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Summer Paralympic Games
The Summer Paralympics also known as the Games of the Paralympiad, are an international multi-sport event where athletes with physical disabilities compete. This includes athletes with mobility disabilities, amputations, blindness, and cerebral palsy. The Paralympic Games are held every four years, organized by the International Paralympic Committee. Medals are awarded in each event, with gold medals for first place, silver for second and bronze for third, a tradition that the Olympic Games started in 1904.
Summer Paralympic Games
The Paralympic flame in Rio de Janeiro during the 2016 Summer Paralympics.
Games
1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 19881992 1996 2000 2004 2008 2012 2016 20202024 2028 2032
Sports (details)
Archery Athletics Boccia Cycling EquestrianFootball 5-a-side Football 7-a-side Goalball JudoPowerlifting Rowing Sailing Shooting SwimmingTable tennis Volleyball Wheelchair basketballWheelchair fencing Wheelchair rugby Wheelchair tennis
The United States and the United Kingdom have each hosted two Summer Paralympic Games, more than any other nation. Other countries that have hosted the summer Paralympics are Australia, Canada, China, Greece, Israel, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, South Korea, Spain and West Germany. In the 2016 Summer Paralympics, Brazil hosted the first Summer Games in South America in Rio de Janeiro. Tokyo will be the first city to host the Summer Paralympics more than once: 1964 and 2020.
Twelve countries — Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, France, Great Britain, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Netherlands, Switzerland, United States — have been represented at all Summer Paralympic Games. Seven of those countries have won at least one gold medal at every Summer Paralympic Games: Australia, Austria, France, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United States.
The United States has been the top-ranking (medals) nation for eight Paralympic Summer Games: 1964, 1968, 1976, 1980, 1984, 1988, 1992 and 1996. China have been the top-ranking nation for the four most recent Games, 2004, 2008, 2012 and 2016. Italy (1960), West Germany (1972) and Australia (2000) have been the top-ranking nation one time each.
Qualification
Qualification rules for each of the Paralympic sports are set by the International Federation (IF) that governs that sport's international competition.
History
The first official Paralympic Games, was held in Rome, Italy, in 1960.[1] 400 athletes from 23 countries competed at the 1960 Games though only athletes in wheelchairs competed.
At the 1976 Summer Games athletes with different disabilities were included for the first time at a summer Paralympics. With the inclusion of more disability classifications, the 1976 Summer Games expanded to 1,600 athletes from 40 countries.[2]
The 1988 Summer Paralympics were the first to be hosted in the same venues (and thus use the same facilities) as the Olympics of that year. Since then, all Paralympic Games are now held in the same city that hosted the Olympics, with a two-week gap between each.
Rio de Janeiro held the 2016 Summer Paralympics, becoming the first Latin American and South American city to host either the Summer or Winter Games. Tokyo will host the 2020 Summer Paralympics becoming the first city to host the games twice.
Classification
A wheelchair basketball game at the 2008 Summer Paralympics
Every participant at the Paralympics has their disability grouped into one of ten disability categories; impaired muscle power, impaired passive range of movement, limb deficiency, leg length difference, short stature, hypertonia, ataxia, athetosis, vision impairment and intellectual impairment.[3] Each Paralympic sport then has its own classifications, dependent upon the specific physical demands of competition. Events are given a code, made of numbers and letters, describing the type of event and classification of the athletes competing. Some sports, such as athletics, divide athletes by both the category and severity of their disabilities, other sports, for example swimming, group competitors from different categories together, the only separation being based on the severity of the disability.[4] Within the ten disability categories the athletes still need to be divided according to their level of impairment. The classification systems differ from sport to sport, and is intended to even the playing field so as to allow as many athletes to participate as possible. Classifications vary in accordance with the different skills required to perform the sport.
