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Supreme Political Council
The Supreme Political Council (SPC; Arabic: المجلس السياسي الأعلى‎‎ al-Majlis as-Siyāsiyy al-ʾAʿlā) is a largely unrecognised executive body formed by the Houthi movement and the General People's Congress (GPC) to rule Yemen. Formed on 28 July 2016, the presidential council consists of 10 members and was headed by Saleh Ali al-Sammad as president until his death from a drone air strike on 19 April 2018 with Qassem Labozah as vice-president.[1] Its territory that it rules consists of the former North Yemen, which united with South Yemen in 1990.
Supreme Political Council
Agency overview
FormedJuly 28, 2016; 4 years ago
Jurisdictionformer North Yemen
Agency executive
The SPC carries out the functions of head of state in Yemen and is to manage Yemen's state affairs in a bid to fill in political vacuum during Yemeni Civil War in 2015.[2] The Council aims to outline a basis for running the country and managing state affairs on the basis of the existing constitution.[3][1] Later, the SPC was also responsible for forming a new government led by Abdel-Aziz bin Habtour known as the National Salvation Government.[4]
The members were sworn in on 14 August 2016.[5] On 15 August, the Supreme Revolutionary Committee (SRC) handed power to the Supreme Political Council.[6] However, the SPC is only recognized by a few states and remains internationally largely unrecognized.[3][7][8]
Background
In the wake of president Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi and prime minister Khaled Bahah resignations over Houthi rebels takeover of presidential palace on January 2015, Houthi leader Abdul Malik Al Houthi reportedly proposed a six-member "transitional presidential council" which would have equal representation from north and south, although this proposal was rejected by Southern Movement.[9] Nevertheless, on 1 February, the Houthis gave an ultimatum to Yemen's political factions warning that if they did not reach a solution to the current political crisis, then the Houthi "revolutionary leadership" would assume formal authority over the state.[10] According to Reuters, political factions have agreed to form an interim presidential council to manage the country for up to one year. Former South Yemen president Ali Nasser Mohammed was originally being considered as a prospective interim leader, but Mohammed later declined the post.[11]
On 6 February 2015, the Houthis formally assumed over authority in Sanaa, declaring the dissolution of House of Representatives and announced that a "presidential council" would be formed to lead Yemen for two years, while a "revolutionary committee" would be put in charge of forming a new, 551-member national council.[12] This governance plan was later affirmed by Houthi Ansarullah politburo leader Saleh Ali al-Sammad as he said that national council would choose a five-member presidential council to govern the country.[13]
National Salvation Government
On 2 October 2016, Abdel-Aziz bin Habtour was appointed as Prime Minister by the Houthis.[4] On 4 October, he formed his cabinet.[14] The cabinet is composed of members of the Southern Movement.[15] However, the cabinet is not internationally recognized.[16]
On 28 November 2016, a new cabinet was formed.[17] It is only composed by members of pro-Saleh GNC and the Ansarullah Movement.
