, and particularly phonology
is the relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable
in a word
or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence
. That emphasis is typically caused by such properties as increased loudness
and vowel length
, full articulation of the vowel
, and changes in tone
The terms stress
are often used synonymously in that context but are sometimes distinguished. For example, when emphasis is produced through pitch alone, it is called pitch accent
, and when produced through length alone, it is called quantitative accent
When caused by a combination of various intensified properties, it is called stress accent
or dynamic accent
; English uses what is called variable stress accent
Since stress can be realised through a wide range of phonetic
properties, such as loudness, vowel length, and pitch (which are also used for other linguistic functions), it is difficult to define stress solely phonetically.
The stress placed on syllables
within words is called word stress
. Some languages have fixed stress
, meaning that the stress on virtually any multisyllable word falls on a particular syllable, such as the penultimate
) or the first (e.g. Finnish
). Other languages, like English
, have lexical stress
, where the position of stress in a word is not predictable in that way but lexically encoded. Sometimes more than one level of stress, such as primary stress
and secondary stress
, may be identified.
Stress is not necessarily a feature of all languages: some, such as French
, are sometimes analyzed as lacking lexical stress entirely.
The stress placed on words within sentences is called sentence stress
or prosodic stress
. That is one of the three components of prosody
, along with rhythm
. It includes phrasal stress
(the default emphasis of certain words within phrases
), and contrastive stress
(used to highlight an item, a word or part of a word, that is given particular focus).
There are various ways in which stress manifests itself in the speech stream, and these depend to some extent on which language is being spoken. Stressed syllables are often louder
than non-stressed syllables, and may have a higher or lower pitch
. They may also sometimes be pronounced longer
. There are sometimes differences in place
or manner of articulation
– in particular, vowels in unstressed syllables may have a more central (or "neutral
") articulation, while those in stressed syllables have a more peripheral articulation. Stress may be realized to varying degrees on different words in a sentence; sometimes the difference between the acoustic signals of stressed and unstressed syllables are minimal.
These particular distinguishing features of stress, or types of prominence in which particular features are dominant, are sometimes referred to as particular types of accent – dynamic accent
in the case of loudness, pitch accent
in the case of pitch (although that term usually has more specialized meanings), quantitative accent
in the case of length,
and qualitative accent
in the case of differences in articulation. These can be compared to the various types of accent in music theory
. In some contexts, the term stress
or stress accent
is used to mean specifically dynamic accent (or as an antonym to pitch accent
in its various meanings).
A prominent syllable or word is said to be accented
; the latter term does not imply that it carries phonemic tone
. Other syllables or words are said to be unaccented
. Syllables are frequently said to be in pretonic
position; certain phonological rules apply specifically to such positions. For instance, in American English, /t/ and /d/ are flapped
in post-tonic position.
Stressed syllables are often perceived as being more forceful than non-stressed syllables.
Word stress, or sometimes lexical stress
, is the stress placed on a given syllable in a word. The position of word stress in a word may depend on certain general rules applicable in the language or dialect
in question, but in other languages, it must be learned for each word, as it is largely unpredictable. In some cases, classes of words in a language differ in their stress properties; for example, loanwords
into a language with fixed
stress may preserve stress placement from the source language, or the special pattern for Turkish placenames
In some languages, the placement of stress can be determined by rules. It is thus not a phonemic property
of the word, because it can always be predicted by applying the rules.
Languages in which the position of the stress can usually be predicted by a simple rule are said to have fixed stress
. For example, in Czech
, the stress almost always comes on the first syllable of a word. In Armenian
the stress is on the last syllable of a word.
, and Polish
, the stress is almost always on the penult
(second-last syllable). In Macedonian
, it is on the antepenult
Other languages have stress placed on different syllables but in a predictable way, as in Classical Arabic
, where stress is conditioned by the structure
of particular syllables. They are said to have a regular stress rule.
Statements about the position of stress are sometimes affected by the fact that when a word is spoken in isolation, prosodic factors (see below) come into play, which do not apply when the word is spoken normally within a sentence. French
words are sometimes said to be stressed on the final syllable, but that can be attributed to the prosodic stress
that is placed on the last syllable (unless it is a schwa
, when stress is placed on the second-last syllable) of any string of words in that language. Thus, it is on the last syllable of a word analyzed in isolation. The situation is similar in Standard Chinese
. French (some authors add Chinese
) can be considered to have no real lexical stress.