Archery: Archery is open to athletes with a physical disability. Classifications are broken up into three divisions: W1, spinal cord injured and cerebral palsy athletes with impairment in all four limbs. W2, wheelchair users with full arm function. W3, standing amputee, Les Autres and cerebral palsy standing athletes. Some athletes in the standing group will sit on a high stool for support but will still have their feet touching the ground.[5]
Athletics: Athletics are open to all disability groups and uses a functional classification system. A brief classification guide is as follows: prefixing F for field athletes or T for track athletes. F or T 11–13 are visually impaired, F or T 20 are learning disabled, F or T 32–38 are cerebral palsy, F or T 40–46 amputee and Les Autres, T 51–54 wheelchair track athletes and F 51–58 wheelchair field athletes.[6]
Basketball: Basketball is open to wheelchair athletes. Wheelchair athletes are classified according to their physical ability and are given a points rating between 0.5 – 4.5. The individuals who rate at 0.5 are the most severely disabled and those at 4.5 are the least disabled. A team on the court comprises five players and may not exceed a total of 14 points at any given time.[7]
Boccia: Boccia is open to athletes with cerebral palsy or related neurological conditions who compete from a wheelchair. Classifications are split into four groups; BC1: Athletes are either throwers or foot players (with cerebral palsy). Athletes may compete with an assistant BC2: For throwing players (with cerebral palsy). Players may not have an assistant BC3: Athletes (with severe disability) who use an assistive device and may be assisted by a person, but this assistant must keep their back to the court. BC4: For throwing players. Players may not have an assistant (non-cerebral palsy).[8]
Cycling: Cycling is open to amputee, Les Autre, cerebral palsy and visually impaired athletes who compete in the individual road race and track events. Classifications are broken up into divisions 2, 3 and 4. Athletes in division two are the most severely disabled. While athletes in division four are considered to be higher functioning. Visually impaired athletes compete together with no separate classification system. They ride in tandem with a sighted guide. Amputee, spinal cord injury and Les Autre competitors compete within the classification groupings LC1 – for riders with upper limb disabilities, LC2 – for riders with disabilities in one leg but who are able to pedal normally, LC3 – essentially for riders with a handicap in one lower limb who will usually pedal with one leg only, and LC4 for riders with disabilities affecting both legs.[9]
Equestrian: Equestrian is open to all disability groups, with riders divided into four grades. Grade 1 incorporates severely disabled riders with cerebral palsy, Les Autres and spinal cord injury. Grade 2 incorporates cerebral palsy, Les Autres, spinal cord injury and amputee riders with reasonable balance and abdominal control. Grade 3 is for cerebral palsy, Les Autres, amputee, spinal cord injury and totally blind athletes with good balance, leg movement and coordination. Grade 4 incorporates athletes who have cerebral palsy, Les Autres, amputation(s), spinal cord injury and/or are visually impaired. This last group comprises ambulant athletes with either impaired vision or impaired arm/leg function.[10]
Fencing: Fencing is open to wheelchair athletes. There are only three classes; class A incorporates those athletes with good balance and recovery and full trunk movement; class B is for those with poor balance and recovery but full use of one or both upper limbs; class C is for athletes with severe physical impairment in all four limbs.[11]
Football: There are two forms of football played at the Paralympics. The first is 5-a-side football, which is open to visually impaired athletes. The second is 7-a-side football, which is open to athletes with cerebral palsy. 5-a-side football is open to all visually impaired athletes. Since there are different levels of visual impairment, all players except the goalie (who acts as a guide) are required to wear eye shades. The field dimensions are smaller than able-bodied football, there are only five players on the pitch and the ball makes a sound. Otherwise the rules are exactly the same as able-bodied football.[12] Athletes competing in 7-a-side football are broken down into classes 5, 6, 7 and 8. All classes comprise ambulant athletes; class 5 being the least physically able, progressing through to class 8 who are minimally affected. Teams must include at least one athlete from either class 5 or 6. Furthermore, no more than three players from class 8 are allowed to play at the same time. Other than the fact that the game is played with seven players the rest of the rules and dimensions of the playing field are the same as able-bodied football.[13]
The Swedish goalball team at the 2004 Summer Paralympics
Goalball: Goalball is open to visually impaired athletes who must wear "black out" masks to ensure all participants can compete equally, thereby eliminating the need for classification. The ball has a bell in it to help the players react to the ball. Complete silence at the venue is required so that the athletes can orient themselves and to ensure fairness.[14]
