en.m.wikipedia.org
Template:Cite book
Template documentation​[​view​] [edit] [history] [purge]
This template is used on 1,340,000+ pages, or roughly 3% of all pages.
To avoid major disruption and server load, any changes should be tested in the template's /sandbox or /testcases subpages, or in your own user subpage. The tested changes can be added to this page in a single edit. Consider discussing changes on the talk page before implementing them.
This template uses Lua:
Citation Style 1
templates
{{Cite arXiv}}arXiv preprints
{{Cite AV media}}audio and visual media
{{Cite AV media notes}}AV media liner notes
{{Cite bioRxiv}}bioRxiv preprints
{{Cite book}}books and chapters
{{Cite citeseerx}}CiteSeerX papers
{{Cite conference}}conference papers
{{Cite encyclopedia}}edited collections
{{Cite episode}}radio or TV episodes
{{Cite interview}}interviews
{{Cite journal}}academic journals
{{Cite magazine}}magazines, periodicals
{{Cite mailing list}}public mailing lists
{{Cite map}}maps
{{Cite news}}news articles
{{Cite newsgroup}}online newsgroups
{{Cite podcast}}podcasts
{{Cite press release}}press releases
{{Cite report}}reports
{{Cite serial}}audio or video serials
{{Cite sign}}signs, plaques
{{Cite speech}}speeches
{{Cite ssrn}}SSRN papers
{{Cite techreport}}technical reports
{{Cite thesis}}theses
{{Cite web}}web sources not covered by the above
See alsoSpecific-source templates
Wrapper templates
This Citation Style 1 template is used to create citations for books. When citing an article in a periodical, use {{cite journal}} or {{cite magazine}}. For conference papers, use {{cite conference}}. For edited collections, use {{cite encyclopedia}}. For theses, use {{cite thesis}}.
Usage
Copy a blank version to use. Almost all parameter names are supported only in lower case (some initialisms, such as |isbn= have upper-case aliases like |ISBN=, which are acceptable for use). Use the "|" (pipe) character between each parameter. Unused parameters may be deleted to avoid clutter in the edit window. Some samples on this documentation page may include the current date. If the date is not current, then purge the page.
Most commonly used parameters in horizontal format
To cite a book with a credited author
{{cite book |last= |first= |author-link= |date= |title= |url= |location= |publisher= |page= |isbn=}}
To cite a book with no credited author
{{cite book |author=<!--Staff writer(s); no by-line.--> |date= |title= |url= |location= |publisher= |page= |isbn=}}
To cite an online book that has been archived
{{cite book |last= |first= |date= |title= |url= |url-status= |location= |publisher= |isbn= |archive-url= |archive-date=}}
To cite a book written in a foreign language
{{cite book |last= |first= |date= |title= |trans-title= |url= |language= |location= |publisher= |isbn=}}
To cite and quote an archived, two-author, foreign language book re-published as a PDF on an information aggregation service requiring a subscription
{{cite book |last1= |first1= |last2= |first2= |date= |title= |trans-title= |url= |url-status= |url-access= |format= |language= |location= |publisher= |isbn= |archive-url= |archive-date= |via= |quote=}}

Most commonly used parameters in vertical format
{{cite book |last= |first= |author-link= |date= |title= |url= |location= |publisher= |page= <!-- or pages= --> |isbn= }}

Full parameter set in horizontal format
{{cite book |last1= |first1= |author-link1= |last2= |first2= |author-link2= |last3= |first3= |author-link3= |last4= |first4= |author-link4= |last5= |first5= |author-link5= |display-authors= |author-mask1= |author-mask2= |author-mask3= |author-mask4= |author-mask5= |name-list-style= |translator-last1= |translator-first1= |translator-link1= |translator-last2= |translator-first2= |translator-link2= |display-translators= |translator-mask1= |translator-mask2= |date= |year= |orig-year= |chapter= |script-chapter= |trans-chapter= |chapter-url= |chapter-format= |editor1-last= |editor1-first= |editor1-link= |editor2-last= |editor2-first= |editor2-link= |editor3-last= |editor3-first= |editor3-link= |editor4-last= |editor4-first= |editor4-link= |editor5-last= |editor5-first= |editor5-link= |display-editors= |title= |script-title= |trans-title= |url= |url-status= |url-access= |format= |type= |series= |language= |volume= |others= |edition= |location= |publisher= |publication-date= |page= |pages= |at= |no-pp= |asin= |bibcode= |doi= |doi-broken-date= |isbn= |ismn= |issn= |jfm= |jstor= |lccn= |mr= |oclc= |ol= |osti= |pmc= |pmid= |rfc= |ssrn= |zbl= |id= |archive-url= |archive-date= |access-date= |via= |lay-url= |lay-source= |lay-date= |lay-format= |quote= |mode= |postscript= |ref=}}
Full parameter set in vertical format
ParametersPrerequisitesBrief instructions / notesVertical list
last1Author's last name or single name author. Don't link.
