The city was founded in 1909 by the Yishuv
residents) as a modern housing estate on the outskirts of the ancient port city
, then part of the Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem
within the Ottoman Empire
. It was at first called 'Ahuzat Bayit' (lit.
"House Estate" or "Homestead"),
the name of the association which established the neighbourhood. Its name was changed the following year to 'Tel Aviv', after the biblical name Tel Abib
adopted by Nahum Sokolow
as the title for his Hebrew translation of Theodor Herzl
's 1902 novel Altneuland
("Old New Land"). Other Jewish suburbs of Jaffa established before Tel Aviv eventually became part of Tel Aviv, the oldest among them being Neve Tzedek
(est. 1886).[dubious – discuss]
Tel Aviv was given "township" status within the Jaffa Municipality in 1921, and became independent from Jaffa in 1934.
After the 1947–1949 Palestine war
Tel Aviv began the municipal annexation
of parts of Jaffa, fully unified with Jaffa under the name "Tel Aviv" in April 1950, and was renamed to "Tel Aviv-Yafo" in August 1950.
Etymology and origins
Tel Aviv is named after Theodor Herzl's 1902 novel, Altneuland
("Old New Land"), for which the title of the Hebrew edition was "Tel Aviv"
is the Hebrew title of Theodor Herzl
("Old New Land"), translated from German by Nahum Sokolow
. Sokolow had adopted the name of a Mesopotamian
site near the city of Babylon mentioned in Ezekiel
: "Then I came to them of the captivity at Tel Aviv
, that lived by the river Chebar
, and to where they lived; and I sat there overwhelmed among them seven days."
The name was chosen in 1910 from several suggestions, including "Herzliya
". It was found fitting as it embraced the idea of a renaissance in the ancient Jewish homeland. Aviv
is Hebrew for "spring", symbolizing renewal, and tel
is an artificial mound created over centuries through the accumulation of successive layers of civilization built one over the other and symbolizing the ancient.
Although founded in 1909 as a small settlement on the sand dunes north of Jaffa, Tel Aviv was envisaged as a future city from the start. Its founders hoped that in contrast to what they perceived as the squalid and unsanitary conditions of neighbouring Arab towns, Tel Aviv was to be a clean and modern city, inspired by the European cities of Warsaw
The marketing pamphlets advocating for its establishment stated:
In this city we will build the streets so they have roads and sidewalks and electric lights. Every house will have water from wells that will flow through pipes as in every modern European city, and also sewerage pipes will be installed for the health of the city and its residents.
— Akiva Arieh Weiss, 1906
The walled city
was the only urban centre in the general area where now Tel Aviv is located in early modern times. Jaffa was an important port city in the region for millennia. Archaeological evidence shows signs of human settlement there starting in roughly 7,500 BC.
The city was established around 1,800 BC at the latest. Its natural harbour has been used since the Bronze Age
. By the time Tel Aviv was founded as a separate city during Ottoman
rule of the region, Jaffa had been ruled by the Canaanites
, the early Islamic caliphates
, and Mamluks
before coming under Ottoman rule in 1515. It had been fought over numerous times. The city is mentioned in ancient Egyptian documents, as well as the Hebrew Bible
During the First Aliyah
in the 1880s, when Jewish immigrants began arriving in the region in significant numbers, new neighborhoods were founded outside Jaffa on the current territory of Tel Aviv. The first was Neve Tzedek
, founded in 1887 by Mizrahi Jews
due to overcrowding in Jaffa and built on lands owned by Aharon Chelouche
Other neighborhoods were Neve Shalom
(1890), Yafa Nof
(1899), Ohel Moshe
(1904), Kerem HaTeimanim
(1906), and others. Once Tel Aviv received city status in the 1920s, those neighborhoods joined the newly formed municipality, now becoming separated from Jaffa.
1904–1917: Foundation in the Late Ottoman Period
Lottery for the first lots, April 1909
Nahlat Binyamin, 1913
The Second Aliyah
led to further expansion. In 1906, a group of Jews, among them residents of Jaffa, followed the initiative of Akiva Aryeh Weiss
and banded together to form the Ahuzat Bayit
(lit. "homestead") society. One of the society's goals was to form a "Hebrew urban centre in a healthy environment, planned according to the rules of aesthetics and modern hygiene."
The urban planning for the new city was influenced by the garden city movement
The first 60 plots were purchased in Kerem Djebali near Jaffa by Jacobus Kann
, a Dutch citizen, who registered them in his name to circumvent the Turkish prohibition on Jewish land acquisition. Meir Dizengoff
, later Tel Aviv's first mayor, also joined the Ahuzat Bayit society.
His vision for Tel Aviv involved peaceful co-existence with Arabs.[unreliable source]
On 11 April 1909, 66 Jewish families gathered on a desolate sand dune to parcel out the land by lottery using seashells. This gathering is considered the official date of the establishment of Tel Aviv. The lottery was organised by Akiva Aryeh Weiss
, president of the building society.
Weiss collected 120 sea shells on the beach, half of them white and half of them grey. The members' names were written on the white shells and the plot numbers on the grey shells. A boy drew names from one box of shells and a girl drew plot numbers from the second box. A photographer, Abraham Soskin
, documented the event. The first water well was later dug at this site, located on what is today Rothschild Boulevard
, across from Dizengoff House.
Within a year, Herzl
, Ahad Ha'am
, Yehuda Halevi
, and Rothschild streets were built; a water system was installed; and 66 houses (including some on six subdivided plots) were completed.
At the end of Herzl Street, a plot was allocated for a new building for the Herzliya Hebrew High School
, founded in Jaffa in 1906.
The cornerstone for the building was laid on 28 July 1909. The town was originally named Ahuzat Bayit. On 21 May 1910, the name Tel Aviv was adopted.
The flag and city arms of Tel Aviv (see above) contain under the red Star of David 2 words from the biblical book of Jeremiah: "I (God) will build You up again and you will be rebuilt." (Jer 31:4) Tel Aviv was planned as an independent Hebrew city with wide streets and boulevards, running water for each house, and street lights.
By 1914, Tel Aviv had grown to more than 1 square kilometre (247 acres).
In 1915 a census of Tel Aviv was conducted, recording a population 2,679.