Languages in which the position of stress in a word is not fully predictable are said to have phonemic stress
. For example, English
. Stress is usually truly lexical and must be memorized as part of the pronunciation of an individual word. In some languages, such as Spanish, Portuguese, Lakota
and, to some extent, Italian, stress is even represented in writing using diacritical marks, for example in the Spanish words célebre
. Sometimes, stress is fixed for all forms of a particular word, or it can fall on different syllables in different inflections of the same word.
In such languages with phonemic stress, the position of stress can serve to distinguish otherwise identical words. For example, the English words insight
In many languages with lexical stress, it is connected with alternations in vowels and/or consonants
, which means that vowel quality differs by whether vowels are stressed or unstressed. There may also be limitations on certain phonemes in the language in which stress determines whether they are allowed to occur in a particular syllable or not. That is the case with most examples in English
and occurs systematically in Russian
, such as за́мок ([ˈzamək]
, "castle") vs. замо́к ([zɐˈmok]
, "lock"); and in Portuguese
, such as the triplet sábia
, "wise woman"), sabia
, "knew"), sabiá
Dialects of the same language may have different stress placement. For instance, the English word laboratory
is stressed on the second syllable in British English
often pronounced "labóratry", the second o
being silent), but the first syllable in American English
, with a secondary stress on the "tor' syllable (láboratory
often pronounced "lábratory"). The Spanish word video
is stressed on the first syllable in Spain (vídeo
) but on the second syllable in the Americas (video
). The Portuguese words for Madagascar
and the continent Oceania
are stressed on the third syllable in European Portuguese
), but on the fourth syllable in Brazilian Portuguese
With very few exceptions, English compound words
are stressed on their first component. And even such exceptions, for example mankínd
are instead often stressed on the first component by some people or in some kinds of English.
Sometimes the same components as those of a compound word are used in a descriptive phrase with a different meaning and with stress on both words, but that descriptive phrase is then not usually considered a compound: bláck bírd
(any bird that is black) and bláckbird
(a specific bird species
) and páper bág
(a bag made of paper) and páper bag
(very rarely used to mean a bag for carrying newspapers but is often also used to mean a bag made of paper).
Levels of stress
Some languages are described as having both primary stress
and secondary stress
. A syllable with secondary stress is stressed relative to unstressed syllables but not as strongly as a syllable with primary stress. As with primary stress, the position of secondary stress may be more or less predictable depending on language. In English, it is not fully predictable, but the different secondary stress of the words organization
(on the first and second syllable, respectively) is predictable due to the same stress of the verbs órganize
. In some analyses, for example the one found in Chomsky and Halle's The Sound Pattern of English
, English has been described as having four levels of stress: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary, but the treatments often disagree with one another.
and other phoneticians have noted that it is possible to describe English with only one degree of stress, as long as prosody is recognized and unstressed syllables
are phonemically distinguished for vowel reduction
They find that the multiple levels posited for English, whether primary–secondary
, are not phonetic
stress (let alone phonemic
), and that the supposed secondary/tertiary stress is not characterized by the increase in respiratory activity associated with primary/secondary stress in English and other languages. (For further detail see Stress and vowel reduction in English
, or sentence stress
, refers to stress patterns that apply at a higher level than the individual word – namely within a prosodic unit
. It may involve a certain natural stress pattern characteristic of a given language, but may also involve the placing of emphasis on particular words because of their relative importance (contrastive stress).
An example of a natural prosodic stress pattern is that described for French
above; stress is placed on the final syllable of a string of words (or if that is a schwa
, the next-to-final syllable). A similar pattern is found in English (see § Levels of stress
above): the traditional distinction between (lexical) primary and secondary stress is replaced partly by a prosodic rule stating that the final stressed syllable in a phrase is given additional stress. (A word spoken alone becomes such a phrase, hence such prosodic stress may appear to be lexical if the pronunciation of words is analyzed in a standalone context rather than within phrases.)
Another type of prosodic stress pattern is quantity sensitivity
– in some languages additional stress tends to be placed on syllables that are longer (moraically heavy
Prosodic stress is also often used pragmatically
to emphasize (focus attention on) particular words or the ideas associated with them. Doing this can change or clarify the meaning of a sentence; for example:
I didn't take the test yesterday. (Somebody else did.)
