Nunation - Wikipedia
Nunation
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Nunation (Arabic: تَنوِين‎‎, tanwīn ), in some Semitic languages such as Literary Arabic, is the addition of one of three vowel diacritics (ḥarakāt) to a noun or adjective.
This is used to indicate the word ends in an alveolar nasal without the addition of the letter nūn. The noun phrase is fully declinable and syntactically unmarked for definiteness, identifiable in speech.
Literary Arabic
Nunation - tanwīn تَنْوِين
Symbol
ـٌ


ـٍ


ـً

Transliteration
-un

-in

-an
Case
Nom

Gen

Acc
Example on the word بيت bayt
بيتٌ

بيتٍ

بيتًا
Transliterationbaytunbaytinbaytan
When writing Literary Arabic in full diacritics, there are three nunation diacritics, which indicate the suffixes -un (IPA: /-un/) (nominative case), -in /-in/ (genitive), and -an /an/ (accusative). The orthographical rules for nunation with the fatḥah sign ـً‎ is by an additional اalif (اً‎, diacritic above alif; or ـًا‎, diacritic before alif), above ةً‎ (tāʾ marbūṭah تاء مربوطة‎) or above ءً‎ (hamzah همزة‎).
In spoken Arabic, nunation only exists in words and phrases borrowed from the literary language, especially those that are declined in the accusative (that is, with -an).
Since Arabic has no indefinite article, nouns that are nunated are indefinite, and so the absence of the definite article ʼal triggers nunation in all nouns and substantives except diptotes (that is, derivations with only two cases in the indefinite state, -u in the nominative and -a in the accusative and genitive). A given name, if it is not a diptote, is also nunated when declined, as in أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ الله‎ (ashhadu anna Muḥammadan rasūlu l-lāh(i) /ʔaʃ.ha.du ʔan.na mu.ħam.ma.dan ra.suː.lul.laː(.hi)/ "I bear witness that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah."), in which the word محمدMuḥammad, a given name derived from the passive participle of حَمَّدَ ("to praise"), is nunated to مُحَمَّدًاMuḥammadan to signal that it is in the accusative case, as it is the grammatical subject of a sentence introduced by أنَّ‎ ("that").
Akkadian language
Nunation may also refer to the -n  ending of duals in Akkadian (until it was dropped in the Old Babylonian period).[1]
See also
References
^ Akkadian grammar: morphology Archived 2009-07-05 at the Wayback Machine
External links
Last edited on 8 April 2021, at 13:43
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