However, growth halted in 1917 when the Ottoman
authorities expelled the residents of Jaffa and Tel Aviv
as a wartime measure.
A report published in The New York Times
by United States Consul Garrels in Alexandria, Egypt
described the Jaffa deportation of early April 1917. The orders of evacuation were aimed chiefly at the Jewish population.
Jews were free to return to their homes in Tel Aviv at the end of the following year when, with the end of World War I and the defeat of the Ottomans, the British took control of Palestine.
The town had rapidly become an attraction to immigrants, with a local activist writing:
The immigrants were attracted to Tel Aviv because they found in it all the comforts they were used to in Europe: electric light, water, a little cleanliness, cinema, opera, theatre, and also more or less advanced schools... busy streets, full restaurants, cafes open until 2 a.m., singing, music, and dancing.
British administration 1917–34: Townships within the Jaffa Municipality
Master plan for the Tel Aviv township, 1925
A master plan for the Tel Aviv township was created by Patrick Geddes
, 1925, based on the garden city movement
The plan consisted of four main features: a hierarchical system of streets laid out in a grid, large blocks consisting of small-scale domestic dwellings, the organization of these blocks around central open spaces, and the concentration of cultural institutions to form a civic center.
Tel Aviv, established as suburb of Jaffa, received "township" or local council status within the Jaffa Municipality in 1921.
According to a census
conducted in 1922 by the British Mandate authorities
, the Tel Aviv township had a population of 15,185 inhabitants, consisting of 15,065 Jews, 78 Muslims and 42 Christians.
Increasing in the 1931 census
to 46,101, in 12,545 houses.
Tel Aviv bus station 1920
With increasing Jewish immigration during the British administration
, friction between Arabs and Jews in Palestine increased. On 1 May 1921, the Jaffa riots
resulted in the deaths of 48 Arabs and 47 Jews and injuries to 146 Jews and 73 Arabs.
In the wake of this violence, many Jews left Jaffa for Tel Aviv. The population of Tel Aviv increased from 2,000 in 1920 to around 34,000 by 1925.
Tel Aviv began to develop as a commercial center.
In 1923, Tel Aviv was the first town to be wired to electricity in Palestine, followed by Jaffa later in the same year. The opening ceremony of the Jaffa Electric Company powerhouse, on 10 June 1923, celebrated the lighting of the two main streets of Tel Aviv.
Ben Gurion House
was built in 1930–31, part of a new workers' housing development. At the same time, Jewish cultural life was given a boost by the establishment of the Ohel Theatre and the decision of Habima Theatre
to make Tel Aviv its permanent base in 1931.
1934 municipal independence from Jaffa
Shadal Street in 1926
Magen David Square in 1936
Tel Aviv was granted the status of an independent municipality separate from Jaffa in 1934.
The Jewish population rose dramatically during the Fifth Aliyah
after the Nazis came to power in Germany.
By 1937 the Jewish population of Tel Aviv had risen to 150,000, compared to Jaffa's mainly Arab 69,000 residents. Within two years, it had reached 160,000, which was over a third of Palestine's total Jewish population.
Many new Jewish immigrants to Palestine disembarked in Jaffa, and remained in Tel Aviv, turning the city into a center of urban life. Friction during the 1936–39 Arab revolt
led to the opening of a local Jewish port, Tel Aviv Port
, independent of Jaffa, in 1938. It closed on 25 October 1965. Lydda Airport
(later Ben Gurion Airport) and Sde Dov Airport
opened between 1937 and 1938.[unreliable source]
During the Jewish insurgency in Mandatory Palestine
, Jewish Irgun
guerrillas launched repeated attacks against British military, police, and government targets in the city. In 1946, following the King David Hotel bombing
, the British carried out Operation Shark
, in which the entire city was searched for Jewish militants and most of the residents questioned, during which the entire city was placed under curfew. During the March 1947 martial law in Mandatory Palestine
, Tel Aviv was placed under martial law by the British authorities for 15 days, with the residents kept under curfew for all but three hours a day as British forces scoured the city for militants. In spite of this, Jewish guerrilla attacks continued in Tel Aviv and other areas under martial law in Palestine.
According to the 1947 UN Partition Plan
for dividing Palestine into Jewish and Arab states, Tel Aviv, by then a city of 230,000, was to be included in the proposed Jewish state
. Jaffa with, as of 1945, a population of 101,580 people—53,930 Muslims, 30,820 Jews and 16,800 Christians—was designated as part of the Arab state. Civil War
broke out in the country and in particular between the neighbouring cities of Tel Aviv and Jaffa, which had been assigned to the Jewish and Arab states respectively. After several months of siege, on 13 May 1948, Jaffa fell and the Arab population fled en masse.
State of Israel
Crowd outside Dizengoff House (now Independence Hall
) to witness the proclamation and signing of Israel's Declaration of Independence in 1948
When Israel declared Independence
on 14 May 1948, the population of Tel Aviv was over 200,000.
Tel Aviv was the temporary government center of the State of Israel until the government moved to Jerusalem in December 1949. Due to the international dispute over the status of Jerusalem
, most embassies remained in or near Tel Aviv.
Growth in the 1950s and 1960s
The boundaries of Tel Aviv and Jaffa became a matter of contention between the Tel Aviv municipality and the Israeli government in 1948.
The former wished to incorporate only the northern Jewish suburbs of Jaffa, while the latter wanted a more complete unification.
The issue also had international sensitivity, since the main part of Jaffa was in the Arab portion of the United Nations Partition Plan
, whereas Tel Aviv was not, and no armistice agreements had yet been signed.
On 10 December 1948, the government announced the annexation to Tel Aviv of Jaffa's Jewish suburbs, the Palestinian
neighborhood of Abu Kabir
, the Arab village of Salama
and some of its agricultural land, and the Jewish 'Hatikva' slum.
On 25 February 1949, the depopulated Palestinian village of al-Shaykh Muwannis
was also annexed to Tel Aviv.
On 18 May 1949, Manshiya
and part of Jaffa's central zone were added, for the first time including land that had been in the Arab portion of the UN partition plan.
The government voted on the unification of Tel Aviv and Jaffa on 4 October 1949, but the decision was not implemented until 24 April 1950 due to the opposition of Tel Aviv mayor Israel Rokach
The name of the unified city was Tel Aviv until 19 August 1950, when it was renamed Tel Aviv-Yafo in order to preserve the historical name Jaffa.
