the removal of Pinker from its list of LSA Fellows and its list of media experts was signed by hundreds of academics.
The letter accused Pinker of a "pattern of drowning out the voices of people suffering from racist and sexist violence, in particular in the immediate aftermath of violent acts and/or protests against the systems that created them", citing as examples six tweets and a phrase used in his 2011 book.
The executive committee of the Linguistic Society of America issued a letter stating that the group "is committed to intellectual freedom and professional responsibility. It is not the mission of the Society to control the opinions of its members, nor their expression. Inclusion and civility are crucial to productive scholarly work. And inclusion means hearing (not necessarily accepting) all points of view, even those that may be objectionable to some."
Awards and distinctions
His research in cognitive psychology has won the Early Career Award (1984) and Boyd McCandless Award (1986) from the American Psychological Association
, the Troland Research Award
(1993) from the National Academy of Sciences
, the Henry Dale Prize (2004) from the Royal Institution of Great Britain
, and the George Miller Prize (2010) from the Cognitive Neuroscience Society
. He has also received honorary doctorates from the universities of Newcastle
, Tel Aviv
, Simon Fraser University
and the University of Tromsø
. He was twice a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize
, in 1998 and in 2003. Pinker received the Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement
On May 13, 2006, he received the American Humanist Association
's Humanist of the Year award for his contributions to public understanding of human evolution.
Pinker has served on the editorial boards of journals such as Cognition
, and PLOS One
, and on the advisory boards of institutions for scientific research (e.g., the Allen Institute for Brain Science
), free speech (e.g., the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education
), the popularization of science (e.g., the World Science Festival
and the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry
), peace (e.g., the Peace Research Endowment), and secular humanism (e.g., the Freedom From Religion Foundation
and the Secular Coalition for America
From 2008 to 2018, Pinker chaired the Usage Panel of the American Heritage Dictionary
He wrote the essay on usage for the fifth edition of the Dictionary, published in 2011.
In February 2001, Pinker, "whose hair has long been the object of admiration, and envy, and intense study",
was nominated by acclamation as the first member of the Luxuriant Flowing Hair Club for Scientists (LFHCfS) organized by the Annals of Improbable Research
Articles and essays
- Selective compilation of articles and other works, hosted at Harvard faculty pages
- Pinker, S. (1991). "Rules of Language". Science. 253 (5019): 530–535. Bibcode:1991Sci...253..530P. doi:10.1126/science.1857983. PMID 1857983.
- Ullman, M.; Corkin, S.; Coppola, M.; Hickok, G.; Growdon, J. H.; Koroshetz, W. J.; Pinker, S. (1997). "A neural dissociation within language: Evidence that the mental dictionary is part of declarative memory, and that grammatical rules are processed by the procedural system". Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 9 (2): 289–299. doi:10.1162/jocn.1918.104.22.1686. PMID 23962016. S2CID 981612.
- Pinker, S. (2003) "Language as an adaptation to the cognitive niche" In M. Christiansen & S. Kirby (Eds.), Language evolution: States of the Art New York: Oxford University Press.
- Pinker, S. (2005) The Evolutionary Psychology of Religion
- Pinker, S. (2005). "So How Does the Mind Work?". Mind and Language. 20 (1): 1–24. doi:10.1111/j.0268-1064.2005.00274.x.
- Jackendoff, R.; Pinker, S. (2005). "The nature of the language faculty and its implications for evolution of language" (Reply to Fitch, Hauser, & Chomsky)". Cognition. 97 (2): 211–225. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2005.04.006. S2CID 6571737.
- "In Defense of Dangerous Ideas". Steven Pinker. July 15, 2007. Archived from the original on August 7, 2017.
- Pinker, S. (2012). "The False Allure of Group Selection". Edge, June 19, 2012.
- Pinker, S. (2013). Science Is Not Your Enemy. New Republic, August 6, 2013.
- Pinker, S. (2014). "The Trouble With Harvard: The Ivy League is broken and only standardized tests can fix it". New Republic, September 4, 2014.
- ^ "Steven Pinker". Desert Island Discs. June 30, 2013. BBC Radio 4. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
- ^ "Steven Pinker Biography". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- ^ "Steven Pinker: the mind reader". The Guardian. November 6, 1991. Retrieved September 11, 2019.
