Suffix - Wikipedia
Suffix
This article is about the linguistic term. For other uses, see Suffix (disambiguation).
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix[1]) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word. Common examples are case endings, which indicate the grammatical case of nouns, adjectives, and verb endings, which form the conjugation of verbs. An inflectional suffix is sometimes called a desinence[2] or a grammatical suffix[3] or ending. Inflection changes the grammatical properties of a word within its syntactic category. Derivational suffixes can be divided into two categories: class-changing derivation and class-maintaining derivation.
Particularly in the study of Semitic languages, suffixes are called afformatives, as they can alter the form of the words. In Indo-European studies, a distinction is made between suffixes and endings (see Proto-Indo-European root). Suffixes can carry grammatical information or lexical information.
A word-final segment that is somewhere between a free morpheme and a bound morpheme is known as a suffixoid[4] or a semi-suffix[5] (e.g., English -like or German -freundlich "friendly").
Productivity
Suffixes can carry grammatical information (inflectional suffixes) or lexical information (derivational/lexical suffixes). An inflectional suffix is sometimes called a desinence[6] or a grammatical suffix.[7]
Examples
English
Girls—where the suffix -s marks the plurality.
He makes—where suffix -s marks the third person singular present tense.
It closed—where the suffix -ed marks the past tense.
French
De beaux jours—where the suffix -x marks the plural.
Elle est passablement jolie—where the suffix -e marks the feminine form of the adjective.
German
mein Computer—where the lack of suffixes is because its case, nominative, is "unmarked"
meines Computers—genitive case
meinem Computer—dative case
meinen Computer​—accusative case
Russian
мой компьютер—where the lack of suffixes is because its case, nominative, is "unmarked"
моегокомпьютера—genitive case
моемукомпьютеру—dative case
мой компьютер​—accusative case
за-туш-и-ть свечу—where first word has -и- suffix, -ть ending (infinitive form); second word with ending -у (accusative case, singular, feminine).
добр-о-жел-а-​тель-н-ый​—добр- root, -о- interfix, -жел- root, verbal -a- interfix, nominal -тель suffix, adjectival -н- suffix, adjectival -ый ending (nominative case, singular, masculine).
Inflectional suffixes
Inflection changes the grammatical properties of a word within its syntactic category. In the example:
I was hoping the cloth wouldn't fade, but it has faded quite a bit.
the suffix -ed inflects the root-word fade to indicate past participle.
Inflectional suffixes do not change the word class of the word after the inflection.[8] Inflectional suffixes in Modern English include:
Verbs
Nouns
Adjectives and Adverbs
Derivation
Derivational suffixes can be divided into two categories: class-changing derivation and class-maintaining derivation.[9] In English, they include
Synthetic languages
Many synthetic languagesCzech, German, Finnish, Latin, Hungarian, Russian, Turkish, etc.—use many endings.
References
  1. ^ "postfix", The Free Dictionary, retrieved 2021-03-22
  2. ^ "desinence". The Free Dictionary.
  3. ^ Mead, Jonathan (1993). Proceedings of the 11th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics. Center for the Study of Language (CSLI). ISBN 978-1-881526-12-4.
  4. ^ Kremer, Marion. 1997. Person reference and gender in translation: a contrastive investigation of English and German. Tübingen: Gunter Narr, p. 69, note 11.
  5. ^ Marchand, Hans. 1969. The categories and types of present-day English word-formation: A synchronic-diachronic approach. Munich: Beck, pp. 356 ff.
  6. ^ "desinence". The Free Dictionary.
  7. ^ Mead, Jonathan (1993). Proceedings of the 11th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics. Center for the Study of Language (CSLI). ISBN 978-1-881526-12-4.
  8. ^ Jackson and Amvela(2000): Word, Meaning and Vocabulary- An Introduction to Modern English Lexicology. London, Athenaeum Press, p.83
  9. ^ Jackson and Amvela(2000): Word, Meaning and Vocabulary- An Introduction to Modern English Lexicology. London, Athenaeum Press, p.88
External links
Media related to Suffixes at Wikimedia Commons
Last edited on 22 March 2021, at 18:42
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted.
Privacy policy
Terms of Use
Desktop
HomeRandomNearbyLog inSettingsDonateAbout WikipediaDisclaimers
LanguageWatchEdit