Tel Aviv thus grew to 42 square kilometers (16.2 sq mi). In 1949, a memorial to the 60 founders of Tel Aviv was constructed.
In the 1960s, some of the older buildings were demolished, making way for the country's first high-rises. The historic Herzliya Hebrew Gymnasium
was controversially demolished, to make way for the Shalom Meir Tower
, which was completed in 1965, and remained Israel's tallest building
until 1999. Tel Aviv's population peaked in the early 1960s at 390,000, representing 16 percent of the country's total.
1970s and 1980s population and urban decline
Park Tzameret residential neighborhood under construction
By the early 1970s, Tel Aviv had entered a long and steady period of continuous population decline, which was accompanied by urban decay
. By 1981, Tel Aviv had entered not just natural population decline, but an absolute population decline as well.
In the late 1980s the city had an aging population of 317,000.
Construction activity had moved away from the inner ring of Tel Aviv, and had moved to its outer perimeter and adjoining cities. A mass out-migration of residents from Tel Aviv, to adjoining cities like Petah Tikva
, where better housing conditions were available, was underway by the beginning of the 1970s, and only accelerated by the Yom Kippur War
Cramped housing conditions and high property prices pushed families out of Tel Aviv and deterred young people from moving in.
From the beginning of 1970s, the common image of Tel Aviv became that of a decaying city,
as Tel Aviv's population fell 20%.
In the 1970s, the apparent sense of Tel Aviv's urban decline became a theme in the work of novelists such as Yaakov Shabtai
, in works describing the city such as Sof Davar
(The End of Things
) and Zikhron Devarim
(The Memory of Things
A symptomatic article of 1980 asked "Is Tel Aviv Dying?" and portrayed what it saw as the city's existential problems: "Residents leaving the city, businesses penetrating into residential areas, economic and social gaps, deteriorating neighbourhoods, contaminated air - Is the First Hebrew City destined for a slow death? Will it become a ghost town?".
However, others saw this as a transitional period. By the late 1980s, attitudes to the city's future had become markedly more optimistic. It had also become a center of nightlife and discotheques for Israelis who lived in the suburbs and adjoining cities. By 1989, Tel Aviv had acquired the nickname "Nonstop City", as a reflection of the growing recognition of its nightlife and 24/7 culture, and "Nonstop City" had to some extent replaced the former moniker of "First Hebrew City".
In the early 1980s, 13 embassies in Jerusalem moved to Tel Aviv as part of the UN's measures
responding to Israel's 1980 Jerusalem Law
Today, most national embassies are located in Tel Aviv or environs.
1990s to present
In the 1990s, the decline in Tel Aviv's population began to be reversed and stabilized, at first temporarily due to a wave of immigrants from the former Soviet Union
Tel Aviv absorbed 42,000 immigrants from the FSU, many educated in scientific, technological, medical and mathematical fields.
In this period, the number of engineers in the city doubled.
Tel Aviv soon began to emerge as a global high-tech center.
The construction of many skyscrapers
and high-tech office buildings followed. In 1993, Tel Aviv was categorized as a world city
However, the city's municipality struggled to cope with an influx of new immigrants. Tel Aviv's tax base had been shrinking for many years, as a result of its preceding long term population decline, and this meant there was little money available at the time to invest in the city's deteriorating infrastructure and housing. In 1998, Tel Aviv was on the "verge of bankruptcy".
Economic difficulties would then be compounded by a wave of Palestinian suicide bombings in the city from the mid 1990s, to the end of the Second Intifada, as well as the Dot-com bubble
, which affected the city's rapidly growing hi-tech sector.
On 4 November 1995, Israel's prime minister, Yitzhak Rabin
, was assassinated
at a rally in Tel Aviv in support of the Oslo peace accord. The outdoor plaza where this occurred, formerly known as Kikar Malchei Yisrael, was renamed Rabin Square
New laws were introduced to protect Modernist buildings, and efforts to preserve them were aided by UNESCO
recognition of the Tel Aviv's White City as a world heritage site in 2003. In the early 2000s, Tel Aviv municipality focused on attracting more young residents to the city. It made significant investment in major boulevards, to create attractive pedestrian corridors. Former industrial areas like the city's previously derelict Northern Tel Aviv Port
and the Jaffa railway station
, were upgraded and transformed into leisure areas. A process of gentrification began in some of the poor neighborhoods of southern Tel Aviv and many older buildings began to be renovated.
The demographic profile of the city changed in the 2000s, as it began to attract a higher proportion of young residents. By 2012, 28 percent of the city's population was aged between 20 and 34 years old. Between 2007 and 2012, the city's population growth averaged 6.29 percent. As a result of its population recovery and industrial transition, the city's finances were transformed, and by 2012 it was running a budget surplus and maintained a credit rating of AAA+.
In the 2000s and early 2010s, Tel Aviv received tens of thousands of illegal immigrants, primarily from Sudan
changing the demographic profile of areas of the city.
In 2009, Tel Aviv celebrated its official centennial.
In addition to city- and country-wide celebrations, digital collections of historical materials were assembled. These include the History section of the official Tel Aviv-Yafo Centennial Year website;
the Ahuzat Bayit collection, which focuses on the founding families of Tel Aviv, and includes photographs and biographies;
and Stanford University
's Eliasaf Robinson Tel Aviv Collection
documenting the history of the city. Today, the city is regarded as a strong candidate for global city status
Over the past 60 years, Tel Aviv had developed into a secular
, liberal-minded center with a vibrant nightlife and café culture.
In the Gulf War
in 1991, Tel Aviv was attacked by Scud
missiles from Iraq. Iraq hoped to provoke an Israeli military response, which could have destroyed the US–Arab alliance. The United States
pressured Israel not to retaliate, and after Israel acquiesced, the US and Netherlands
rushed Patriot missiles
to defend against the attacks, but they proved largely ineffective. Tel Aviv and other Israeli cities continued to be hit by Scuds throughout the war, and every city in the Tel Aviv area except for Bnei Brak
was hit. A total of 74 Israelis died as a result of the Iraqi attacks, mostly from suffocation and heart attacks,
while approximately 230 Israelis were injured.