Judo: Judo is open to visually impaired athletes. The rules are the same as able-bodied judo except that the players are allowed contact with their opponent prior to the start of the match. There are no classifications; participants are divided into weight categories in the same way as able-bodied judo athletes.[15]
Powerlifting: Powerlifting is open to athletes with cerebral palsy, spinal cord injuries, amputations (lower limb only), and Les Autres. Since the competition is a test of upper body strength the classifications are by weight category as in able-bodied powerlifting competition.[16]
Sailing: Sailing is open to amputee, cerebral palsy, visually impaired, spinal cord injured and Les Autres athletes. There are three events, one for single, double, and triple-crew boats. Classification for sailing in the three-person event is based on a functional points system with low points for severely disabled athletes rising by scale to high points for less disabled athletes. A classification committee evaluates each sailor and assign a point from one to seven based on their level of ability. Each crew of three is allowed a maximum of 14 points. The single-person event can be crewed regardless of points but the sailor must have at least a minimum level of disability which prevents them from competing on equal terms with able-bodied sailors. The two-person event is designed for more severely disabled athletes.[17]
Shooting: Shooting is open to athletes with a physical disability. There are only two classes of competition, wheelchair and standing. There are two types of events, pistol and rifle. The athletes are broken down into classes based on their upper body functionality, balance, muscle strength and limb mobility. The three classes are SH1-competitors do not require a shooting stand, SH2-competitors cannot support the weight of the gun and require a shooting stand, and SH3-Rifle competitors with a visual impairment.[18]
A Paralympian in the women's butterfly at the 2008 Summer Paralympics
Swimming: The Paralympic swimming competition features all four of the strokes used in able-bodied swimming competitions. Classification is divided into three groups: S1 to S10 are those with physical impairment. S1 will have the most severe impairment and an S10 a lesser impairment. Athletes are judged on their muscle strength, joint range of motion, limb length and movement co-ordination. S11 to S13 are those with a visual impairment. S11 will have little or no vision, S12 can recognise the shape of a hand and have some ability to see, S13 greater vision than the other two classes but less than 20 degrees of vision. S14 is for athletes with a learning difficulty.[19]
Table Tennis: Table tennis is open to athletes with a physical disability. There are individual, doubles and team events. A match is 5 sets of 11 points each. The athletes are broken down into ten divisions based on their level of function. Classes 1 to 5 are for athletes competing from a wheelchair with class 1 being the most severely disabled and class 5 the least disabled. Classes 6 to 10 encompass ambulant athletes with class 6 the most severely disabled and class 10 the least.[20]
Tennis: Tennis at the Paralympics is played with all the same rules as able-bodied tennis with the exception that the ball is allowed to bounce twice, and the first bounce must be within the bounds of the court. It is open to athletes with a mobility related disability which means that they cannot compete on equal terms with able-bodied tennis players. The game is played from a wheelchair, with two classes, paraplegic (at least one leg must have a permanent and substantial loss of function) and quadriplegic (at least three limbs must have a permanent and substantial loss of function).[21]
Volleyball: Volleyball is open to athletes with a physical disability and is performed from a seated position. In sitting volleyball the court is smaller than the standard court and has a lower net. In the sitting games the only classification rule is that each team may have only one player who fits the minimum disability rule, which is that their disability prevents them from competing on equal terms with able-bodied athletes. The other players on the team must demonstrate a higher level of disability.[22]
Wheelchair rugby: Athletes are classified on a points system similar to wheelchair basketball, with the most severely disabled athlete being graded at 0.5 points rising to 3.5 points. Each team has four players and is allowed a maximum of eight points on the court at any one time.[23]
All-time medal table
See also: All-time Paralympic Games medal table
With reference to the top twenty nations and according to official data of the International Paralympic Committee.
No.NationGamesGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1 United States (USA)157737007102183
2 Great Britain (GBR)156265845791789
3 Germany (GER)[24]154874914651323
4
 China (CHN)
94333392501022
5 Canada (CAN)133943313401065
6 Australia (AUS)153683933641125
7
 France (FRA)
15311320318949
8
 Netherlands (NED)
15264233217714
9 Sweden (SWE)14235227175637
10 Poland (POL)13223216187626
11
 Spain (ESP)
12212220226661
12
 Italy (ITA)
15153173182530
13
 Ukraine (UKR)
5125115134374
14
 South Korea (KOR)
14125104108335
15
 Israel (ISR)
15123123129375
16
 South Africa (RSA)
111179486297
17
 Japan (JPN)
14106122134362
18 Mexico (MEX)129790101288
19
 Denmark (DEN)
139382105288
20
 Russia (RUS)
5918790268
List of Paralympic sports
Main article: Paralympic sports
A number of different sports have been part of the Paralympic program at one point or another.
