Taymanitic - Wikipedia
Taymanitic
Taymanitic was the language and script of the oasis of Taymāʾ in northwestern Arabia, dated to the second half of the 6th century BCE.[1]
Taymanitic
RegionTaymāʾ
Erasecond half of the 6th century BCE
Afroasiatic
Taymanitic
Language codes
ISO 639-3None (mis)
Glottologtaym1240
Classification
Taymanitic does not participate in the key innovations of Proto-Arabic, precluding it from being considered a member of the Arabic language family. It shares one key isogloss with Northwest Semitic: the change w > y in word-initial position. Examples include yrḫ for *warḫum 'moon, month' and ydʿ for wadaʿa 'to know'.[2]
It is clear that Taymanitic script expressed a distinct linguistic variety that is not Arabic and not closely related to Hismaic or Safaitic, while it can tentatively be suggested that it was more closely related to Northwest Semitic.[3]
Phonology
Consonants
Consonant phonemes[4]
 BilabialAlveolarPalatalVelar
Pharyn-
geal
Glottal
Plosivepbtd kɡ  ʔ 
Ejectiveplosive          
Affricate  tsdz        
Ejectiveaffricate  tsʼ         
Lateral fricative  ɬ         
Lateral​ejective​affricate  tɬʼ         
Fricative  s   xɣʕħh 
Nasal m n        
Trill   r        
Approximant     j w    
Lateral approximant   l        
Vowels
Monophthong phonemes
ShortLong
FrontBackFrontBack
Closeiu
Opena
Diphthong phonemes[4]
 Closer component
is front
Closer component
is back
Opener component is unrounded
Characteristics
Taymanitic exhibits two major features which are innovative:[2]
  1. The change w > y in word-initial position: yrḫ for *warḫum 'moon, month' and ydʿ for wadaʿa 'to know'.
  2. The mergers *z, * > *z, *s3, * > *s3, and *, * > * (loss of interdentals).
Unlike Arabic, Taymanitic does not exhibit the merger of Proto-Semitic [s] and [ts].
References
  1. ^ Kootstra, Fokelien (15 August 2016). "The Language of the Taymanitic Inscriptions and its Classification". Arabian Epigraphic Notes. LeiCenSAA: 68.
  2. ^ a b "Al-Jallad. The earliest stages of Arabic and its linguistic classification (Routledge Handbook of Arabic Linguistics, forthcoming)". www.academia.edu. Retrieved 2015-12-08.
  3. ^ Kootstra, Fokelien (15 August 2016). "The Language of the Taymanitic Inscriptions and its Classification". Arabian Epigraphic Notes. LeiCenSAA: 107.
  4. ^ a b "The Language of the Taymanitic Inscriptions and its Classification". Retrieved 2016-09-14.
Last edited on 31 December 2020, at 20:45
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