Extensive property damage was also caused, and some 4,000 Israelis were left homeless. It was feared that Iraq would fire missiles filled with nerve agents
. As a result, the Israeli government issued gas masks
to its citizens. When the first Iraqi missiles hit Israel, some people injected themselves with an antidote for nerve gas. The inhabitants of the southeastern suburb of HaTikva erected an angel-monument as a sign of their gratitude that "it was through a great miracle, that many people were preserved from being killed by a direct hit of a Scud rocket."
Another attack took place on 29 August 2011 in which a Palestinian attacker stole an Israeli taxi cab and rammed it into a police checkpoint guarding the popular Haoman 17 nightclub
in Tel Aviv which was filled with 2,000 Israeli
teenagers. After crashing, the assailant went on a stabbing spree, injuring eight people.
Due to an Israel Border Police
roadblock at the entrance and immediate response of the Border Police team during the subsequent stabbings, a much larger and fatal mass-casualty incident was avoided.
On 21 November 2012, during Operation Pillar of Defense
, the Tel Aviv area was targeted by rockets, and air raid sirens were sounded in the city for the first time since the Gulf War
. All of the rockets either missed populated areas or were shot down by an Iron Dome
rocket defense battery stationed near the city. During the operation, a bomb blast on a bus wounded at least 28 civilians, three seriously.
This was described as a terrorist attack by Israel, Russia, and the United States and was condemned by the United Nations, United States, United Kingdom, France and Russia, whilst Hamas spokesman Sami Abu Zuhri
declared that the organisation "blesses" the attack.
Tel Aviv seen from space in 2003
City plan of Tel Aviv, Israel
Tel Aviv is located around 32°5′N 34°48′E
on the Israeli Mediterranean coastline
, in central Israel, the historic land bridge
between Europe, Asia and Africa. Immediately north of the ancient port of Jaffa, Tel Aviv lies on land that used to be sand dunes and as such has relatively poor soil fertility
. The land has been flattened and has no important gradients; its most notable geographical features are bluffs above the Mediterranean coastline and the Yarkon River
Because of the expansion of Tel Aviv and the Gush Dan region, absolute borders between Tel Aviv and Jaffa and between the city's neighborhoods do not exist.
Tel Aviv has a Mediterranean climate
(Köppen climate classification
and enjoys plenty of sunshine throughout the year. Most precipitation falls in the form of rain between the months of October and April, with intervening dry summers. The average annual temperature is 20.9 °C (69.6 °F), and the average sea temperature is 18–20 °C (64–68 °F) during the winter, and 24–29 °C (75–84 °F) during the summer. The city averages 528 millimeters (20.8 in) of precipitation annually.
Summers in Tel Aviv last about five months, from June to October. August, the warmest month, averages a high of 30.6 °C (87.1 °F), and a low of 25 °C (77 °F). The high relative humidity due to the location of the city by the Mediterranean Sea, in a combination with the high temperatures, creates a thermal discomfort
during the summer. Summer low temperatures in Tel Aviv seldom drop below 20 °C (68 °F).
Winters are mild and wet, with most of the annual precipitation falling within the months of December, January and February as intense rainfall and thunderstorms. In January, the coolest month, the average maximum temperature is 17.6 °C (63.7 °F), the minimum temperature averages 10.2 °C (50.4 °F). During the coldest days of winter, temperatures may vary between 8 °C (46 °F) and 12 °C (54 °F). Both freezing temperatures and snowfall are extremely rare in the city.
Autumns and springs are characterized by sharp temperature changes, with heat waves that might be created due to hot and dry air masses that arrive from the nearby deserts. During heatwaves in autumn and springs, temperatures usually climb up to 35 °C (95 °F) and even up to 40 °C (104 °F), accompanied with exceptionally low humidity. An average day during autumn and spring has a high of 23 °C (73 °F) to 25 °C (77 °F), and a low of 15 °C (59 °F) to 18 °C (64 °F).
The highest recorded temperature in Tel Aviv was 46.5 °C (115.7 °F) on 17 May 1916, and the lowest is −1.9 °C (28.6 °F) on 7 February 1950, during a cold wave that brought the only recorded snowfall in Tel Aviv.
Tel Aviv mean sea temperature ˚C (˚F)
Tel Aviv is governed by a 31-member city council elected for a five-year term in direct proportional elections.
All Israeli citizens over the age of 18 with at least one year of residence in Tel Aviv are eligible to vote in municipal elections. The municipality is responsible for social services, community programs, public infrastructure, urban planning, tourism and other local affairs.
The Tel Aviv City Hall is located at Rabin Square
. Ron Huldai
has been mayor of Tel Aviv since 1998.
Huldai was reelected for a fifth term in the 2018 municipal elections, defeating former deputy Asaf Zamir
, founder of the Ha’Ir party.
Huldai's has become the longest-serving mayor of the city, exceeding Shlomo Lahat
19-year term, and will be term-limited from running for a sixth term.
The shortest-serving was David Bloch
, in office for two years, 1925–27.
Politically, Tel Aviv is known to be a stronghold for the left, in both local and national issues. The left wing vote is especially prevalent in the city's mostly affluent central and northern neighborhoods, though not the case for its working-class southeastern neighborhoods which tend to vote for right wing parties in national elections.
Outside the kibbutzim
receives more votes in Tel Aviv than in any other city in Israel.
Tel Aviv old city hall
List of Mayors of Tel Aviv
Mandatory Palestine (1920–1948) State of Israel (1948–present)
Following the 2013 municipal elections, Meretz gained an unprecedented 6 seats on the council. However, having been reelected as mayor, Huldai and the Tel Aviv 1
list lead the coalition, which controls 29 of 31 seats.
Tel Aviv City Council, 2013–2018 Term
In 2006, 51,359 children attended school in Tel Aviv, of whom 8,977 were in municipal kindergartens, 23,573 in municipal elementary schools, and 18,809 in high schools.
Sixty-four percent of students in the city are entitled to matriculation, more than 5 percent higher than the national average.
About 4,000 children are in first grade at schools in the city, and population growth is expected to raise this number to 6,000.
As a result, 20 additional kindergarten classes were opened in 2008–09 in the city. A new elementary school is planned north of Sde Dov as well as a new high school in northern Tel Aviv.