  This color indicates a discontinued sport
SportYears
Archeryall
Athleticsall
Basketball ID2000
Bocciasince 1984
Cyclingsince 1988
Paracanoesince 2016
Dartchery1960–1980
Equestriansince 1996
Football 5-a-sidesince 2004
Football 7-a-sidesince 1984
Goalballsince 1976
Judosince 1988
Lawn bowls1968–1988, 1996
Paratriathlonsince 2016
SportYears
Powerliftingsince 1984
Rowingsince 2008
Sailing1996, since 2000
Shootingsince 1976
Snooker1960–1976, 1984–1988
Swimmingall
Table tennisall
Volleyballsince 1976
Weightlifting1964–1992
Wheelchair basketballall
Wheelchair fencingall
Wheelchair rugby1996, since 2000
Wheelchair tennis1988, 1992
Wrestling1980–1984
List of Summer Paralympic Games
1964,2020
1968
1976
1984
1996
1988
2008
2000
2016
2028
Host cities of Summer Paralympic Games
1960
1972
1980
1984
2012
2024
1992
1992
2004
European host cities of Summer Paralympic Games
GamesYearHostOpened byDatesNationsCompetitorsSportsEventsTop Nation
TotalMenWomen
I1960
Rome, Italy
Camillo Giardina18 – 25 September23400857
 Italy (ITA)
II1964
Tokyo, Japan
Yoshiaki Kasai3 – 12 November21375307689144 United States (USA)
III1968
Tel Aviv, Israel
Yigal Allon4–13 November2975010181 United States (USA)
IV1972Heidelberg, GermanyPresident Gustav Heinemann2 – 11 August41100410187 West Germany (FRG)
V1976Toronto, CanadaPauline Mills McGibbon3–11 August321657140425313447 United States (USA)
VI1980
Arnhem, Netherlands
Princess Margriet21–30 June42197312489 United States (USA)
VII1984New York City, United StatesPresident Ronald Reagan17–30 June45180015300 United States (USA)
Stoke Mandeville, United KingdomCharles, Prince of Wales22 July – 1 August41110010603 Great Britain (GBR)
VIII1988
Seoul, South Korea
President Roh Tae-woo15–24 October61305716732 United States (USA)
IX1992
Barcelona, Spain
Queen Sofía of Spain3–14 September82302020555 United States (USA)
Madrid, Spain
15–22 September751600
X1996Atlanta, United StatesVice President Al Gore16–25 August1043259246979020508 United States (USA)
XI2000Sydney, AustraliaGovernor-General Sir William Deane18–29 October1213881289199018551 Australia (AUS)
XII2004
Athens, Greece
President Konstantinos Stephanopoulos17–28 September13638062646116019519
 China (CHN)
XIII2008
Beijing, China
President Hu Jintao6–17 September146395120472
 China (CHN)
XIV2012London, United KingdomQueen Elizabeth II29 August – 9 September164430220503
 China (CHN)
XV2016
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
President Michel Temer7–18 September159434222528
 China (CHN)
XVI2021
Tokyo, Japan
24 August - 5 September22540Future event
XVII2024
Paris, France
27 August–8 September22Future event
XVIII2028Los Angeles, United States22 August-3 SeptemberFuture event
XIX2032Future event
See also
Notes
  1. ^ "Paralympics traces roots to Second World War", CBC, September 3, 2008
  2. ^ "History of the Paralympic Games". Government of Canada. Archived from the original on 2010-03-12. Retrieved 2010-04-07.
  3. ^ http://www.paralympic.org/classification
  4. ^ "A-Z of Paralympic classification". BBC Sport. 28 August 2008. Retrieved 25 December 2015.
  5. ^ "Archery". Australian Paralympic Committee. Archived from the original on September 13, 2009. Retrieved 2010-04-07.
  6. ^ "Athletics". Australian Paralympic Committee. Archived from the original on January 18, 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-07.
  7. ^ "Basketball". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 2010-04-07.
  8. ^ "Boccia rules of play" (PDF). Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association. pp. 6–8. Retrieved 2010-04-07.
  9. ^ "Cycling". Australian Paralympic Committee. Archived from the original on March 4, 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-07.
  10. ^ "Equestrian". Australian Paralympic Committee. Archived from the original on March 4, 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-07.
  11. ^ "Fencing Classification Rules" (PDF). International Wheelchair and Amputee Sports Federation. p. 10. Retrieved 2010-04-07.
  12. ^ "Football 5-a-side". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 2010-04-08.
  13. ^ "Football". Australian Paralympic Committee. Archived from the original on March 23, 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-08.
  14. ^ "Goalball". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 2010-04-08.
  15. ^ "Judo". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 2010-04-08.
  16. ^ "Powerlifting". Australian Paralympic Committee. Archived from the original on September 12, 2009. Retrieved 2010-04-08.
  17. ^ "Sailing". Australian Paralympic Committee. Archived from the original on March 23, 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-08.
  18. ^ "Shooting". Australian Paralympic Committee. Archived from the original on March 23, 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-08.
  19. ^ "Swimming". Australian Paralympic Committee. Archived from the original on March 23, 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-08.
  20. ^ "Table Tennis". Australian Paralympic Committee. Archived from the original on March 23, 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-08.
  21. ^ "Wheelchair Tennis". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 2010-04-08.
  22. ^ "Volleyball". Australian Paralympic Committee. Archived from the original on March 23, 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-08.
  23. ^ "Wheelchair Rugby". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 2010-04-08.
  24. ^ Prior to 1990 also called West Germany (FRG). Does not include the totals from East Germany (GDR).
External links
Official Site of the Paralympic Movement
Last edited on 2 April 2021, at 13:39
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