{{cite book  |last1                = |first1 = |author-link1 = |last2 = |first2 = |author-link2 = |last3 = |first3 = |author-link3 = |last4 = |first4 = |author-link4 = |last5 = |first5 = |author-link5 = |display-authors = |author-mask1 = |author-mask2 = |author-mask3 = |author-mask4 = |author-mask5 = |name-list-style = |translator-last1 = |translator-first1 = |translator-link1 = |translator-last2 = |translator-first2 = |translator-link2 = |display-translators = |translator-mask1 = |translator-mask2 = |date = |year = |orig-year = |chapter = |script-chapter = |trans-chapter = |chapter-url = |chapter-format = |editor1-last = |editor1-first = |editor1-link = |editor2-last = |editor2-first = |editor2-link = |editor3-last = |editor3-first = |editor3-link = |editor4-last = |editor4-first = |editor4-link = |editor5-last = |editor5-first = |editor5-link = |display-editors = |title = |script-title = |trans-title = |url = |url-status = |url-access = |format = |type = |series = |language = |volume = |others = |edition = |location = |publisher = |publication-date = |page = |pages = |at = |no-pp = |asin = |bibcode = |doi = |doi-broken-date = |isbn = |ismn = |issn = |jfm = |jstor = |lccn = |mr = |oclc = |ol = |osti = |pmc = |pmid = |rfc = |ssrn = |zbl = |id = |archive-url = |archive-date = |access-date = |via = |lay-url = |lay-source = |lay-date = |lay-format = |quote = |name-list-style = |mode = |postscript = |ref = }}
first1last1Author's first name. Don't link.
author-link1last1Title of Wikipedia article about the first author. Don't link.
last2last1Like last1, but for 2nd author.
first2last2Like first1, but for 2nd author.
author-link2last2Like author-link1, but for 2nd author.
last3last2Like last1, but for 3rd author.
first3last3Like first1, but for 3rd author.
author-link3last3Like author-link1, but for 3rd author.
last4last3Like last1, but for 4th author.
first4last4Like first1, but for 4th author.
author-link4last4Like author-link1, but for 4th author.
last5last4Like last1, but for 5th author. Similar: last6, etc.
first5last5Like first1, but for 5th author. Similar: first6, etc.
author-link5last5Like author-link1, but for 5th author. Similar: author-link6, etc.
display-authorslast1Number (number of authors displayed) or etal (more authors)
author-mask1last1See Display options below; not for lists of cited works
author-mask2last2
author-mask3last3
author-mask4last4
author-mask5last5
name-list-stylelast2Set to amp or ampersand to separate the last author with " & "; set to and to separate with " and "
translator-last1Like last1, but for translator
translator-first1translator-last1Like first1, but for translator
translator-link1translator-last1Like author-link1, but for translator
translator-last2translator-last1Like last1, but for 2nd translator. Similar: translator-last3, etc.