The first Hebrew high school, called Herzliya Hebrew Gymnasium
, was established in Jaffa in 1905 and moved to Tel Aviv after its founding in 1909, where a new campus on Herzl Street was constructed for it.
, old Templer houses and modern highrises
Tel Aviv has a population of 460,613 spread over a land area of 52,000 dunams (52 km2
; 20 sq mi), yielding a population density of 7,606 people per square km (19,699 per square mile). According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics
(CBS), as of 2009 Tel Aviv's population is growing at an annual rate of 0.5 percent. Jews of all backgrounds form 91.8 percent of the population, Muslims and Arab Christians make up 4.2 percent, and the remainder belong to other groups (including various Christian and Asian communities).
As Tel Aviv is a multicultural city, many languages are spoken in addition to Hebrew
. According to some estimates, about 50,000 unregistered African and Asian foreign workers
live in the city.
Compared with Westernised cities, crime in Tel Aviv is relatively low.
According to Tel Aviv-Yafo Municipality, the average income in the city, which has an Unemployment Rate
is 20% above the national average.
The city's education standards are above the national average: of its 12th-grade students, 64.4 percent are eligible for matriculation certificates
The age profile is relatively even, with 22.2 percent aged under 20, 18.5 percent aged 20–29, 24 percent aged 30–44, 16.2 percent aged between 45 and 59, and 19.1 percent older than 60.
Tel Aviv's population reached a peak in the early 1960s at around 390,000, falling to 317,000 in the late 1980s as high property prices forced families out and deterred young couples from moving in.
Since the 1990s, population has steadily grown.
Today, the city's population is young and growing.
In 2006, 22,000 people moved to the city, while only 18,500 left,
and many of the new families had young children. The population is expected to reach 450,000 by 2025; meanwhile, the average age of residents fell from 35.8 in 1983 to 34 in 2008.
The population over age 65 stands at 14.6 percent compared with 19% in 1983.
Tel Aviv has 544 active synagogues,
including historic buildings such as the Great Synagogue
, established in the 1930s.
In 2008, a center for secular Jewish studies
and a secular yeshiva
opened in the city.
Tensions between religious and secular Jews
before the gay pride parade ended in vandalism of a synagogue.
The number of churches has grown to accommodate the religious needs of diplomats and foreign workers.
The population was 93% Jewish, 1% Muslim, and 1% Christian. The remaining 5 percent were not classified by religion. Israel Meir Lau
is Chief Rabbi
of the city.
Tel Aviv is an ethnically diverse city. The Jewish population, which forms the majority group in Tel Aviv consists of the descendants of immigrants from all parts of the world, including Ashkenazi Jews from Europe, North America, South America, Australia and South Africa, as well as Sephardic and Mizrahi Jews from Southern Europe, North Africa, India, Central Asia, West Asia, and the Arabian Peninsula. There are also a sizable number of Ethiopian Jews and their descendants living in Tel Aviv. In addition to Muslim and Arab Christian
minorities in the city, several hundred Armenian
Christians who reside in the city are concentrated mainly in Jaffa
and some Christians from the former Soviet Union who immigrated to Israel with Jewish spouses and relatives. In recent years, Tel Aviv has received many non-Jewish migrants from Asia and Africa, students, foreign workers (documented and undocumented) and refugees. There are many economic migrants and refugees from African countries, primarily Eritrea
, located in the southern part of the city.
Tel Aviv is divided into nine districts that have formed naturally over the city's short history. The oldest of these is Jaffa, the ancient port city
out of which Tel Aviv grew. This area is traditionally made up demographically of a greater percentage of Arabs, but recent gentrification
is replacing them with a young professional and artist population. Similar processes are occurring in nearby Neve Tzedek
, the original Jewish neighborhood outside of Jaffa. Ramat Aviv
, a district in the northern part of the city that is largely made up of luxury apartments and includes Tel Aviv University
, is currently undergoing extensive expansion and is set to absorb the beachfront property of Sde Dov Airport after its decommissioning.
The area known as HaKirya
is the Israel Defense Forces
(IDF) headquarters and a large military base
Moreover, in the past few years, Rothschild Boulevard
which is located at beginning in Neve Tzedek had become an attraction both of tourist, businesses and startups. It features a wide, tree-lined central strip with pedestrian and bike lanes. Historically, there was a demographic split between the Ashkenazi
northern side of the city, including the district of Ramat Aviv, and the southern, more Sephardi
neighborhoods including Neve Tzedek
Since the 1980s, major restoration and gentrification projects have been implemented in southern Tel Aviv.[unreliable source]
Baruch Yoscovitz, city planner for Tel Aviv beginning in 2001, reworked old British plans for the Florentin neighborhood from the 1920s, adding green areas, pedestrian malls, and housing. The municipality invested two million shekels in the project. The goal was to make Florentin the Soho
of Tel Aviv, and attract artists and young professionals to the neighborhood. Indeed, street artists, such as Dede
, installation artists such as Sigalit Landau
, and many others made the upbeat neighborhood their home base.
Florentin is now known as a hip, "cool" place to be in Tel Aviv with coffeehouses, markets, bars, galleries and parties.
View of Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv is home to different architectural styles
that represent influential periods in its history. The early architecture of Tel Aviv consisted largely of European-style single-story houses with red-tiled roofs. Neve Tzedek
, the first neighborhood to be constructed outside of Jaffa is characterised by two-story sandstone buildings.
By the 1920s, a new eclectic Orientalist style
came into vogue, combining European architecture with Eastern features such as arches, domes and ornamental tiles.
Municipal construction followed the "garden city" master plan drawn up by Patrick Geddes
. Two- and three-story buildings were interspersed with boulevards and public parks.
Various architectural styles, such as Art Deco
, classical and modernist also exist in Tel Aviv.
Bauhaus architecture was introduced in the 1920s and 1930s by German Jewish architects who settled in Palestine after the rise of the Nazis. Tel Aviv's White City
, around the city center, contains more than 5,000 Modernist-style buildings inspired by the Bauhaus school
and Le Corbusier
Construction of these buildings, later declared protected landmarks and, collectively, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
, continued until the 1950s in the area around Rothschild Boulevard
Some 3,000 buildings were created in this style between 1931 and 1939 alone.
