The first part of the word riksbank, riks, stems from the Swedish word rike, which means realm, kingdom, empire or nation in English. A literal English translation of the bank's name could thus be Sweden's realm's bank. The bank, however, doesn't translate its name to English but uses its Swedish name the Riksbank also in its English communications.
The Riksbank began operations in 1668. Previously, Sweden was served by the name Stockholms Banco
(also known as the Bank of Palmstruch), founded by Johan Palmstruch
in 1656. Although the bank was private, it was the king
who chose its management: in a letter to Palmstruch, he gave permission to its operations according to stated regulations. But Stockholms Banco collapsed as a result of the issuing of too many notes without the necessary collateral. Palmstruch, who was considered responsible for the bank's losses, was condemned to death, but later received clemency
. On 17 September 1668, the privilege of Palmstruch to operate a bank was transferred to the Riksens Ständers Bank
("Bank of the Estates of the Realm") and was run under the auspices of the parliament of the day. Due to the failure of Stockholm Banco, the new bank was managed under the direct control of the Riksdag of the Estates
to prevent the interference from the king. When a new Riksdag
was instituted in 1866, the name of the bank was changed to Sveriges Riksbank.
Having learned the lesson of the Stockholms Banco experience, the Riksbank was not permitted to issue bank-notes. Nevertheless, in 1701, permission was granted to issue so called credit-notes". Some time in the middle of the 18th century, counterfeit notes began appearing, which caused serious problems. To prevent forgeries
, it was decided that the Riksbank should produce its own paper for bank-notes and a paper-mill, Tumba Bruk
, was founded in Tumba
, on the outskirts of Stockholm.
A few years later, the first commercial banks were founded and these were also allowed to issue bank-notes. The bank-notes represented a claim to the bank without interest
paid, and thus became a considerable source of income
for banks. Nonetheless, security in the form of a deposit
at the Riksbank was required to cover the value
of all notes issued.
A mid-19th century banknote for 32 Skillingar Banco (1843)
During the 19th century, the Riksbank maintained a dominant position as a credit
institution and issuer of bank-notes. The bank also managed national trade transactions as well as continuing to provide credit to the general public. The first branch-office was opened in 1824, later followed with subsidiary branches opening in each county (län
). The present operational activities as a central bank differ from those during the 19th century. For example, no interest-rate-related activities were conducted.
The position of the Riksbank as a central bank
dates back to 1897, when the first Riksbank Act was accepted concurrently with a law giving the Riksbank the exclusive right to issue bank-notes. This copyright
concluded its role and importance regarding monetary policy
in a modern sense, as the exclusive right to issue notes is a condition when conducting monetary policy and defending the value of a currency. Behind the decision were repeated demands that the private banks should cease to issue notes as it was considered that the ensuing profits
should befall the general public.
The Swedish currency was backed by gold
and the paper-certificates could be exchanged for gold coins until 1931, when a specialized temporary law freed the bank from this obligation. This law was renewed every year until the new constitution was ratified in 1975 which split the bank from the government into a stand-alone organization not obligated to exchange notes for gold.
From 1991 to 1993, Sweden experienced its most severe recession
since the 1930s termed the "Swedish banking rescue
". It forced inflation down to around 2%, and inflation continued to be low during the subsequent years of strong growth in the late 1990s.
During the 2000s, the operations and administrative departments were downsized on behalf of the policy departments Financial Stability Department and Monetary Policy Department. A direct consequence of the changing times was that the Riksbank closed down all its branches in Sweden and outsourced the handling of coins and bills to a private company. Today the policy departments are the core of the central bank and they employ about half of the bank's 350 full-time posts.
The motto of the Bank is Hinc robur et securitas
, which is Latin
for "Herefore strength and safety" ("Härav styrka och säkerhet"
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel
Innovative monetary policy initiatives
The Riksbank has a reputation for innovation among central banks due to implementing policies such as:
Negative interest rates
On 2 July 2009, Sweden's Riksbank was the first central bank in the world to implement a negative interest rate
, when it lowered its repo rate
(the rate at which a central bank lends short-term money to commercial banks against securities) to 0.25%. This caused its linked overnight deposit rate
(the interest commercial banks get for depositing money with the central bank overnight) to be pushed down to −0.25%, while the overnight lending rate
(the interest a central bank charges commercial banks for overnight lending) was lowered to 0.75%.
This was done to counter economic slowdown due to the financial crises of 2008
. The bank's Deputy Governor Lars E. O. Svensson
stated that he had preferred a cut of the repo rate to 0.00%, as this would "entail a better balanced monetary policy, with lower unemployment and higher resource utilisation without inflation deviating too far from the target."
The Swedish move to a negative discount rate was followed with great interest by central banks around the world.