However, the UN Special Envoy for Yemen Ismail Ould Cheikh Ahmed said the move was "a new and unnecessary obstacle. Yemen is at a critical juncture. The actions recently taken by Ansarullah and the General People's Congress will only complicate the search for a peaceful solution. The parties must hold Yemen’s national interests above narrow partisan ambitions and take immediate steps to end political divisions and address the country’s security, humanitarian and economic challenges." He further claimed that such an action could harm peace talks.[18]
On 27 October 2020, the Minister of Youth and Sport Hassan Mohammed Zaid was shot dead by unknown gunmen in the capital Sanaa.[19]
OfficeIncumbentStartEnd
PresidentMahdi al-Mashat25 April 2018Incumbent
Prime MinisterAbdel-Aziz bin Habtour4 October 2016Incumbent
Deputy Prime Minister for the Affairs of the SecurityJalal al-Rowaishan28 November 2016Incumbent
Deputy Prime Minister for the Affairs of the ServiceMahmoud Abdel Kader al-Jounaïd1 January 2018Incumbent
Deputy Prime Minister for Economic AffairsHussein Abdullah Mkabuli28 November 2016Incumbent
Minister of InteriorAbdulhakim Ahmed al-Mawri13 December 2017Incumbent
Minister of Planning and International CooperationAbdulaziz Al-KumaimJuly 2017Incumbent
Minister of InformationDhaifallah Qasim Saleh al-Shami[20]10 November 2018Incumbent
Minister of Foreign AffairsHisham Sharaf Abdullah28 November 2016Incumbent
Minister of State for National Dialogue Outcomes' Affairs and National ReconciliationAhmed Saleh al-Ganie28 November 2016Incumbent
Minister of Youth and SportHassan Mohammed Zaid28 November 201627 October 2020[19]
Minister of Legal AffairsAbdulrahman Ahmed al-Mukhtar28 November 2016Incumbent
Minister of EducationYahia Badreddin al-Houthi28 November 2016Incumbent
Minister of Civil Service and InsuranceTalal Aklan28 November 2016Incumbent
Minister of State for Parliamentary Affairs and the Shura CouncilAli Abdullah Abu Hulaykah28 November 2016Incumbent
Minister of DefenseMohamed al-Atifi28 November 2016Incumbent
Minister of Industry and TradeAbdu Mohammed Bishr28 November 2016Incumbent
Minister for FisheriesMohammad Mohammad al-Zubayri28 November 2016Incumbent
Minister of JusticeAhmed Abdullah Akabat28 November 2016Incumbent
Minister of Higher Education and Scientific ResearchHussein Ali Hazeb28 November 2016Incumbent
Minister of Social Affairs and LabourFaiqah al-Sayed Ba'alawy28 November 2016Incumbent
Minister of TourismNasser Mahfouz Bagazkoz28 November 2016Incumbent
Minister of Public Works and HighwaysGhalib Abdullah Mutlaq28 November 2016Incumbent
Minister of Water and EnvironmentNabil Abdullah al-Wazair28 November 2016Incumbent
Minister of Petroleum and MineralsAhmed Abdullah Naji Dars1 January 2018Incumbent
Minister of Electricity and EnergyLutf Ali al-Jermouzi28 November 2016Incumbent
Minister of Local AdministrationAli Bin Ali Al-Kays28 November 2016Incumbent
Minister of Religious Endowments and GuidanceSharaf Ali al-Kulaisi28 November 2016Incumbent
Minister of Expatriate AffairsMohammed Saeed al-Mashjari28 November 2016Incumbent
Minister of FinanceSaleh Ahmed Shaaban28 November 2016Incumbent
Minister of Communications and Information TechnologyMusfer Abdullah Saleh Al-Numeir16 December 2017Incumbent
Minister of Agriculture and IrrigationGhazi Ahmed Mohsen28 November 2016Incumbent
Minister of Technical Education and VocationalMohsen Ali al-Nakib28 November 2016Incumbent
Minister of CultureAbdullah Ahmad al-Kibsy28 November 2016Incumbent
Minister of TransportZakaria Yahya al-Shami28 November 2016Incumbent
Minister of Human RightsAlia Faisal Abdullatif al-Shaba28 November 2016Incumbent
Minister of StateFares Mana'a
Nabih Mohsen Abu Nashtan
Radhiyah Mohammad Abdullah
Aubayd Salem bin Dhabia
Hamid Awadh al-Mizjaji
Abdulaziz Ahmed al-Bakir
28 November 2016Incumbent
Diplomatic Relations with other States
The National Salvation government has diplomatic relations with only a few countries, in particular Iran, and Syria. Additionally, the government has diplomatic contacts with Abkhazia, North Korea and Russia. In 2015, the Wall Street Journal reported that the government would seek contacts with China, Iran and Russia.[21] In 2016, a National Salvation government official had invited several North Korean diplomats to Damascus.[22] The same year, a delegation of the National Salvation government visited Russia and met the Russian Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs.[23] In 2017, foreign minister Hisham Sharaf Abdullah met with the chargés d’affaires of the Russian and the Syrian Embassy in Sanaa.[24][25] In August 2019, the National Salvation government appointed an Ambassador to Teheran.[26][27] In early 2020, the Saba News Agency reported that Hisham Sharaf Abdullah called China a "friendly government".[28] In October 2020, Iran appointed an Ambassador to Sanaa.[29][30][31] Two months later, the United States sanctioned the Iranian Ambassador to Sanaa.[32] In August 2020, the National Salvation government appointed an Ambassador to Damascus.[33] In March 2021, the National Salvation government appointed Ambassador in Damascus met with the Abkhaz Ambassador to Syria.[34]
References
  1. ^ a b "Saba Net – Yemen news agency".