In the 1960s, this architectural style gave way to office towers and a chain of waterfront hotels and commercial skyscrapers.
Some of the city's Modernist buildings were neglected to the point of ruin. Before legislation to preserve this landmark architecture, many of the old buildings were demolished. Efforts are under way to refurbish Bauhaus buildings and restore them to their original condition.
High-rise construction and towers
The Azrieli Center
complex contains some of the tallest skyscrapers in Tel Aviv
The Shalom Meir Tower
, Israel's first skyscraper, was built in Tel Aviv in 1965 and remained the country's tallest building until 1999. At the time of its construction, the building rivaled Europe's tallest buildings in height, and was the tallest in the Middle East.
In the mid-1990s, the construction of skyscrapers began throughout the entire city, altering its skyline. Before that, Tel Aviv had had a generally low-rise skyline.
However, the towers were not concentrated in certain areas, and were scattered at random locations throughout the city, creating a disjointed skyline.
New neighborhoods, such as Park Tzameret
, have been constructed to house apartment towers such as Yoo Tel Aviv
towers, designed by Philippe Starck
. Other districts, such as Sarona
, have been developed with office towers. Other recent additions to Tel Aviv's skyline include the 1 Rothschild Tower
and First International Bank Tower
As Tel Aviv celebrated its centennial in 2009,
the city attracted a number of architects and developers, including I. M. Pei
, Donald Trump
, and Richard Meier
American journalist David Kaufman
reported in New York magazine
that since Tel Aviv "was named a UNESCO World Heritage
site, gorgeous historic buildings from the Ottoman and Bauhaus era have been repurposed as fabulous hotels, eateries, boutiques, and design museums."
In November 2009, Haaretz
reported that Tel Aviv had 59 skyscrapers more than 100 meters tall.
Currently, dozens of skyscrapers have been approved or are under construction throughout the city, and many more are planned. The tallest building approved is the Egged Tower, which would become Israel's tallest building upon completion.
According to current plans, the tower is planned to have 80 floors, rise to a height of 270 meters, and will have a 50-meter spire.
In 2010, the Tel Aviv Municipality's Planning and Construction Committee launched a new master plan for the city for 2025. It decided not to allow the construction of any additional skyscrapers in the city center, while at the same time greatly increasing the construction of skyscrapers in the east. The ban extends to an area between the coast and Ibn Gabirol Street
, and also between the Yarkon River
and Eilat Street. It did not extend to towers already under construction or approved. One final proposed skyscraper project was approved, while dozens of others had to be scrapped. Any new buildings there will usually not be allowed to rise above six and a half stories. However, hotel towers along almost the entire beachfront will be allowed to rise up to 25 stories. According to the plan, large numbers of skyscrapers and high-rise buildings at least 18 stories tall would be built in the entire area between Ibn Gabirol Street and the eastern city limits, as part of the master plan's goal of doubling the city's office space to cement Tel Aviv as the business capital of Israel. Under the plan, "forests" of corporate skyscrapers will line both sides of the Ayalon Highway
. Further south, skyscrapers rising up to 40 stories will be built along the old Ottoman railway between Neve Tzedek
, with the first such tower there being the Neve Tzedek Tower
. Along nearby Shlavim Street, passing between Jaffa and south Tel Aviv, office buildings up to 25 stories will line both sides of the street, which will be widened to accommodate traffic from the city's southern entrance to the center.
In November 2012, it was announced that to encourage investment in the city's architecture, residential towers throughout Tel Aviv would be extended in height. Buildings in Jaffa and the southern and eastern districts may have two and a half stories added, while those on Ibn Gabirol Street might be extended by seven and a half stories.
Tel Aviv has been ranked as the twenty-fifth most important financial center in the world.
As it was built on sand dunes in an area unsuitable for farming, it instead developed as a hub of business and scientific research.[unreliable source]
In 1926, the country's first shopping arcade, Passage Pensak, was built there.
By 1936, as tens of thousands of middle class immigrants
arrived from Europe, Tel Aviv was already the largest city in Palestine. A small port was built at the Yarkon estuary, and many cafes, clubs and cinemas opened. Herzl Street became a commercial thoroughfare at this time.
Economic activities account for 17 percent of the GDP.
In 2011, Tel Aviv had an unemployment rate of 4.4 percent.
The city has been described as a "flourishing technological center" by Newsweek
and a "miniature Los Angeles" by The Economist
In 1998, the city was described by Newsweek as one of the 10 most technologically influential cities in the world. Since then, high-tech industry in the Tel Aviv area has continued to develop.
The Tel Aviv metropolitan area (including satellite cities
such as Herzliya
and Petah Tikva
) is Israel's center of high-tech, sometimes referred to as Silicon Wadi
Tel Aviv is home to the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange
(TASE), Israel's only stock exchange
, which has reached record heights since the 1990s.
The Tel Aviv Stock exchange has also gained attention for its resilience and ability to recover from war and disasters. For example, the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange was higher on the last day of both the 2006 Lebanon war and the 2009 Operation in Gaza than on the first day of fighting
Many international venture-capital
firms, scientific research
institutes and high-tech companies are headquartered in the city. Industries in Tel Aviv include chemical processing, textile plants and food manufacturers.[unreliable source]
The Kiryat Atidim high tech
zone opened in 1972 and the city has become a major world high tech hub. In December 2012, the city was ranked second on a list of top places to found a high tech startup company
, just behind Silicon Valley
In 2013, Tel Aviv had more than 700 startup companies and research and development centers, and was ranked the second-most innovative city in the world, behind Medellín
and ahead of New York City
According to Forbes
, nine of its fifteen Israeli-born billionaires live in Israel; four live in Tel Aviv and its suburbs.
The cost of living
in Israel is high, with Tel Aviv being its most expensive city to live in. According to Mercer
, a human resources consulting firm
based in New York, as of 2010 Tel Aviv is the most expensive city in the Middle East and the 19th most expensive in the world.
