Talk:President of Tunisia Should be redirected again with the infobox moved there too.
The first presidential and legislative elections were held on November 8
. Since then the two polls have always been held on the same day, always a Sunday
The candidacy of Bourguiba, who benefited from his image as an independence fighter, was uncontested in the first poll. It remained that way through to the election of 1974
, his share of the vote increasing each year, from 91% in 1959 to 99.85% in 1974
. It was not until September 10
that a candidate other than the incumbent president would apply to contest an election. Chedly Zouiten, president of the Tunisian Junior Economic Chamber, announced his run for president, however his own organisation condemned his decision
and his candidature was rejected by an ad hoc electoral commission
. The 1974 election would be the last poll for 20 years, as Bourguiba was proclaimed "president for life" in 1975.
Outgoing Tunisian Human Rights League president Moncef Marzouki
applied to run against Ben Ali
, in 1994
, however he failed to gather enough signatures to be eligible. He was later imprisoned
and had his passport
. It was only after the passing of constitutional amendments and the relaxing of Article 40 of the constitution that non-incumbent candidates were able to contest elections in 1999
General election results since 1959
- ^ a b c d e f g (in French) Samir Gharbi, « Radiographie d’une élection », Jeune Afrique, 2 novembre 1999
- ^ a b
- ^ a b Michel Camau et Vincent Geisser, Habib Bourguiba. La trace et l’héritage, éd. Karthala, Paris, 2004, p. 241 ISBN 2845865066
- ^ (in French) Dominique Lagarde, « Pluralisme à la tunisienne », L’Express, 21 octobre 1999
- ^ (in French) Habib Bourguiba sur Le Grand Larousse Encyclopédique
- ^ Centre d’études nord africaines, Annuaire de l’Afrique du Nord, éd. Université du Michigan/Centre national de la recherche scientifique, 1969, vol. 8, p. 389
- ^ Proclamé président à vie par la Chambre des députés le 18 mars 1975, cette mesure est annulée le 25 juillet 1988 (après son éviction).
- ^ (in French) Encarta avance le chiffre de 99,80 %.
- ^ (in English) Anthony H. Cordesman, A Tragedy of Arms. Military and Security Developments in the Maghreb, éd. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002, p. 250 ISBN 0275969363
- ^ (in French) Encarta avance le chiffre de 99,44 % et Le Canard enchaîné n°4581 (« Carthage de ses artères », 13 août 2008, p. 8) celui de 99,40 %.
- ^ (in French) Résultats de l’élection présidentielle de 2004 (Présidence de la République tunisienne)
- ^ (in French) Le président Ben Ali remporte l’élection présidentielle 2009 avec 89,62 % (Élections 2009)
The president is elected by universal suffrage
for a term of five years in a free, direct and secret ballot, requiring an absolute majority of votes to win
. There is no limit to the number of terms he or she can serve
. In the past, however, the president was limited to four consecutive terms by the 1959 constitution.
Article 51 (currently Article 57) was also amended to state that the powers of the president were to be assumed by the prime minister in the case that the office was vacant
. In 1976
, Prime Minister Hédi Nouira
changed paragraph 3 of Article 39 of the constitution — which was not repealed by the 1975 vote, only suspended — to state that the president's term was unlimited.
When Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali became president, he promised to restore power to the country's institutions, in line with "the republican ideal"
. Articles 40 and 57 of the constitution were amended on July 25
, limiting the number of terms of any given president to three. However, like Bourguiba, when Ben Ali was no longer eligible to hold office the constitution was changed. Under the May 26
amendment, a president was allowed unlimited terms and the maximum allowed age for a candidate was extended from 70 to 75 years
. A president's term was now limited only by his or her life expectancy
. The country's opposition criticized the move, likening it to a "burial for the republic"
. Activist Sadri Khiari
called it a "putsch
- ^ a b c
- ^ (in French) Rafâa Ben Achour, « La succession de Bourguiba », Les figures du politique en Afrique. Des pouvoirs hérités aux pouvoirs élus, éd. Codesria/Karthala, Paris, 2000, p. 230
- ^ (in French) Élections présidentielles en Tunisie (Présidence de la République tunisienne)
- ^ (in French) Déclaration du 7 novembre 1987 (Tunisie Info)
- ^ Jean-Pierre Tuquoi, « En Tunisie, un référendum constitutionnel ouvre la voie à la réélection de M. Ben Ali », Le Monde, 16 mai 2002
- ^ (in French) Hamadi Redissi, « Qu’est-ce qu’une tyrannie élective ? », Jura Gentium, 2002
- ^ Sabine Lavorel, Les constitutions arabes et l’islam, éd. Presses de l’Université du Québec, Sainte-Foy, 2004 ISBN 2760513335
- ^ Florence Beaugé, « L’opposant Sadri Khiari qualifie de « putsch masqué » la réforme constitutionnelle en cours en Tunisie », Le Monde, 23 mai 2002
External links modified
Hello fellow Wikipedians,
I have just modified one external link on President of Tunisia
. Please take a moment to review my edit
. If you have any questions, or need the bot to ignore the links, or the page altogether, please visit this simple FaQ
for additional information. I made the following changes:
When you have finished reviewing my changes, you may follow the instructions on the template below to fix any issues with the URLs.
As of February 2018
, "External links modified" talk page sections are no longer generated or monitored by InternetArchiveBot
. No special action is required regarding these talk page notices, other than regular verification
using the archive tool instructions below. Editors have permission
to delete these "External links modified" talk page sections if they want to de-clutter talk pages, but see the RfC
before doing mass systematic removals. This message is updated dynamically through the template
(last update: 15 July 2018).
- If you have discovered URLs which were erroneously considered dead by the bot, you can report them with this tool.
- If you found an error with any archives or the URLs themselves, you can fix them with this tool.
Return to "President of Tunisia" page.
Last edited on 27 September 2020, at 16:42
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.