The garden strawberry
(or simply strawberry
; Fragaria × ananassa
is a widely grown hybrid species
of the genus Fragaria
, collectively known as the strawberries, which are cultivated worldwide for their fruit
. The fruit is widely appreciated for its characteristic aroma, bright red color, juicy texture, and sweetness. It is consumed in large quantities, either fresh or in such prepared foods as jam
, ice cream
, and chocolates
. Artificial strawberry flavorings and aromas are also widely used in products such as candy, soap, lip gloss
, perfume, and many others.
The strawberry is not, from a botanical point of view, a berry
. Technically, it is an aggregateaccessory
fruit, meaning that the fleshy part is derived not from the plant's ovaries but from the receptacle
that holds the ovaries
Each apparent "seed" (achene
) on the outside of the fruit is actually one of the ovaries of the flower, with a seed inside it.
In 2019, world production of strawberries was 9 million tonnes
, led by China with 40% of the total.
Fragaria × ananassa 'Gariguette,' a cultivar grown in southern France
The first garden strawberry was grown in Brittany
, during the late 18th century.
Prior to this, wild strawberries
and cultivated selections from wild strawberry species were the common source of the fruit.
The strawberry fruit was mentioned in ancient Roman literature in reference to its medicinal use. The French began taking the strawberry from the forest to their gardens for harvest in the 14th century. Charles V
, France's king from 1364 to 1380, had 1,200 strawberry plants in his royal garden. In the early 15th century western European monks were using the wild strawberry in their illuminated manuscripts. The strawberry is found in Italian, Flemish, and German art, and in English miniatures.
The entire strawberry plant was used to treat depressive illnesses.
By the 16th century, references of cultivation of the strawberry became more common. People began using it for its supposed medicinal properties and botanists began naming the different species. In England the demand for regular strawberry farming had increased by the mid-16th century.
The combination of strawberries and cream was created by Thomas Wolsey
in the court of King Henry VIII
Instructions for growing and harvesting strawberries showed up in writing in 1578. By the end of the 16th century three European species had been cited: F. vesca
, F. moschata
, and F. viridis
. The garden strawberry was transplanted from the forests and then the plants would be propagated asexually
by cutting off the runners.
Two subspecies of F. vesca were identified: F. sylvestris alba and F. sylvestris semperflorens. The introduction of F. virginiana from Eastern North America to Europe in the 17th century is an important part of history because it is one of the two species that give rise to the modern strawberry. The new species gradually spread through the continent and did not become completely appreciated until the end of the 18th century. A French excursion journeyed to Chile in 1712, which led to the introduction of a strawberry plant with female flowers that resulted in the common strawberry we have today.
The Mapuche and Huilliche Indians of Chile cultivated the female strawberry species until 1551, when the Spanish came to conquer the land. In 1765, a European explorer recorded the cultivation of F. chiloensis
, the Chilean strawberry. At first introduction to Europe, the plants grew vigorously but produced no fruit. French gardeners in Brest and Cherbourg
around the mid 18th century first noticed that when F. moschata
and F. virginiana
were planted in between rows of F. chiloensis
, the Chilean strawberry would bear abundant and unusually large fruits. Soon after, Antoine Nicolas Duchesne
began to study the breeding of strawberries
and made several discoveries crucial to the science of plant breeding, such as the sexual reproduction of strawberry which he published in 1766. Duchesne discovered that the female F. chiloensis
plants could only be pollinated by male F. moschata
or F. virginiana
This is when the Europeans became aware that plants had the ability to produce male-only or female-only flowers.
Duchesne determined F. ananassa
to be a hybrid of F. chiloensis
and F. virginiana
. F. ananassa
, which produces large fruits, is so-named because it resembles the pineapple in smell, taste and berry shape. In England, many varieties of F. ananassa
were produced, and they form the basis of modern varieties of strawberries currently cultivated and consumed. Further breeding were also conducted in Europe and America to improve the hardiness, disease resistance, size, and taste of strawberries.
Description and growth
Strawberry growth (video)
Pollen grains of strawberry
Strawberries are often grouped according to their flowering habit.
Traditionally, this has consisted of a division between "June-bearing" strawberries, which bear their fruit in the early summer and "ever-bearing" strawberries, which often bear several crops of fruit throughout the season.
One plant throughout a season may produce 50 to 60 times or roughly once every three days.