I didn't take the test yesterday. (I did not take it.)
I didn't take the test yesterday. (I did something else with it.)
I didn't take the test yesterday. (I took one of several. or I didn't take the specific test that would have been implied.)
I didn't take the test yesterday. (I took something else.)
I didn't take the test yesterday. (I took it some other day.)
As in the examples above, stress is normally transcribed as italics
in printed text or underlining in handwriting.
In English, stress is most dramatically realized on focused or accented words. For instance, consider the dialogue
"Is it brunch tomorrow?"
"No, it's dinner tomorrow."
In it, the stress-related acoustic differences between the syllables of "tomorrow" would be small compared to the differences between the syllables of "dinner
", the emphasized word. In these emphasized words, stressed syllables such as "din
" in "din
ner" are louder and longer.
They may also have a different fundamental frequency, or other properties.
The main stress within a sentence, often found on the last stressed word, is called the nuclear stress
Stress and vowel reduction
In many languages, such as Russian
, vowel reduction
may occur when a vowel changes from a stressed to an unstressed position. In English, unstressed vowels may reduce to schwa
-like vowels, though the details vary with dialect (see Stress and vowel reduction in English
). The effect may be dependent on lexical stress (for example, the unstressed first syllable of the word photographer
contains a schwa /
, whereas the stressed first syllable of photograph
does not /ˈfoʊtəˌgræf -grɑːf/), or on prosodic stress (for example, the word of
is pronounced with a schwa when it is unstressed within a sentence, but not when it is stressed).
Many other languages, such as Finnish
and the mainstream dialects of Spanish
, do not have unstressed vowel reduction; in these languages vowels in unstressed syllables have nearly the same quality as those in stressed syllables.
Stress and rhythm
Some languages, such as English
, are said to be stress-timed languages
; that is, stressed syllables appear at a roughly constant rate and non-stressed syllables are shortened to accommodate that, which contrasts with languages that have syllable timing
) or mora timing
), whose syllables or moras are spoken at a roughly constant rate regardless of stress. For details, see Isochrony
It is common for stressed and unstressed syllables to behave differently as a language evolves. For example, in the Romance languages
, the original Latin short vowels
/e/ and /o/ have often become diphthongs
when stressed. Since stress takes part in verb
conjugation, that has produced verbs with vowel alternation
in the Romance languages. For example, the Spanish
has the form volví
in the past tense but vuelvo
in the present tense (see Spanish irregular verbs
shows the same phenomenon but with /o/ alternating with /uo/ instead. That behavior is not confined to verbs; note for example Spanish viento
"wind" from Latin ventum
, or Italian fuoco
"fire" from Latin focum
An operational definition of word stress may be provided by the stress "deafness" paradigm. The idea is that if listeners perform poorly on reproducing the presentation order of series of stimuli that minimally differ in the position of phonetic prominence (e.g. [númi]/[numí]), the language does not have word stress. The task involves a reproduction of the order of stimuli as a sequence of key strokes, whereby key "1" is associated with one stress location (e.g. [númi]) and key "2" with the other (e.g. [numí]). A trial may be from 2 to 6 stimuli in length. Thus, the order [númi-númi-numí-númi] is to be reproduced as "1121". It was found that listeners whose native language was French performed significantly worse than Spanish listeners in reproducing the stress patterns by key strokes. The explanation is that Spanish has lexically contrastive stress, as evidenced by the minimal pairs
("mole") and topó
("[he/she/it] met"), while in French, stress does not convey lexical information and there is no equivalent of stress minimal pairs as in Spanish.
An important case of stress "deafness" relates to Persian.
The language has generally been described as having contrastive word stress or accent as evidenced by numerous stem and stem-clitic minimal pairs such as /mɒhi/ [mɒ.hí] ("fish") and /mɒh-i/ [mɒ́.hi] ("some month"). The authors argue that the reason that Persian listeners are stress "deaf" is that their accent locations arise postlexically. Persian thus lacks stress in the strict sense.
