The name of the territory was taken from the large lake in its west. HM Stanley
had found the name of "Tanganika", when he travelled to Ujiji
in 1876. he wrote that the locals were not sure about its meaning and conjectured himself that it meant something like "the great lake spreading out like a plain", or "plain-like lake".
The name was chosen by the British with the Treaty of Versailles
, and as such the name took effect when Britain was given control of Tanganyika in 1920. Britain needed a new name to replace "Deutsch Ostafrika" or "German East Africa". Various names were considered, including "Smutsland" in honour of General Jan Smuts
(denied for being "inelegant"), "Eburnea," "New Maryland," "Windsorland" after the British Royal Family's new family name, and "Victoria" after both the Lake and the Queen. The Colonial Secretary insisted that "a native name prominently associated with the territory" be selected. "Kilimanjaro
" analogous to "Kenya" named after the country's highest mountain and "Tabora
" after the town and trading centre near the geographical centre of the country were proposed and rejected. Then, the deputy undersecretary to the Colonial Secretary proposed "Tanganyika Protectorate" after Lake Tanganyika
; the name was modified after a "junior official suggested that 'Territory' was more in accordance with the [League of Nations mandate
]" and that was adopted.
In the second half of the 19th century, European explorers and colonialists traveled through the African interior from Zanzibar
. In 1885, the German Empire
declared its intent to establish a protectorate in the area, named German East Africa
(GEA), under the leadership of Carl Peters
. When the Sultan of Zanzibar
objected, German warships threatened to bombard his palace. Britain and Germany then agreed to divide the mainland into spheres of influence, and the Sultan was forced to acquiesce. The Germans brutally repressed the Maji Maji Rebellion
of 1905. The German colonial administration instituted an educational programme for native Africans, including elementary, secondary, and vocational schools.
In 1927, Tanganyika entered the Customs Union
of the East Africa Protectorate
and the Uganda Protectorate
, which eventually became the independent countries of Kenya and Uganda, and the East African Postal Union, later the East African Posts and Telecommunications Administration. Cooperation expanded with those protectorates and, later, countries in a number of ways, leading to the establishment of the East African High Commission
(1948–1961) and the East African Common Services Organisation
(1961–1967), forerunners of the East African Community
. The country held its first elections
in 1958 and 1959. The following year it was granted internal self-government and fresh elections
were held. Both elections were won by the Tanganyika African National Union
, which led the country to independence in December 1961. The following year a presidential election
was held, with TANU leader Julius Nyerere
emerging victorious. In the mid-20th century, Tanganyika was the largest producer of beeswax
in the world.
- ^ Stanley, Henry M. (1878). Through the Dark continent, or, The sources of the Nile : around the great lakes of equatorial Africa and down the Livingstone River to the Atlantic Ocean, Volume II. Harold B. Lee Library. London : Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, Rivington. p. 16.
- ^ Iliffe, John (1979). A Modern History of Tanganyika. Cambridge University Press. p. 247. ISBN 9780521296113.
- ^ East, John William. "The German Administration in East Africa: A Select Annotated Bibliography of the German Colonial Administration in Tanganyika, Rwanda and Burundi from 1884 to 1918." [London? 1989] 294 leaves. 1 reel of microfilm (negative.) Thesis submitted for the fellowship of the Library Association, London, November 1987.
- ^ Farwell, Byron. The Great War in Africa, 1914–1918. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. 1989. ISBN 0-393-30564-3
- ^ Gunther, John (1955). Inside Africa. Harper & Brothers. p. 409. ISBN 0836981979.
- Cana, Frank Richardson (1922). "Tanganyika Territory" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica (12th ed.). London & New York: The Encyclopædia Britannica Company.
- Iliffe, John. A modern history of Tanganyika. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521296113.
- Gordon-Brown, A. (editor), The East Africa Year Book and Guide, London, 1954, 87pps, with maps.
- Hill, J.F.R., and Moffett, J.P., Tanganyika – a Review of its Resources and their Development, published by the Government of Tanganyika, 1955, 924pps, with many maps.
- Mwakikagile, Godfrey, Life in Tanganyika in The Fifties, New Africa Press, 2008, 428pps, with maps and photos.
- Moffett, J.P., Handbook of Tanganyika, published by the Government of Tanganyika, 1958, 703pps, with maps.
Last edited on 8 September 2021, at 07:37
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