Research published in 2001 showed that strawberries actually occur in three basic flowering habits: short-day, long-day, and day-neutral. These refer to the day-length sensitivity of the plant and the type of photoperiod
that induces flower formation. Day-neutral cultivars produce flowers regardless of the photoperiod.
Strawberry cultivars vary widely in size, color, flavor, shape, degree of fertility, season of ripening, liability to disease and constitution of plant.
On average, a strawberry has about 200 seeds on its external membrane.
Some vary in foliage, and some vary materially in the relative development of their sexual organs. In most cases, the flowers appear hermaphroditic
in structure, but function as either male or female.
For purposes of commercial production, plants are propagated from runners
and, in general, distributed as either bare root plants or plugs. Cultivation follows one of two general models—annual plasticulture
or a perennial system of matted rows or mounds.
Greenhouses produce a small amount of strawberries during the off season.
The bulk of modern commercial production uses the plasticulture system. In this method, raised beds are formed each year, fumigated
, and covered with plastic to prevent weed growth and erosion. Plants, usually obtained from northern nurseries, are planted through holes punched in this covering, and irrigation tubing is run underneath. Runners are removed from the plants as they appear, in order to encourage the plants to put most of their energy into fruit development. At the end of the harvest season, the plastic is removed and the plants are plowed into the ground.
Because strawberry plants more than a year or two old begin to decline in productivity and fruit quality, this system of replacing the plants each year allows for improved yields and denser plantings.
However, because it requires a longer growing season to allow for establishment of the plants each year, and because of the increased costs in terms of forming and covering the mounds and purchasing plants each year, it is not always practical in all areas.
The other major method, which uses the same plants from year to year growing in rows or on mounds, is most common in colder climates.
It has lower investment costs, and lower overall maintenance requirements.
Yields are typically lower than in plasticulture.
Strawberries may also be propagated by seed, though this is primarily a hobby activity, and is not widely practiced commercially. A few seed-propagated cultivars have been developed for home use, and research into growing from seed commercially is ongoing.
) are acquired either via commercial seed suppliers, or by collecting and saving them from the fruit.
Strawberries can also be grown indoors in strawberry pots.
Although the plant may not naturally grow indoors in the winter
, use of LED lighting
in combination of blue and red light can allow the plant to grow during the winter.
Additionally, in certain areas like the state of Florida
, winter is the natural growing season where harvesting starts in mid-November.
Manuring and harvesting
To maintain top quality, berries are harvested at least every other day. The berries are picked with the caps still attached and with at least half an inch of stem left. Strawberries need to remain on the plant to fully ripen because they do not continue to ripen after being picked. Rotted and overripe berries are removed to minimize insect and disease problems. The berries do not get washed until just before consumption.
Strawberries are usually picked and placed in shallow boxes in the field.
Soil test information and plant analysis results are used to determine fertility practices. Nitrogen fertilizer is needed at the beginning of every planting year. There are normally adequate levels of phosphorus and potash when fields have been fertilized for top yields. In order to provide more organic matter, a cover crop of wheat or rye is planted in the winter before planting the strawberries. Strawberries prefer a pH from 5.5 to 6.5, so lime is usually not applied.
The harvesting and cleaning process has not changed substantially over time. The delicate strawberries are still harvested by hand.
Grading and packing often occurs in the field, rather than in a processing facility.
In large operations, strawberries are cleaned by means of water streams and shaking conveyor belts.
Around 200 species of pests
are known to attack strawberries both directly and indirectly.
These pests include slugs
, fruit flies
, chafers, strawberry root weevils, strawberry thrips, strawberry sap beetles, strawberry crown moth, mites
, and others.
The caterpillars of a number of species of Lepidoptera
feed on strawberry plants. For example, the Ghost moth
is known to be a pest of the strawberry plant.
The amounts of pesticides
required for industrial production
of strawberries (300 pounds (140 kg) in California per acre
) have led to the strawberry leading the list of EWG's "Dirty Dozen" of pesticide-contaminated produce.
Strawberry plants can fall victim to a number of diseases, especially when subjected to stress.
The leaves may be infected by powdery mildew
, leaf spot
(caused by the fungus Sphaerella fragariae
), leaf blight
(caused by the fungus Phomopsis obscurans
), and by a variety of slime molds
The crown and roots may fall victim to red stele, verticillium
wilt, black root rot
, and nematodes
The fruits are subject to damage from gray mold
rot, and leather rot.
To prevent root-rotting, strawberries should be planted every four to five years in a new bed, at a different site.