translator-first2translator-last2Like first1, but for 2nd translator. Similar: translator-first3, etc.
translator-link2translator-last2Like author-link1, but for 2nd transl. Similar: translator-link3, ...
display-translatorstranslator-last1Like display-authors, but for translators
translator-mask1translator-last1See Display options below; not for lists of cited works
translator-mask2translator-last2
date
year
orig-yearyear or date
chapterThis should be the title of the chapter cited. Do not wikilink "chapter" if "chapter-url" is provided
script-chapter
trans-chapterchapter or script-chapter
chapter-urlchapter or script-chapter
chapter-formatchapter-url
editor1-lastmay also use "editor-last"
editor1-firsteditor1-lastmay also use 'editor-first"
editor1-linkeditor1-lastmay also use "editor-link"
editor1-maskeditor1-last
display-editors
title
script-title
trans-titletitle or script-title
urltitle or script-title
url-statusarchive-url
url-accessurl
formaturl
type
series
language
volume
others
editionOrdinal number
locationpublisher
publisher
publication-date
pagechoose one: "page", "pages", or "at"
pageschoose one: "page", "pages", or "at". Use when content on multiple pages supports the article text.
atchoose one: "page", "pages", or "at"
no-pppage or pagesset no-pp to "yes" to suppress the "p." or "pp." before page numbers
asin
bibcode
doi
doi-broken-datedoi
isbnalways include ISBN, if one has been assigned
issn
ismn
jfm
jstor
lccn
mr
oclc
ol
osti
pmc
pmid
rfc
ssrn
zbl
id
archive-urlarchive-date, url
archive-datearchive-url
access-dateurl
via
lay-url
lay-sourcelay-url
lay-datelay-url
lay-formatlay-url
quote
modecs1 or cs2
postscript
ref
If a field name is listed in the Prerequisites column, it is a prerequisite for the field to the left.
Examples
Title
{{cite book |title=Mysterious Book}}
Mysterious Book.
Title and year
{{cite book |title=Mysterious Book |date=1901}}
Mysterious Book. 1901.
Basic usage (single author)
{{cite book |last=Bloggs |first=Joe |author-link=Joe Bloggs |date=1974 |title=Book of Bloggs}}
Bloggs, Joe (1974). Book of Bloggs.
Basic usage (two authors)
{{cite book |last1=Bloggs |first1=Joe |author-link1=Joe Bloggs |last2=Bloggs |first2=Fred |author-link2=Fred Bloggs |date=1974 |title=Book of Bloggs}}
Bloggs, Joe; Bloggs, Fred (1974). Book of Bloggs.
Basic usage with url (and access-date) and edition
{{cite book |last=Bloggs |first=Joe |author-link=Joe Bloggs |date=1974 |title=Book of Bloggs |edition=1st |url=http://en.wikipedia.org/ |access-date=February 17, 2006}}
Bloggs, Joe (1974). Book of Bloggs (1st ed.). Retrieved February 17, 2006.
Citing a chapter in a book with different authors for different chapters and an editor
{{cite book |last=Bloggs |first=Fred |editor-last=Doe |editor-first=John |title=Big Compilation Book with Many Chapters and Distinct Chapter Authors |publisher=Book Publishers |date=January 1, 2001 |pages=100–110 |chapter=Chapter 2: The History of the Bloggs Family |isbn=978-1-234-56789-7}}
Bloggs, Fred (January 1, 2001). "Chapter 2: The History of the Bloggs Family". In Doe, John (ed.). Big Compilation Book with Many Chapters and Distinct Chapter Authors. Book Publishers. pp. 100–110. ISBN 978-1-234-56789-7.