Spelling and notation for stress The orthographies
of some languages include devices for indicating the position of lexical stress. Some examples are listed below:
- In Modern Greek, all polysyllables are written with an acute accent (´) over the vowel of the stressed syllable. (The acute accent is also used on some monosyllables in order to distinguish homographs, as in η ('the') and ή ('or'); here the stress of the two words is the same.)
- In Spanish orthography, stress may be written explicitly with a single acute accent on a vowel. Stressed antepenultimate syllables are always written with that accent mark, as in árabe. If the last syllable is stressed, the accent mark is used if the word ends in the letters n, s, or a vowel, as in está. If the penultimate syllable is stressed, the accent is used if the word ends in any other letter, as in cárcel. That is, if a word is written without an accent mark, the stress is on the penult if the last letter is a vowel, n, or s, but on the final syllable if the word ends in any other letter. However, as in Greek, the acute accent is also used for some words to distinguish various syntactical uses (e.g. té 'tea' vs. te a form of the pronoun tú 'you'; dónde 'where' as a pronoun or wh-complement, donde 'where' as an adverb).
- In Portuguese, stress is sometimes indicated explicitly with an acute accent (for i, u, and open a, e, o), or circumflex (for close a, e, o). The orthography has an extensive set of rules that describe the placement of diacritics, based on the position of the stressed syllable and the surrounding letters.
- In Italian, the grave accent is needed in words ending with an accented vowel, e.g. città, 'city', and in some monosyllabic words that might otherwise be confused with other words, like là ('there') and la ('the'). It is optional for it to be written on any vowel if there is a possibility of misunderstanding, such as condomìni ('condominiums') and condòmini ('joint owners').
(In this particular case, a frequent one in which diacritics present themselves, the difference of accents is caused by the fall of the second "i" from Latin in Italian, typical of the genitive, in the first noun (con/domìnìi/, meaning "of the owner"); while the second was derived from the nominative (con/dòmini/, meaning simply "owners").
Though not part of normal orthography, a number of devices exist that are used by linguists and others to indicate the position of stress (and syllabification
in some cases) when it is desirable to do so. Some of these are listed here.
- Most commonly, the stress mark is placed before the beginning of the stressed syllable, where a syllable is definable. However, it is occasionally placed immediately before the vowel. In the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), primary stress is indicated by a high vertical line (primary stress mark: ˈ) before the stressed element, secondary stress by a low vertical line (secondary stress mark: ˌ). For example, [sɪˌlæbəfɪˈkeɪʃən] or /sɪˌlæbəfɪˈkeɪʃən/. Extra stress can be indicated by doubling the symbol: ˈˈ◌.
- Linguists frequently mark primary stress with an acute accent over the vowel, and secondary stress by a grave accent. Example: [sɪlæ̀bəfɪkéɪʃən] or /sɪlæ̀bəfɪkéɪʃən/. That has the advantage of not requiring a decision about syllable boundaries.
- In English dictionaries that show pronunciation by respelling, stress is typically marked with a prime mark placed after the stressed syllable: /si-lab′-ə-fi-kay′-shən/.
- In ad hoc pronunciation guides, stress is often indicated using a combination of bold text and capital letters. For example, si-lab-if-i-KAY-shun or si-LAB-if-i-KAY-shun
- In Russian, Belarusian, and Ukrainian dictionaries, stress is indicated with marks called znaki udareniya (знаки ударения, 'stress marks'). Primary stress is indicated with an acute accent (´) on a syllable's vowel (example: вимовля́ння). Secondary stress may be unmarked or marked with a grave accent: о̀колозе́мный. If the acute accent sign is unavailable for technical reasons, stress can be marked by making the vowel capitalized or italic. In general texts, stress marks are rare, typically used either when required for disambiguation of homographs (compare в больши́х количествах 'in great quantities', and в бо́льших количествах 'in greater quantities'), or in rare words and names that are likely to be mispronounced. Materials for foreign learners may have stress marks throughout the text.
- In Dutch, ad hoc indication of stress is usually marked by an acute accent on the vowel (or, in the case of a diphthong or double vowel, the first two vowels) of the stressed syllable. Compare achterúítgang ('deterioration') and áchteruitgang ('rear exit').