On 28 October 2014, the Riksbank cut its repo rate to 0.00%, as Deputy Governor Svensson advocated in July 2009, pushing the linked deposit rate to −0.75%, while the lending rate remained at 0.75%.
On 12 February 2015, the bank again lowered the repo rate to −0.10%. The Riksbank announced at the same time that it would buy government bonds for SEK 30 billion, and that more measures would likely follow.
The deposit rate was lowered to −0.85%, and the lending rate to 0.65%.
On 18 March 2015, the Riksbank cut the repo rate even further, to −0.25%.
The bank announced at the same time that it was buying government bonds worth SEK 30 billion (US$3.4 billion, €3.2 billion) to prevent an appreciating krona from hindering an uptick in inflation.
Inflation has been close to zero in Sweden since late 2012 and in February it was at 0.1%, far below the target of 2.0%, and the purpose of these moves was to stimulate inflation.
The bank announced that it intends to keep the rate at −0.25%. "at least until the second half of 2016."
The deposit rate was as a consequence lowered to −1.00% and the lending rate to 0.50%.
The Riksbank has consequently lowered the rate two additional times, first on 8 July 2015 down 0.10 percentage points to −0.35 and most recently, on 17 February 2016 it was down another 0.15 points to −0.50.
The accompanying deposit and lending rates now lies at −1.25 and 0.25, respectively.
Facing a natural drop in the use of cash by the Swedish population, the Riksbank is pioneering the idea of introducing a central bank digital currency
, the e-krona
Such currency would have the same properties as cash, but in a digital form. In November 2016, the Bank announced an ambitious research programme
in order to help the bank decide whether it should start issuing e-krona
. The Bank released its first interim report in September 2017 which outlined that "no major obstacles to the introduction of an e-krona have been identified".
- Ivar Rooth, 1929–1948
- Klas Böök, 1948–1951
- Mats Lemne, 1951–1955
- Per Åsbrink, 1955–1973
- Krister Wickman, 1973–1976
- Carl Henrik Nordlander, 1976–1979
- Lars Wohlin, 1979–1982
- Bengt Dennis, 1982–1993
- Urban Bäckström, 1993 – 31 December 2002
- Lars Heikensten, 1 January 2003 – 31 December 2005
- Stefan Ingves, 1 January 2006–
- ^ a b https://d-nb.info/1138787981/34
- ^ a b "Repo rate, table". Sveriges Riksbank. 13 July 2016. Archived from the original on 20 April 2014. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- ^ Crowe, Christopher; Meade, Ellen E. (Fall 2007). "The Evolution of Central Bank Governance around the World". Journal of Economic Perspectives. 21 (4): 69–90. doi:10.1257/jep.21.4.69. JSTOR 30033752.
- ^ "History". Sveriges Riksbank. 23 March 2009. Archived from the original on 4 May 2008. Retrieved 2 September 2010.
- ^ "Frequently asked questions". Sveriges Riksbank. 19 March 2009. Archived from the original on 9 October 2010. Retrieved 2 September 2010.
- ^ "Inflation Targeting – The Swedish Experience" Archived 15 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine, The Bank of Canada accessed 26 May 2007
- ^ a b "Repo rate cut to 0.25 per cent" (PDF) (Press release). Sveriges Riksbank. 2 July 2009. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
- ^ Ward, Andrew; Oakley, David (27 August 2009). "Bankers watch as Sweden goes negative". Financial Times. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
- ^ "Repo rate cut to zero per cent" (Press release). Sveriges Riksbank. 28 October 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
- ^ Khan, Mehreen (28 October 2014). "How low can you go? Sweden cuts interest rates to zero". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
- ^ "Ingves and Jochnick in hearing on monetary policy: We are determined to safeguard the inflation target". Sveriges Riksbank. 5 March 2015.
- ^ Carlstrom, Johan; Billner, Amanda (12 February 2015). "Riksbank Cuts Key Rate to Negative". Bloomberg Businessweek.
- ^ a b c Repo rate table 2015 Sveriges Riksbank Linked 2015-04-10
- ^ Jolly, David (18 March 2015). "Sweden Cuts Key Interest Rate to Minus 0.25%". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
- ^ a b c Sullivan, Tom (18 March 2015). "Swedish central bank cuts key rate further below zero". Yahoo! News.
- ^ "Repo rate cut to −0.50 per cent" (Press release). Sveriges Riksbank. 11 February 2016.
- ^ Repo rate table 2016 Sveriges Riksbank: Linked 2016-07-15 Archived 22 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ "Sweden could become the first major country to issue a national digital currency". Business Insider. 16 November 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
- ^ Skingsley, Cecelia (16 November 2016). "Skingsley: Should the Riksbank issue e-krona?". Sveriges Riksbank. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
- ^ "The E-krona Project's First Interim Report". Sveriges Riksbank. 21 May 2018. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
Last edited on 25 March 2021, at 13:21
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