Citing a chapter in a book with two joint authors and an editor
{{cite book |last1=Bloggs |first1=Joe |last2=Egg |first2=Fred |editor-last=Doe |editor-first=John |title=Big Book with Many Chapters and Two Co-authors |publisher=Book Publishers |date=January 1, 2001 |orig-year=1st pub. 1986 |pages=100–110 |chapter=Chapter 6: Getting There |chapter-url=http://en.wikipedia.org/ |isbn=978-1-234-56789-7 |name-list-style=amp}}
Bloggs, Joe & Egg, Fred (January 1, 2001) [1st pub. 1986]. "Chapter 6: Getting There". In Doe, John (ed.). Big Book with Many Chapters and Two Co-authors. Book Publishers. pp. 100–110. ISBN 978-1-234-56789-7.
Three authors, title with a piped wikilink, edition
{{cite book |last1=Bloggs |first1=Joe |author-link1=Joe Bloggs |last2=Smith |first2=John |last3=Smythe |first3=Jim |title=[[A Thousand Acres|1000 Acres]] |edition=2nd}}
Bloggs, Joe; Smith, John; Smythe, Jim. 1000 Acres (2nd ed.).
Complex usage showing effect of using volume parameter and lastauthoramp parameter (without volume and lastauthoramp)
{{cite book |last1=Playfair |first1=I. S. O. |author-link1=Ian Stanley Ord Playfair |last2=Stitt |first2=G. M. S. |last3=Molony |first3=C. J. C. |last4=Toomer |first4=S. E. |editor-last=Butler |editor-first=J. R. M. |series=History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series |title=Mediterranean and Middle East. Volume I: The Early Successes Against Italy (to May 1941) |publisher=Naval & Military Press |location=Uckfield, East Sussex |date=2007 |orig-year=1st pub. [[HMSO]]:1954 |isbn=1-845740-65-3}}
Playfair, I. S. O.; Stitt, G. M. S.; Molony, C. J. C.; Toomer, S. E. (2007) [1st pub. HMSO:1954]. Butler, J. R. M. (ed.). Mediterranean and Middle East. Volume I: The Early Successes Against Italy (to May 1941). History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series. Uckfield, East Sussex: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-845740-65-3.
Complex usage showing effect of using volume parameter and lastauthoramp parameter (with volume and lastauthoramp)
{{cite book |last1=Playfair |first1=I. S. O. |author-link1=Ian Stanley Ord Playfair |last2=Stitt |first2=G. M. S. |last3=Molony |first3=C. J. C. |last4=Toomer |first4=S. E. |editor-last=Butler |editor-first=J. R. M. |series=History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series |title=Mediterranean and Middle East |volume=Volume I: The Early Successes Against Italy (to May 1941) |publisher=Naval & Military Press |location=Uckfield, East Sussex |date=2007 |orig-year=1st pub. [[HMSO]]:1954 |isbn=1-845740-65-3 |name-list-style=amp}}
Playfair, I. S. O.; Stitt, G. M. S.; Molony, C. J. C. & Toomer, S. E. (2007) [1st pub. HMSO:1954]. Butler, J. R. M. (ed.). Mediterranean and Middle East. History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series. Volume I: The Early Successes Against Italy (to May 1941). Uckfield, East Sussex: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-845740-65-3.
Date without day, wikilinked title and publisher, pages, edition, location
{{cite book |last1=Cordell |first1=Bruce R. |last2=Grubb |first2=Jeff |last3=Noonan |first3=David |date=September 2001 |title=[[Manual of the Planes]] |edition=3rd |publisher=Wizards of the Coast |location=Renton, Washington |isbn=0-7869-1850-0 |pages=134–137}}
Cordell, Bruce R.; Grubb, Jeff; Noonan, David (September 2001). Manual of the Planes (3rd ed.). Renton, Washington: Wizards of the Coast. pp. 134–137. ISBN 0-7869-1850-0.