The plants can also develop disease from temperature extremes during winter.
When watering strawberries, advice has been given to water only the roots and not the leaves, as moisture on the leaves encourages growth of fungus.
Strawberries may also often appear conjoined together or deformed due to reasons such as poor pollination.
Organic gardener holding a large June-bearing strawberry
In 2019, world production of strawberries was 8.9 million tonnes
, led by China with 40% of the total, and the United States and Mexico as other significant producers (table).
Fresh strawberries being sold in plastic containers
In the United States in 2017, the collective commercial production of strawberries, blueberries
, and blackberries
was a $6 billion industry dominated by the California
growing and marketing company Driscoll's
In 2017, strawberries alone were a $3.5 billion market of which 82% was for fresh fruit.
To increase consumer demand in the 21st century
, commercial producers of strawberries cultivated them mainly for favorable aroma characteristics similar to those of wild strawberries,
in addition to having large size, heart-shape, glossy red exterior, firmness, and slow ripening for long shelf-life
favorable to ship by ground transportation
from farms to stores nationwide for consumption within two weeks of harvest.
In US and Canadian grocery stores
, fresh strawberries are typically sold in plastic clamshells
, and are among the top fresh produce items in grocery revenues.
One marketing analysis identified strawberries and other berries as a source of "happiness" for consumers.
Strawberries and cream
In the United Kingdom
, "strawberries and cream" is a popular dessert consumed at the Wimbledon
Strawberries and cream is also a staple snack in Mexico
, usually available at ice cream parlors. In Sweden
, strawberries are a traditional dessert served on St John's Day, also known as Midsummer
's Eve. Depending on area, strawberry pie
, strawberry rhubarb pie
, or strawberry shortcake
are also common. In Greece
, strawberries may be sprinkled with sugar
and then dipped in Metaxa
, a brandy
, and served as a dessert
. In Italy
, strawberries are used for various desserts and as a common flavoring for gelato
(gelato alla fragola).
in North Savonia
is small town famous for its strawberries, which is why it is also known as "the Strawberry Town" or "the Strawberry Capital". Many foreigners, mainly from Ukraine
, come to Suonenjoki during the summer to work on strawberry farms. In July, there is a festival in Suonenjoki celebrating the strawberry called Mansikkakarnevaalit ("Strawberry Carnival").
is the major anthocyanin in strawberries and cyanidin-3-glucoside
is found in smaller proportions. Although glucose seems to be the most common substituting sugar in strawberry anthocyanins, rutinose, arabinose, and rhamnose conjugates have been found in some strawberry cultivars.
Purple minor pigments consisting of dimeric anthocyanins (flavanol-anthocyanin adducts : catechin(4α→8)pelargonidin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside, epicatechin(4α→8)pelargonidin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside, afzelechin(4α→8)pelargonidin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside and epiafzelechin(4α→8)pelargonidin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside) can also be found in strawberries.
Flavor and fragrance
is an important component of the fragrance of strawberries.
Sweetness, fragrance and complex flavor are favorable attributes.
In plant breeding
and farming, emphasis is placed on sugars, acids, and volatile
compounds, which improve the taste and fragrance of a ripe strawberry. Esters
, and furans
are chemical compounds having the strongest relationships to strawberry flavor and fragrance, with a total of 31 out of some 360 volatile compounds significantly correlated to favorable flavor and fragrance.
In breeding strawberries for the commercial market in the United States, the volatile compounds, methyl anthranilate and gamma-decalactone prominent in aromatic wild strawberries, are especially desired for their "sweet and fruity" aroma characteristics.
Chemicals present in the fragrance of strawberries include:
Modern strawberries are octoploid
(8 sets of chromosomes
sequence of the garden strawberry was published in 2019.
In many entry level Biology
classes, strawberries are used to demonstrate the extraction of DNA
. It has been speculated that this is due octoploidy and the increased amount of DNA per cell, but it may also be facilitated by the ease of breaking the cell walls in the fleshy receptacle
White-fruited strawberry cultivars
, lacking Fra a1, may be an option for strawberry allergy sufferers. Since they lack a protein necessary for normal ripening by anthocyanin synthesis of red pigments, they do not turn the mature berries of other cultivars red.
They ripen but remain white, pale yellow or "golden", appearing like immature berries; this also has the advantage of making them less attractive to birds. A virtually allergen-free cultivar named 'Sofar' is available.
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