- In Biblical Hebrew, a complex system of cantillation marks is used to mark stress, as well as verse syntax and the melody according to which the verse is chanted in ceremonial Bible reading. In Modern Hebrew, there is no standardized way to mark the stress. Most often, the cantillation mark oleh (part of oleh ve-yored), which looks like a left-pointing arrow above the consonant of the stressed syllable, for example ב֫וקר bóker ('morning') as opposed to בוק֫ר bokér ('cowboy'). That mark is usually used in books by the Academy of the Hebrew Language and is available on the standard Hebrew keyboard at AltGr-6. In some books, other marks, such as meteg, are used.
- ^ Fry, D.B. (1955). "Duration and intensity as physical correlates of linguistic stress". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 27 (4): 765–768. doi:10.1121/1.1908022.
- ^ Fry, D.B. (1958). "Experiments in the perception of stress". Language and Speech. 1 (2): 126–152. doi:10.1177/002383095800100207. S2CID 141158933.
- ^ a b Monrad-Krohn, G. H. (1947). "The prosodic quality of speech and its disorders (a brief survey from a neurologist's point of view)". Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 22 (3–4): 255–269. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.1947.tb08246.x.
- ^ Kochanski, Greg; Shih, Chilin; Jing, Hongyan (2003). "Quantitative measurement of prosodic strength in Mandarin". Speech Communication. 41 (4): 625–645. doi:10.1016/S0167-6393(03)00100-6.
- ^ Mirakyan, Norayr (2016). "The Implications of Prosodic Differences Between English and Armenian" (PDF). Collection of Scientific Articles of YSU SSS. YSU Press. 1.3 (13): 91–96.
- ^ San Duanmu (2000). The Phonology of Standard Chinese. Oxford University Press. p. 134.
- ^ mankind in the Collins English Dictionary
- ^ mankind in the American Heritage Dictionary
- ^ "paper bag" in the Collins English Dictionary
- ^ Ladefoged (1975 etc.) A course in phonetics § 5.4; (1980) Preliminaries to linguistic phonetics p 83
- ^ Beckman, Mary E. (1986). Stress and Non-Stress Accent. Dordrecht: Foris. ISBN 90-6765-243-1.
- ^ R. Silipo and S. Greenberg, Automatic Transcription of Prosodic Stress for Spontaneous English Discourse, Proceedings of the XIVth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (ICPhS99), San Francisco, CA, August 1999, pages 2351–2354
- ^ Kochanski, G.; Grabe, E.; Coleman, J.; Rosner, B. (2005). "Loudness predicts prominence: Fundamental frequency lends little". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 118 (2): 1038–1054. doi:10.1121/1.1923349. PMID 16158659. S2CID 405045.
- ^ Roca, Iggy (1992). Thematic Structure: Its Role in Grammar. Walter de Gruyter. p. 80.
- ^ Dupoux, Emmanuel; Peperkamp, Sharon; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria (2001). "A robust method to study stress "deafness"". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 110 (3): 1606–1618. doi:10.1121/1.1380437. PMID 11572370.
- ^ a b Rahmani, Hamed; Rietveld, Toni; Gussenhoven, Carlos (2015-12-07). "Stress "Deafness" Reveals Absence of Lexical Marking of Stress or Tone in the Adult Grammar". PLOS ONE. 10 (12): e0143968. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0143968. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 4671725. PMID 26642328.
- ^ Payne, Elinor M. (2005). "Phonetic variation in Italian consonant gemination". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 35 (2): 153–181. doi:10.1017/S0025100305002240.
- ^ a b Лопатин, Владимир Владимирович, ed. (2009). § 116. Знак ударения. Правила русской орфографии и пунктуации. Полный академический справочник (in Russian). Эксмо. ISBN 978-5-699-18553-5.
- ^ Some pre-revolutionary dictionaries, e.g. Dahl's Explanatory Dictionary, marked stress with an apostrophe just after the vowel (example: гла'сная). See: Dahl, Vladimir Ivanovich (1903). Boduen de Kurtene, Ivan Aleksandrovich (ed.). Толко́вый слова́рь живо́го великору́сского языка́ [Explanatory Dictionary of the Living Great Russian Language] (in Russian) (3rd ed.). Saint Petersburg: M.O. Wolf. p. 4.
- ^ Каплунов, Денис (2015). Бизнес-копирайтинг: Как писать серьезные тексты для серьезных людей (in Russian). p. 389. ISBN 978-5-000-57471-3.
Last edited on 23 May 2021, at 14:13
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