- ^ Pinker, Steven (1997). How the Mind Works. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-06973-0.
- ^ Pinker, Steven (2016). The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature. Penguin. ISBN 978-1-101-20032-2.
- ^ Sherk, John. "Steven Pinker on Cognitive Psychology, Computational Theory, and Conversation".
- ^ "YouTube".
- ^ The Sense of Style
- ^ Wright, Robert (April 26, 2004). "The 2004 TIME 100 - TIME" – via content.time.com.
- ^ "World Thinkers 2013".
- ^ "APA PsycNet". psycnet.apa.org.
- ^ "Steven Pinker". www.nasonline.org.
- ^ "Humanist of the Year Award". American Humanist Association.
- ^ "George A. Miller Award".
- ^ "Curriculum Vitae of Steven Pinker" (PDF).
- ^ "Developmental Review Editorial Board" – via www.journals.elsevier.com.
- ^ Pinker, Steven (July 22, 2014). "The Sense of Style: The Thinking Person's Guide to Writing in the 21st Century". New York, NY: Penguin.
- ^ Pinker, S. (2009). Language Learnability and Language Development, With New Commentary by the Author. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674042179. Retrieved October 10, 2014.
- ^ Pinker, Steven (April 30, 2018). "A Montreal pilgrimage in the footsteps of Leonard Cohen (the girl standing next to the young Cohen in the group photo is my mother, Roslyn Wiesenfeld Pinker).https://www.jta.org/2018/04/24/news-opinion/montreal-pilgrimage-footsteps-leonard-cohen#.WucYP-F0APc.twitter …".
- ^ "At home: Steven Pinker". Financial Times.
- ^ Brockman, John (January 7, 2019). Curious Minds: How a Child Becomes a Scientist. Vintage Books. ISBN 9781400076864 – via Google Books.
- ^ Pinker, Steven (June 26, 2006). "Groups and Genes". The New Republic. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
- ^ Shermer, Michael (March 1, 2001). The Pinker Instinct. Altadena, CA: Skeptics Society & Skeptic Magazine. Retrieved September 11, 2007.
- ^ Steven Pinker: the mind reader The Guardian Accessed November 25, 2006.
- ^ Biography for Steven Pinker at imdb. Retrieved September 12, 2007.
- ^ "How Steven Pinker Works" by Kristin E. Blagg Archived October 17, 2014, at the Wayback Machine The Harvard Crimson Accessed February 3, 2006.
- ^ "Britannica Encyclopedia".
- ^ Curriculum Vitae (PDF), Harvard University, retrieved June 23, 2017
- ^ Pinker, Steven. "Official Biography. Harvard University". Pinker.wjh.harvard.edu. Archived from the original on December 29, 2005. Retrieved January 20, 2012.
- ^ "The professoriate" Archived June 8, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, New College of the Humanities. Retrieved June 8, 2011.
- ^ "Professor Stephen Pinker", New College of the Humanities. Retrieved November 4, 2014.
- ^ "Steven Pinker: the mind reader" by Ed Douglas The Guardian Accessed February 3, 2006.
- ^ Grothe, D.J. (February 23, 2007). "Podcast:Steven Pinker - Evolutionary Psychology and Human Nature". Point of Inquiry with D.J. Grothe. Retrieved December 29, 2014.
- ^ The nature of the language faculty and its implications for evolution of language
- ^ a b c Pinker, Steven. "Steven Pinker: Long Biography". Harvard University. Archived from the original on December 29, 2005. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
- ^ Pinker has written a piece on The Irregular Verbs Archived June 6, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, stating that "I like the Irregular verbs of English, all 180 of them, because of what they tell us about the history of the language and the human minds that have perpetuated it.
- ^ a b c Pinker, Steven. "Words and rules (essay)" (PDF). Harvard University. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 30, 2014. Retrieved May 24, 2014.
- ^ Pinker, S. & Bloom, P. (1990). Natural language and natural selection. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4): 707‐784
- ^ a b Christine Kenneally. "Language Development:The First Word. The Search for the Origins of Language". Archived from the original on July 14, 2014.
- ^ "The 20th Anniversary of Steven Pinker & Paul Bloom: Natural Language and Natural Selection (1990)". Replicatedtypo.com.
- ^ a b c "Jeffrey Epstein's First Criminal Case Was Helped By A Famous Harvard Language Expert". BuzzFeed News.