Other language
{{cite book |last=Bloggs |first=Jean |date=1974 |title=Livre de Bloggs |edition=1st |language=French |trans-title=Book of Bloggs |url=http://en.wikipedia.org/ |access-date=February 17, 2006}}
Bloggs, Jean (1974). Livre de Bloggs [Book of Bloggs] (in French) (1st ed.). Retrieved February 17, 2006.
Using a DOI
{{cite book |last=Mumford |first=David |author-link=David Mumford |date=1999 |title=The Red Book of Varieties and Schemes: Includes the Michigan Lectures (1974) on Curves and Their Jacobians |edition=2nd |publisher=Springer-Verlag |doi=10.1007/b62130 |isbn=354063293X}}
Mumford, David (1999). The Red Book of Varieties and Schemes: Includes the Michigan Lectures (1974) on Curves and Their Jacobians (2nd ed.). Springer-Verlag. doi:10.1007/b62130. ISBN 354063293X.
Using author-mask parameter
{{cite book |last1=Playfair |first1=I. S. O. |author-link1=Ian Stanley Ord Playfair |last2=Stitt |first2=G. M. S. |last3=Molony |first3=C. J. C. |last4=Toomer |first4=S. E. |editor-last=Butler |editor-first=J. R. M. |editor-link=James Ramsay Montagu Butler |series=History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series |title=Mediterranean and Middle East Volume I: The Early Successes Against Italy (to May 1941) |publisher=Naval & Military Press |location=Uckfield, East Sussex |date=2004 |orig-year=1st pub. [[HMSO]]:1954 |isbn=1-845740-65-3 |name-list-style=amp}}
Playfair, I. S. O.; Stitt, G. M. S.; Molony, C. J. C. & Toomer, S. E. (2004) [1st pub. HMSO:1954]. Butler, J. R. M. (ed.). Mediterranean and Middle East Volume I: The Early Successes Against Italy (to May 1941). History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series. Uckfield, East Sussex: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-845740-65-3.
{{cite book |last1=Playfair |first1=I. S. O. |author-link1=Ian Stanley Ord Playfair |last2=Flynn |first2=F. C. |last3=Molony |first3=C. J. C. |last4=Toomer |first4=S. E. |editor-last=Butler |editor-first=J. R. M. |editor-link=James Ramsay Montagu Butler |series=History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series |title=The Mediterranean and Middle East, Volume II: The Germans Come to the Help of Their Ally (1941) |publisher=Naval & Military Press |location=Uckfield, East Sussex |date=2004 |orig-year=1st pub. [[HMSO]]:1954 |isbn=1-845740-66-1 |name-list-style=amp |author-mask=2}}
——; Flynn, F. C.; Molony, C. J. C. & Toomer, S. E. (2004) [1st pub. HMSO:1954]. Butler, J. R. M. (ed.). The Mediterranean and Middle East, Volume II: The Germans Come to the Help of Their Ally (1941). History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series. Uckfield, East Sussex: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-845740-66-1.
{{cite book |last1=Playfair |first1=I. S. O. |author-link1=Ian Stanley Ord Playfair |last2=Flynn |first2=F. C. |last3=Molony |first3=C. J. C. |last4=Gleave |first4=T. P. |editor-last=Butler |editor-first=Sir James |editor-link=James Ramsay Montagu Butler |series=History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series |title=The Mediterranean and Middle East, Volume III: British Fortunes Reach Their Lowest Ebb (September 1941 to September 1942) |publisher=Naval & Military Press |location=Uckfield, East Sussex |date=2004 |orig-year=1st pub. [[HMSO]]:1954 |isbn=1-845740-67-X |name-list-style=amp |author-mask=2}}
——; Flynn, F. C.; Molony, C. J. C. & Gleave, T. P. (2004) [1st pub. HMSO:1954]. Butler, Sir James (ed.). The Mediterranean and Middle East, Volume III: British Fortunes Reach Their Lowest Ebb (September 1941 to September 1942). History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series. Uckfield, East Sussex: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-845740-67-X.
