Tanganyika Territory
For the former sovereign state, see Tanganyika (1961–1964).
Tanganyika was a colonial territory in East Africa which was administered by the United Kingdom in various guises from 1916 to 1961. It was initially administered under a military occupation regime. From 20 July 1922, it was formalised into a League of Nations mandate under British rule. From 1946, it was administered by the UK as a United Nations trust territory.
Tanganyika Territory
Coat of arms

League of Nations mandates in the Middle East and Africa, with no. 11 representing Tanganyika
StatusMandate of the United Kingdom
CapitalDar es Salaam
Common languagesEnglish (official)
ReligionProtestantism, Catholicism, Islam and others.
• 1916-1936
George V
• 1952-1961
Elizabeth II
• 1916-1925
Horace Archer Byatt
• 1958-1961
Richard Turnbull
• Anglo-Belgian invasion
• Mandate created
20 July 1922
• Independence
9 December 1961
CurrencyEast African shilling
Preceded bySucceeded by
German East Africa
Today part of
Before World War I, Tanganyika formed part of the German colony of German East Africa. It was gradually occupied by forces from the British Empire and Belgian Congo during the East Africa Campaign, although German resistance continued until 1918. After this, the League of Nations formalised the UK's control of the area, who renamed it "Tanganyika". The UK held Tanganyika as a League of Nations mandate until the end of World War II after which it was held as a United Nations trust territory. In 1961, Tanganyika gained its independence from the UK as Tanganyika. It became a republic a year later. Tanganyika now forms part of the modern-day sovereign state of Tanzania.
The name of the territory was taken from the large lake in its west. HM Stanley had found the name of "Tanganika", when he travelled to Ujiji in 1876. he wrote that the locals were not sure about its meaning and conjectured himself that it meant something like "the great lake spreading out like a plain", or "plain-like lake".[1]
The name was chosen by the British with the Treaty of Versailles, and as such the name took effect when Britain was given control of Tanganyika in 1920. Britain needed a new name to replace "Deutsch Ostafrika" or "German East Africa". Various names were considered, including "Smutsland" in honour of General Jan Smuts (denied for being "inelegant"), "Eburnea," "New Maryland," "Windsorland" after the British Royal Family's new family name, and "Victoria" after both the Lake and the Queen. The Colonial Secretary insisted that "a native name prominently associated with the territory" be selected. "Kilimanjaro" analogous to "Kenya" named after the country's highest mountain and "Tabora" after the town and trading centre near the geographical centre of the country were proposed and rejected. Then, the deputy undersecretary to the Colonial Secretary proposed "Tanganyika Protectorate" after Lake Tanganyika; the name was modified after a "junior official suggested that 'Territory' was more in accordance with the [League of Nations mandate]" and that was adopted.[2]
Main article: History of Tanzania
In the second half of the 19th century, European explorers and colonialists traveled through the African interior from Zanzibar. In 1885, the German Empire declared its intent to establish a protectorate in the area, named German East Africa (GEA), under the leadership of Carl Peters. When the Sultan of Zanzibar objected, German warships threatened to bombard his palace. Britain and Germany then agreed to divide the mainland into spheres of influence, and the Sultan was forced to acquiesce. The Germans brutally repressed the Maji Maji Rebellion of 1905. The German colonial administration instituted an educational programme for native Africans, including elementary, secondary, and vocational schools.[3][4]
After the defeat of Germany during World War I, GEA was divided among the victorious powers under the Treaty of Versailles. Apart from Ruanda-Urundi (assigned to Belgium) and the small Kionga Triangle (assigned to Portuguese Mozambique), the territory was transferred to British control. "Tanganyika" was adopted by the British as the name for its part of the former German East Africa.
In 1927, Tanganyika entered the Customs Union of the East Africa Protectorate and the Uganda Protectorate, which eventually became the independent countries of Kenya and Uganda, and the East African Postal Union, later the East African Posts and Telecommunications Administration. Cooperation expanded with those protectorates and, later, countries in a number of ways, leading to the establishment of the East African High Commission (1948–1961) and the East African Common Services Organisation (1961–1967), forerunners of the East African Community. The country held its first elections in 1958 and 1959. The following year it was granted internal self-government and fresh elections were held. Both elections were won by the Tanganyika African National Union, which led the country to independence in December 1961. The following year a presidential election was held, with TANU leader Julius Nyerere emerging victorious. In the mid-20th century, Tanganyika was the largest producer of beeswax in the world.[5]
See also
Tanzania portal
List of colonial heads of Tanganyika
  1. ^ Stanley, Henry M. (1878). Through the Dark continent, or, The sources of the Nile : around the great lakes of equatorial Africa and down the Livingstone River to the Atlantic Ocean, Volume II. Harold B. Lee Library. London : Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, Rivington. p. 16.
  2. ^ Iliffe, John (1979). A Modern History of Tanganyika. Cambridge University Press. p. 247. ISBN 9780521296113.
  3. ^ East, John William. "The German Administration in East Africa: A Select Annotated Bibliography of the German Colonial Administration in Tanganyika, Rwanda and Burundi from 1884 to 1918." [London? 1989] 294 leaves. 1 reel of microfilm (negative.) Thesis submitted for the fellowship of the Library Association, London, November 1987.
  4. ^ Farwell, Byron. The Great War in Africa, 1914–1918. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. 1989. ISBN 0-393-30564-3
  5. ^ Gunther, John (1955). Inside Africa. Harper & Brothers. p. 409. ISBN 0836981979.
Further reading
External links
The British Empire - Tanganyika
Last edited on 8 September 2021, at 07:37
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