Culture and contemporary life
Entertainment and performing arts
The Tel Aviv Cinematheque
screens art movies, premieres of short and full-length Israeli films, and hosts a variety of film festivals, among them the Festival of Animation, Comics and Caricatures, "Icon" Science Fiction and Fantasy Festival, the Student Film Festival, the Jazz, Film and Videotape Festival and Salute to Israeli Cinema. The city has several multiplex cinemas
Tourism and recreation
Tel Aviv is known as "the city that never sleeps" and a "party capital" due to its thriving nightlife
, young atmosphere and famous 24-hour culture
Tel Aviv has branches of some of the world's leading hotels, including the Crowne Plaza
. It is home to many museums, architectural and cultural sites, with city tours available in different languages.
Apart from bus tours, architectural tours, Segway
tours, and walking tours are also popular.
Tel Aviv has 44 hotels with more than 6,500 rooms.
Tel Aviv at night
Tel Aviv is an international hub of highly active and diverse nightlife with bars, dance bars and nightclubs
staying open well past midnight. The largest area for nightclubs is the Tel Aviv port, where the city's large, commercial clubs and bars draw big crowds of young clubbers from both Tel Aviv and neighboring cities. The South of Tel Aviv is known for the popular Haoman 17 club, as well as for being the city's main hub of alternative clubbing, with underground venues including established clubs like the Block Club, Comfort 13 and Paradise Garage, as well as various warehouse and loft party venues. The Allenby/Rothschild area is another popular nightlife hub, featuring such clubs as the Pasaz, Radio EPGB and the Penguin. In 2013, Absolut Vodka
introduced a specially designed bottle dedicated to Tel Aviv as part of its international cities series.
Tel Aviv has become an international center of fashion and design.
It has been called the "next hot destination" for fashion.
Israeli designers, such as swimwear company Gottex
show their collections at leading fashion shows, including New York's Bryant Park
In 2011, Tel Aviv hosted its first Fashion Week
since the 1980s, with Italian designer Roberto Cavalli
as a guest of honor.
Named "the best gay city in the world" by American Airlines
, Tel Aviv is one of the most popular destinations for LGBT tourists
internationally, with a large LGBT
American journalist David Kaufman
has described the city as a place "packed with the kind of 'we're here, we're queer' vibe more typically found in Sydney and San Francisco. The city hosts its well-known pride parade
, the biggest in Asia, attracting over 200,000 people yearly.
In January 2008, Tel Aviv's municipality established the city's LGBT Community centre
, providing all of the municipal and cultural services to the LGBT community under one roof. In December 2008, Tel Aviv began putting together a team of gay athletes for the 2009 World Outgames
In addition, Tel Aviv hosts an annual LGBT Film festival
Tel Aviv is famous for its wide variety of world-class restaurants, offering traditional Israeli dishes as well as international fare.
More than 100 sushi
restaurants, the third highest concentration in the world, do business in the city.
In Tel Aviv there are some dessert specialties, the most known is the Halva ice cream
traditionally topped with date syrup and pistachios
Menora Mivtachim Arena
Drive in Arena
(once Israeli champion, twice State Cup
winners and twice Toto Cup
winner) is the only Israeli football team in the top division that represents a neighborhood, the Hatikva Quarter
in Tel Aviv, and not a city.
In 2009, the Tel Aviv Marathon
was revived after a fifteen-year hiatus, and is run annually since, attracting a field of over 18,000 runners.
Tel Aviv is also ranked to be 10th best to-skateboarding city by Transworld Skateboarding.
Environment and urban restoration
soldiers cleaning the beaches at Tel Aviv, which have scored highly in environmental tests
Tel Aviv is ranked as the greenest city
Since 2008, city lights are turned off annually in support of Earth Hour
In February 2009, the municipality launched a water saving campaign, including competition granting free parking for a year to the household that is found to have consumed the least amount of water per person.
In the early 21st century, Tel Aviv's municipality transformed a derelict power station
into a public park, now named "Gan HaHashmal" ("Electricity Park"), paving the way for eco-friendly
and environmentally conscious designs.
In October 2008, Martin Weyl turned an old garbage dump near Ben Gurion International Airport
, called Hiriya
, into an attraction by building an arc of plastic bottles.
The site, which was renamed Ariel Sharon Park
to honor Israel's former prime minister, will serve as the centerpiece in what is to become a 2,000-acre (8.1 km2
) urban wilderness
on the outskirts of Tel Aviv, designed by German landscape architect
, Peter Latz
At the end of the 20th century, the city began restoring historical neighborhoods such as Neve Tzedek
and many buildings from the 1920s and 1930s. Since 2007, the city hosts its well-known, annual Open House Tel Aviv
weekend, which offers the general public free entrance to the city's famous landmarks, private houses and public buildings. In 2010, the design of the renovated Tel Aviv Port (Nemal Tel Aviv
) won the award for outstanding landscape architecture at the European Biennial for Landscape Architecture in Barcelona
In 2014, the Sarona Market Complex opened, following an 8-year renovation project of Sarona colony
Tel Aviv is a major transportation hub, served by a comprehensive public transport network, with many major routes of the national transportation network running through the city.
Bus and taxi
The city is also served by local and inter-city share taxis
. Many local and inter-city bus routes also have sherut taxis that follow the same route and display the same route number in their window. Fares are standardised within the region and are comparable to or less expensive than bus fares. Unlike other forms of public transport, these taxis also operate on Fridays and Saturdays (the Jewish sabbath "Shabbat"). Private taxis are white with a yellow sign on top. Fares are standardised and metered, but may be negotiated ahead of time with the driver.
Jaffa Railway Station
was the first railway station in the Middle East. It served as the terminus for the Jaffa–Jerusalem railway
. The station opened in 1891 and closed in 1948. In 2005–2009, the station was restored and converted into an entertainment and leisure venue marketed as "HaTachana", Hebrew for "the station" (see homepage here:
The first line
of a light rail
system is under construction and scheduled to open in 2020.
The Red Line
starts at Petah Tikva
's Central Bus Station, east of Tel Aviv and follows the Jabotinsky Road (Route 481) westwards at street level. At the point where Jabotinsky Road and Highway 4
intersect the line drops into a tunnel for 10 km (6.21 mi) through Bnei Brak
, Ramat Gan
and Tel Aviv and emerges again to street level just before Jaffa
, where it turns southwards towards Bat Yam
The underground section will include 10 stations, including an interchange with Israel Railways
services at Tel Aviv Central Railway Station
and the nearby 2000 Terminal
. A maintenance depot, connected via a branch line and tunnel to the main section of the line, will be constructed in Kiryat Arye, across from the existing Kiryat Arye suburban railway station
. The intended builder and operator of the first line, MTS, has had financial difficulties that postponed the line's opening. In May 2010, the ministry of finance decided to cancel the agreement with MTS due to the difficulties and the agreement was cancelled in August 2010.
