Railway lines and highways connect the city with Cairo
, Port Said
, and Ismailia
. Suez has a petrochemical plant, and its oil refineries have pipelines carrying the finished product to Cairo. These are represented in the flag of the governorate: the blue background refers to the sea, the gear refers to Suez's status as an industrial governorate, and the flame refers to the petroleum firms of Suez.
Text of the Suez Inscriptions
Partial transliteration and translation of the inscription:
Transliteration of the Old Persian text: xâmanišiya \ thâtiy \ Dârayavauš \ XŠ \ adam \ Pârsa \ amiy \ hacâ \ Pâ rsâ \ Mudrâyam \ agarbâyam \ adam \ niyaštâyam \ imâm \ yauviyâ m \ katanaiy \ hacâ \ Pirâva \ nâma \ rauta \ tya \ Mudrâyaiy \ danuvatiy \ ab iy \ draya \ tya \ hacâ \ Pârsâ \ aitiy \ pasâva \ iyam \ yauviyâ \ akaniya \ avathâ \ yathâ \ adam \ niyaštâyam \ utâ \ nâva \ âyatâ \ hacâ \ Mudrâ yâ \ tara \ imâm \ yauviyâm \ abiy \ Pârsam \ avathâ \ yathâ \ mâm \ kâma\ âha
English translation: "King Darius says: I am a Persian; setting out from Persia I conquered Egypt. I ordered to dig this canal from the river that is called Nile and flows in Egypt, to the sea that begins in Persia. Therefore, when this canal had been dug as I had ordered, ships went from Egypt through this canal to Persia, as I had intended."
Early Islamic era
In the 7th century AD a town named "Kolzum
" stood just north of the site of present-day Suez and served as eastern terminus of a canal built by Amr ibn al-'As
, linking the Nile River
and the Red Sea
. Kolzum's trade fell following the closure of the canal in 770 by the second Abbasid
, to prevent his enemies in Arabia
from accessing supplies from Egypt and the lands north of it. Nonetheless, the town benefited from the trade that remained between Egypt and Arabia.
By 780 al-Mansur's successor al-Mahdi
restored part of the canal.
led by al-Hasan al-A'sam
defeated a Fatimid
army headed by Jawhar al-Siqilli
at Kolzum in 971 and thereby captured the town. Following his defeat in Cairo
by al-Siqilli at the end of that year, Hasan and his forces retreated to Arabia via Kolzum.
Suez was situated nearby and served as a source of drinking water for Kolzum, according to the Arab
, who visited in 986.
sultan of Egypt, Saladin
, fortified both Kolzum and Suez in order to defend Egypt's eastern frontier from Crusader
raids by Raynald of Chatillon
Between 1183 and 1184, Raynald had ships stationed in the Red Sea
to prevent the Ayyubid garrison at Kolzum from accessing water. In response, Saladin's brother al-Adil
had Husam ad-Din Lu'lu
build a naval fleet, which sailed to the southern port of Aidab
to end Raynald's venture.
By the 13th century, it was recorded that Kolzum was in ruins, as was Suez, which had gradually replaced the former as a population center.
According to Muslim historians al-Maqrizi
, Kolzum had once been a prosperous town, until it was occupied and plundered by Bedouins
. Arab geographer al-Dimashqi
noted that Kolzum belonged to the Mamluk
province of al-Karak
at the time.
Ottoman and Egyptian rule
To prevent Portuguese
attacks against Egyptian coastal towns and the Red Sea port of Jeddah
, Qansuh al-Ghawri
, the last Mamluk
sultan, ordered a 6,000-man force headed by Selman Reis
to defend Suez in 1507, which in turn limited the Mamluk military's capabilities against the Ottomans
in the Mediterranean Sea
Following the Ottoman conquest of Egypt at the beginning of the 16th century, Suez became both a major naval and trading station. The Ottoman fleets at Suez were instrumental in disputing control over Indian Ocean
trade with the Portuguese.
in the Red Sea in the 16th & 17th century. Campaigns against the Ottoman Empire. Yellow - Factories ( Mokha) Red - Allied Territorie or under influence. Dark Green - Campaigns of Adal.
In trying to limit the Ottoman fleet to the Red Sea, after the Battle of Diu
in 1538, a Portuguese Armada was sent in 1541 to seek out and destroy the Ottoman fleet.
After the conquest of El Tor
on the Egyptian coast, the commander Estevão da Gama
gave the order to attack Suez, but failed to burn the Ottoman fleet as the Ottomans had received intelligence about the incoming raid beforehand. Instead, the Portuguese fleet spent the next 7 months in the Red Sea sailing from port to port and waiting in Massawa
for the monsoon to India.
German explorer Carsten Niebuhr
noted that in the 18th century a 20-vessel fleet sailed annually from Suez to Jeddah
—which served both as Mecca
's port and Egypt's gateway for trade with India
. However, by 1798, during the Napoleonic invasion
, Suez had once again devolved into an unimportant town. Fighting between the French and the British in 1800 left most of the town in ruins.