- ^ Johnson, Carolyn Y.; Svrluga, Susan (September 17, 2019). "Jeffrey Epstein, the academy and questions about male dominance in science". Washington Post.
- ^ a b c Pinker, Steven (1994). The Language Instinct. Penguin. pp. 23–24.
- ^ a b Pinker, Steven (1998). "Obituary: Roger Brown" (PDF). Cognition. 66 (3): 199–213 (see page 205). doi:10.1016/s0010-0277(98)00027-4. PMID 9689769. S2CID 6858457. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 18, 2015.
- ^ Kagan, Jerome (1999). "Roger William Brown 1925-1997" (PDF). Biographical Memoirs. 77: 7.
- ^ * Fernald, Anne; Marchman, Virginia A. (2006). "27: Language learning in infancy". In Traxler and Gernsbacher (ed.). Handbook of Psycholinguistics. Academic Press. pp. 1027–1071. ISBN 9780080466415., quote p. 1030: "Some critiques directly challenge the logic of arguments made by Chomsky, Pinker, and like-minded theorists, questioning such core assumptions as the universality of generative grammar, the autonomy of syntax in language processing, and the fundamental unlearnability of language (e.g., Bates & Goodman, 1999; Braine, 1994; Pullum & Scholz, 2002; Tomasello, 1995). Other critiques focus on empirical evidence inconsistent with particular nativist assertions. For example, the claim that negative evidence is not available when children make grammatical errors, an assumption central to the “poverty of the stimulus” argument at the heart of Chomsky’s theory, is not supported by a recent analysis of parents’ reformulations in speech to children (Chouinard & Clark, 2003). These diverse challenges, both philosophical and data-driven, have fueled debate over four decades about the explanatory adequacy of nativist theories of language learning." * de Bot, Kees (2015). A History of Applied Linguistics: From 1980 to the Present. Routledge. ISBN 9781138820654., quote pp. 58–60: "GG is generally seen as a declining paradigm and its proponents now tend to stay away from conferences like AAAL (the American Association of Applied Linguistics) and University of Boston Child Language Development conferences, as a cursory count of papers on the basis of abstracts shows [...] In the psycholinguistic community, the idea of innateness and a Language Acquisition Device (LAD) were seen as problematic [...] Now that generation of GG linguists is retiring and there is a tendency in many universities not to replace them with younger scholars of that school, but rather appoint UB oriented linguists. There is almost a euphoria that the grip of the nativists on what constitutes linguistics is gone and that other approaches and more social orientations are seen as meaningful alternatives. Others try to explain the reasons for the decline of GG [...] Some informants are quite outspoken about the role of GG in AL. William Grabe states: “Fundamentally Chomsky is wrong and we wasted a lot of time. In 1964 Chomsky’s Aspects was published. Now, in 2014, we are 50 years later. What impact has all of that had in real world language use? This is an overstated theoretical direction.” Jan Hulstijn summarizes: “Generative linguistics has had no noticeable (or durable) impact.”"
- ^ "The 'Language Instinct' Debate". University of Sussex.
- ^ a b "Empiricism v. Nativism: Nature or Nurture?". GRSampson.net. Retrieved June 8, 2014.. More at The 'Language Instinct' Debate
- ^ Cowley, S. J. (2001). "The baby, the bathwater and the "language instinct" debate". Language Sciences. 23 (1): 69–91. doi:10.1016/s0388-0001(00)00017-6.
- ^ Aleksander, Igor (1996). Impossible Minds. pp. 228–234. ISBN 1-86094-030-7.
- ^ a b Sailer, Steve (October 30, 2002). "Q&A: Steven Pinker of 'Blank Slate'". United Press International. Archived from the original on March 16, 2015. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
- ^ Pinker, Steven. "Words and Rules (book)". Harvard University. Archived from the original on March 30, 2014. Retrieved May 24, 2014.
- ^ a b Yang, Charles (August 24, 2000). "Dig-dug, think-thunk (review of Words and Rules by Steven Pinker)". London Review of Books. 22 (6): 33.
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- Steven Pinker at TED
- The Better Angels of our Nature, Royal Institution, November 2011
- Linguistics, Style and Writing in the 21st Century: With Steven Pinker, Royal Institution, October 2015
- Steven Pinker & Michael Shermer, Pangburn, September 2018
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