The line is being built instead by NTA—The Tel Aviv region's mass transit development authority. Initially, the line's targeted opening was in 2012 and today the target is 2016 after several postponements due to the disagreements with MTS and NTA's takeover of the project.
The main highway leading to and within the city is the Ayalon Highway (Highway 20)
, which runs in the eastern side of the city from north to south along the Ayalon River riverbed. Driving south on Ayalon gives access to Highway 4
leading to Ashdod
, Highway 1
, leading to Ben Gurion International Airport
and Highway 431
leading to Jerusalem
and the Highway 6
Trans-Israel Highway. Driving north on Ayalon gives access to the Highway 2
coastal road leading to Netanya
. Within the city, main routes include Kaplan Street
, Allenby Street
, Ibn Gabirol Street
, Dizengoff Street
, Rothschild Boulevard
, and in Jaffa the main route is Jerusalem Boulevard. Namir Road connects the city to Highway 2
, Israel's main north–south highway, and Begin/Jabotinsky Road, which provides access from the east through Ramat Gan, Bnei Brak
and Petah Tikva. Tel Aviv, accommodating about 500,000 commuter cars daily, suffers from increasing congestion. In 2007, the Sadan Report recommended the introduction of a congestion charge
similar to that of London in Tel Aviv as well as other Israeli cities. Under this plan, road users traveling into the city would pay a fixed fee.
The main airport serving Greater Tel Aviv is Ben Gurion International Airport
. Located in the neighbouring city of Lod
, it handled over 20 million passengers in 2017. Ben Gurion is the main hub of El Al
, Israir Airlines
and Sun D'Or
. The airport is 15 kilometres (9 mi) southeast of Tel Aviv, on Highway 1
between Tel Aviv and Jerusalem. Sde Dov
: SDV), in northwestern Tel Aviv, is a domestic airport and was closed in 2019 in favor of real-estate development.
All services to Sde Dov will be transferred to Ben Gurion Airport.
Tel Aviv Municipality encourages the use of bicycles in the city. Plans called for expansion of the paths to 100 kilometers (62.1 mi) by 2009.
As of April 2011 the municipality has completed construction of the planned 100 kilometres (62 miles) of bicycle paths.
In April 2011, Tel Aviv municipality launched Tel-O-Fun
, a bicycle sharing system
, in which 150 stations of bicycles for rent were installed within the city limits.
As of October 2011, there are 125 active stations, providing more than 1,000 bicycles.
Tel Aviv is home to Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center
, the third-largest hospital complex in Israel.
It contains Ichilov Hospital, the Ida Sourasky Rehabilitation Center, Lis Maternity and Women's Hospital, and Dana-Dwek Children's Hospital. The city also contains Assuta Medical Center
, a private hospital which offers surgical and diagnostic services in all fields of medicine and has an IFV
The municipality of Tel Aviv signed agreements with many cities worldwide.
The Israeli Interior Ministry is planning on eventually uniting the neighboring city of Bat Yam
and Tel Aviv. Current plans call for the merger to take place in 2023 after a few years' preparation.
It has been suggested that if this proves successful, other neighboring cities such as Ramat Gan
would then be merged into Tel Aviv. Some officials envision that as part of these mergers, Tel Aviv will become a supercity with several sub-municipalities in the style of Greater London
The population of Tel Aviv in its current area without taking any potential future mergers into account is expected to be about 535,000 in 2030.
People born in Tel Aviv
In alphabetical order by surname; stage names are treated as single names:
- Ron Arad, architect and industrial designer
- Miri Ben-Ari, "The Hip Hop Violinist"
- Borgore, dubstep producer and DJ
- Dana International, musician and singer
- Noam Dar, professional wrestler
- Oded Fehr, actor
- Uri Geller, illusionist
- Esti Ginzburg, model and actress
- Ofra Haza, singer
- Erez Komarovsky, chef, baker, educator, and author
- Yair Lapid, politician
- TJ Leaf, professional basketball player
- Tzipi Livni, politician
- Shlomit Malka, model
- Benjamin Netanyahu, politician
- Ido Pariente, mixed martial artist fighter and trainer
- Itzhak Perlman, musician and conductor
- Sasha Roiz, actor
- Daniel Samohin, figure skater
- Denis Shapovalov, Canadian tennis player
- Orli Shoshan, Star Wars film actress
- Subliminal, rapper and record producer
- Ayelet Zurer, actress
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- ^ Jerusalem is Israel's capital according to the Jerusalem Law passed in 1980. The presidential residence, government offices, supreme court and parliament (Knesset) are located there. The Palestinian Authority foresees East Jerusalem as the capital of its future state. The UN does not recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital, taking the position that the final status of Jerusalem is pending future negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Authorities "Map of Israel"(PDF). (319 KB). Countries maintain their embassies in Tel Aviv and its suburbs, or suburbs of Jerusalem, such as Mevaseret Zion. (see CIA Factbook). Australia, the Czech Republic, Guatemala, Taiwan, the United States, and Vanuatu recognize Jerusalem as the capital of Israel.
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Page 1: "Once Tel Aviv had won municipal status (the so-called Tel Aviv Township) in 1921, it strove to amend the relevant legislation by rescission of the clauses that placed it under Jaffa municipality's supervision. In the succeeding years, this question became increasingly to the fore, and demanded a speedy solution. Together with the Tel Aviv's ambition of independence as a Hebrew city with its own autonomous Hebrew government, some members of the township's council did not favour separation from the mother city Jaffa. In the mid-1920s, the view consoli- dated among the town councillors that Tel Aviv's subjection to Jaffa municipality had to be annulled, and it must be granted its deserved status as an independent Hebrew city."
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- Jochen Visscher (ed.): Tel Aviv: The White City, Photographs by Stefan Boness, JOVIS Verlag Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-939633-75-4
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Tel Aviv
Last edited on 6 May 2021, at 23:37
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