Using display-authors parameter
{{cite book |last1=Playfair |first1=I. S. O. |author-link1=Ian Stanley Ord Playfair |last2=Stitt |first2=G. M. S. |last3=Molony |first3=C. J. C. |last4=Toomer |first4=S. E. |editor-last=Butler |editor-first=J. R. M. |editor-link=James Ramsay Montagu Butler |series=History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series |title=Mediterranean and Middle East Volume I: The Early Successes Against Italy (to May 1941) |publisher=Naval & Military Press |location=Uckfield, East Sussex |date=2004 |orig-year=1st pub. [[HMSO]]:1954 |isbn=1-845740-65-3 |display-authors=1}}
Playfair, I. S. O.; et al. (2004) [1st pub. HMSO:1954]. Butler, J. R. M. (ed.). Mediterranean and Middle East Volume I: The Early Successes Against Italy (to May 1941). History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series. Uckfield, East Sussex: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-845740-65-3.
Parameters
Syntax
Nested parameters rely on their parent parameters:
  • parent
  • OR: parent2—may be used instead of parent
    • child—may be used with parent (and is ignored if parent is not used)
    • OR: child2—may be used instead of child (and is ignored if parent2 is not used)
Where aliases are listed, only one of the parameters may be defined; if multiple aliased parameters are defined, then only one will show.
COinS
This template embeds COinS metadata in the HTML output, allowing reference management software to retrieve bibliographic metadata.
As a general rule, only one data item per parameter. Do not include explanatory or alternate text:
use |date=27 September 2007 not |date=27 September 2007 (print version 25 September)
Use of templates within the citation template is discouraged because many of these templates will add extraneous HTML or CSS that will be included raw in the metadata. Also, HTML entities, for example &nbsp;, &ndash;, etc., should not be used in parameters that contribute to the metadata.
COinS metadata is created for these parameters
Note: This table of metadata is displayed for all Citation Style 1 templates. Not all of these parameters are supported by every CS1 template. Some of these parameters are mutually exclusive, some are aliases of another parameter, and some require other parameters to be present. Please refer to each template's documentation for a full list of supported parameters, their aliases, and their dependencies.
  • |periodical=, |journal=, |newspaper=, |magazine=, |work=, |website=, |encyclopedia=, |encyclopaedia=, |dictionary=
  • |chapter=, |script-chapter=, |contribution=, |script-contribution=, |entry=, |script-entry=, |article=, |script-article=, |section=, |script-section=
  • |title=, |script-title=, |book-title=
  • |publication-place=, |place=, |location=
  • |date=, |year=, |publication-date=
  • |series=, |version=
  • |volume=, |issue=, |number=
  • |page=, |pages=, |at=, |quote-page=, |quote-pages=
  • |edition=
  • |publisher=, |institution=
  • |url=, |chapter-url=, |contribution-url=, |section-url=
  • |author-last=, |author-last#=, |author#-last=, |author-surname=, |author-surname#=, |author#-surname=, |last=, |last#=, |surname=, |surname#=, |author=, |author#=, |subject=, |subject#=, |host=, |host#=
  • |author-first=, |author-first#=, |author#-first=, |author-given=, |author-given#=, |author#-given=, |first=, |first#=, |given=, |given#=
  • |degree=
  • |arxiv=, |bibcode=, |biorxiv=, |citeseerx=, |doi=, |eissn=, |eprint=, |hdl=, |isbn=, |issn=, |jfm=, |jstor=, |lccn=, |message-id=, |mr=, |oclc=, |osti=, |pmc=, |pmid=, |rfc=, |ssrn=, |s2cid=, |zbl=
What's new
What's new or changed recently
ParameterDescriptionDate