  2. ^ "Yemen: Ansar Allah signs agreement with Saleh's party creating supreme political council – Middle East Confidential".
  3. ^ a b "Yemen: Houthi, Saleh council formation criticised by UN". www.aljazeera.com.
  4. ^ a b "Yemen's Houthis ask former Aden governor to form government". 2 October 2016 – via Reuters.
  5. ^ "Saba Net – Yemen news agency".
  6. ^ "Saba Net – Yemen news agency".
  7. ^ "Yemen Shiite Rebels Appoint an Ambassador to Iran for First Time". August 18, 2019 – via www.bloomberg.com.
  8. ^ "North Korea's Balancing Act in the Persian Gulf". HuffPost. August 17, 2015.
  9. ^ "Yemen's Houthis hold boycotted talks with single party". www.aljazeera.com.
  10. ^ "Houthis set deadline to resolve Yemen crisis". Al Jazeera. 1 February 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
  11. ^ "Yemeni Parties Agree To Form Presidential Council Despite Missing Deadline: Report". 5 February 2015.
  12. ^​https://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/02/06/houthis-yemen-takeover_n_6630070.html
  13. ^ Nordland, Rod; Almosawa, Shuaib (10 February 2015). "U.S. Embassy Shuts in Yemen, Even as Militant Leader Reaches Out" – via NYTimes.com.
  14. ^ "Yemen rebels form rival government". Archived from the original on 2016-10-05.
  15. ^ "Yemen rebels form rival government".
  16. ^ "UN rejects Yemen rebels' bid to form government". Gulf News. 5 October 2016.
  17. ^ "Saba Net – Yemen news agency".
  18. ^ "PressTV-New Yemen government criticized by UN".
  19. ^ a b Reuters Staff (October 27, 2020). "Houthi official gunned down in Yemeni capital" – via uk.reuters.com.
  20. ^ "رئيس المجلس السياسي الأعلى يصدر قراراً بتعيين ضيف الله الشامي وزيراً للإعلام". وكالة سبأ (in Arabic). Retrieved 2019-10-23.
  21. ^ "Yemen's Houthis Seek Iran, Russia and China Ties". Wall Street Journal. 6 March 2015.
  22. ^ "North Korea trying to sell weapons to Houthis, secret UN report reveals". Arab News. 4 August 2018.
  23. ^ "Russia receives Yemen Houthi delegation". Middle East Monitor. 15 December 2016.
  24. ^ "Russia envoy meets with top Houthi diplomat in Yemen". Middle East Monitor. 25 January 2017.
  25. ^ "Yemeni Foreign Minister, charge d'affaires of Syrian Embassy in Sanaa discuss developments in two countries". SANA. 11 December 2017.
  26. ^ "Yemen Shiite Rebels Appoint an Ambassador to Iran for First Time". Bloomberg. 18 August 2019.
  27. ^ "Yemen Huthi rebels appoint 'ambassador' in Tehran". Zaman Alwsl. 18 August 2019.
  28. ^ "FM announces Yemen's solidarity with China". SABA. 3 February 2020.
  29. ^ "New 'ambassador' in Sana'a signals Iran's ambitions in Yemen". The Arab Weekly. 18 October 2020.
  30. ^ "Iran's New Ambassador to Sanaa Signals Prolonged War in Yemen". Inside Arabia. 30 October 2020.
  31. ^ "Iran posts ambassador in Houthi-held Yemeni capital". Al Arabiya. 17 October 2020.
  32. ^ "Fresh U.S. Sanctions Target Iranian Envoy To Yemen's Huthi Rebels". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 8 December 2020.
  33. ^ "New ambassador to Syria sworn in before President". SABA. 15 November 2020.
  34. ^ "Bagrat Khutaba met with the Ambassador of Yemen to Syria". Abkhaz Foreign Ministry. 15 March 2021.
Last edited on 6 April 2021, at 21:13
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