Its importance as a port increased after the Suez Canal opened in 1812
The city was virtually destroyed during battles in the late 1960s and early 1970s between Egyptian and Israeli forces occupying the Sinai Peninsula
. The town was deserted following the Six-Day War
in 1967. Reconstruction of Suez began soon after Egypt reopened the Suez Canal, following the Yom Kippur War
Obstruction at Suez; a container ship got stuck in March 2021
The city is divided into five main districts:
El Arbaeen District
Suez, in 1541 in drawing by Dom João de Castro ( Roteiro do Mar Roxo)
The most populous district of the city, it has most of the government buildings and public institutions. It also has the city's main fruit and vegetable markets in addition to other markets and stores selling various commodities.
Suez district is considered the most affluent area in the city. The real estate there is significantly more expensive than any other district in the city. Its buildings have more modern architectural style than those in the El Arbaeen District. It includes the affluent neighbourhood of Port Tawfik, which directly overlooks the Suez Canal. Port Tawfik includes some old-style houses that date back to the era of English occupation. The district also includes two of Egypt's most important oil refineries; El-Nasr Petroleum Company and Suez Petroleum Company. Also, Suez Port
, one of Egypt's main ports, lies within the perimeter of Suez District.
El Ganayen District
This district stretches all the way to the border with Ismailia Governorate and contains the entire Asian territory of the city. It has all the rural areas of the city and can be thought of as the city's "countryside".
It includes the newer neighbourhoods of the city. Most of the areas at Faisal District were established after the 1973 Yom Kippur war
, which had destroyed vast areas of the city. Examples of neighborhoods in Faisal District include Al-Sabbah, Al-Amal and Al-Mushi, to name a few.
It is characterised by the existence of many industrial areas. There are plants and factories specialising in fertilisers, cement, steel, cooking oil, flour products, oil rigs, ceramic tiles, sugar, and many other products. There is also the Attaka Power Plant.
The district also includes Ain Sokhna, one of Egypt's most important sea resorts, overlooking the Gulf of Suez. Ain Sokhna has numerous high-class sea resorts and is frequented by many tourists, Egyptians and foreigners, all over the year due to its warm weather. The district is also home to the Ain Sokhna Sea Port, one of Egypt's main sea ports operated by the Dubai-based DP World Company and the Al-Ataka Fishing Port, which is the city's main fish production port.
View of Suez from the canal in 1982
Northernmost part of Gulf of Suez
with town Suez on map of 1856
Detail view of one of the main pylons.
In ancient times, there was a canal from the Nile delta to the Gulf of Suez, when the gulf extended further north than it does today.
This canal fell into disuse, and the present canal was built in the nineteenth century.
The Suez Canal offers a significantly shorter passage for ships, as compared to passing round the Cape of Good Hope
. The construction of the Suez Canal was favoured by the natural conditions of the region: the comparatively short distance between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, the occurrence of a line of lakes or depressions which became lakes (Lake Manzala
in the north, and depressions, Timsah
and the Bitter Lakes, part way along the route), and the generally flat terrain. The construction of the canal was proposed by the engineer and French diplomat Ferdinand de Lesseps
, who in 1854 acquired from Said Pasha
the rights of constructing and operating the canal for a period of 99 years. The Compagnie Universelle du Canal Maritime de Suez
was formed. Construction took 11 years, and the canal opened on 17 November 1869. The canal had an immediate and dramatic effect on world trade.
In July 1956, just a few days after the fourth anniversary of the Egyptian Revolution of 1952
, the Egyptian government under President Gamal Abdel Nasser
nationalised the Suez Canal Company, which had been run by the French and owned privately, with the British as the largest shareholders. The Israeli–British–French invasion of Egypt which followed is known in Egypt as the Tripartite Aggression but elsewhere as the Suez Crisis
. Following Israel's invasion and occupation of Egypt's Sinai Peninsula
in the Six-Day War
of 1967, the Canal was closed, and did not reopen until 1975.
Today, the Canal is a vital link in world trade, and contributes significantly to the Egyptian economy; in 2009 the income generated from the canal accounted for 3.7% of Egypt's GDP.
The hottest recorded temperature was 49 °C (120 °F) on June 14, 1965 while the coldest recorded temperature was 1 °C (34 °F) on February 23, 2004.
Twin towns and sister cities
- Ismail Yassine (Arabic: إسماعيل ياسين IPA: [esmæˈʕiːl jæˈsiːn]) (1912-1972) was an Egyptian singer, comedian and actor
- Ebrahim Nafae: was an Egyptian journalist and a former editor-in-chief of Al-Ahram Newspaper.
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, p. 366 Barbara Watterson (1997), The Egyptians, Blackwell Publishing, ISBN 0-631-21195-0
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Last edited on 9 April 2021, at 10:44
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