|author-given=added aliases (including enumerated forms) for |author-first=October 2020
|author-surname=added aliases (including enumerated forms) for |author-last=October 2020
|display-subjects=added alias for |display-authors= for usage with |subject=October 2020
|interviewer-given=added aliases (including enumerated forms) for |interviewer-first=October 2020
|interviewer-surname=added aliases (including enumerated forms) for |interviewer-last=October 2020
|orig-date=added canonical form for alias |orig-year=October 2020
|quote-page=added single page specifier for |quote=October 2020
|quote-pages=added multiple pages specifier for |quote=October 2020
|sbn=added identifier parameter for Standard Book NumbersApril 2020
|script-quote=added non-Latin script text facility for |quote=October 2020
|subject-mask=added aliases (including enumerated forms) to |author-mask= for usage with |subject=October 2020
|s2cid=added identifier parameter for Semantic Scholar corpus IDApril 2020
|s2cid-access=added access-icon parameter for |s2cid=April 2020
|title-link=added special tokens none/doi/pmc to override/disable auto-linking ({{cite journal}} only)October 2020
|trans-quote=added translated text facility for |quote=October 2020
accept-this-as-written-markupadded for |doi=, |eissn=, |isbn=, |issn=, |sbn=October 2020
Deprecated
Deprecated CS1/CS2 parameters
Deprecated parameterReplace withDate
none deprecated at present

Recently removed CS1/CS2 parameters
Removed parameterReplace withDate
|authorfirst=|author-first=October 2020
|authorfirstn=
|author-firstn=
October 2020
|authornfirst=
|authorn-first=
October 2020
|authorgiven=|author-given=October 2020
|authorgivenn=
|author-givenn=
October 2020
|authorngiven=
|authorn-given=
October 2020
|authorlast=|author-last=October 2020
|authorlastn=
|author-lastn=
October 2020
|authornlast=
|authorn-last=
October 2020
|authormask=|author-mask=January 2021
|authormaskn=
|author-maskn=
January 2021
|authornmask=
|authorn-mask=
January 2021
|authorsurname=|author-surname=October 2020
|authorsurnamen=
|author-surnamen=
October 2020
|authornsurname=
|authorn-surname=
October 2020
|booktitle=|book-title=May 2021
|chapterurl=|chapter-url=May 2021
|conferenceurl=|conference-url=April 2021
|contributionurl=|contribution-url=April 2021
|deadurl=yes|url-status=deadSeptember 2019
|dead-url=yes|url-status=deadSeptember 2019
|displayauthors=|display-authors=January 2021
|displayeditors=|display-editors=October 2020
|doi-broken=|doi-broken-date=October 2020
|doi-inactive-date=|doi-broken-date=October 2020
|editorfirst=|editor-first=October 2020
|editorfirstn=
|editor-firstn=
October 2020
|editornfirst=
|editorn-first=
October 2020
|editorgiven=|editor-given=October 2020
|editorgivenn=
|editor-givenn=
October 2020
|editorngiven=
|editorn-given=
October 2020
|editorlast=|editor-last=October 2020
|editorlastn=
|editor-lastn=
October 2020
|editornlast=
|editorn-last=
October 2020
|editorlink=|editor-link=January 2021
|editorlinkn=
|editor-linkn=
January 2021
|editornlink=
|editorn-link=
January 2021
|editors=|editor= (one editor) or
|editorn=
(more than one editor) or |veditors= (for Vancouver style editors). Consider splitting
|editorn=
into
|editor-firstn=
and
|editor-lastn=
, if possible. Consider
|editor-maskn=
, if annotation is required.
January 2021
|editorsurname=|editor-surname=October 2020
|editorsurnamen=
|editor-surnamen=
October 2020
|editornsurname=
|editorn-surname=
October 2020
|editormask=|editor-mask=October 2020
|editormaskn=
|editor-maskn=
October 2020
|editornmask=
|editorn-mask=
October 2020
|embargo=|pmc-embargo-date=October 2020
|episodelink=|episode-link=May 2021
|event-format=(delete)January 2021
|eventurl=(delete)January 2021
|event-url=(delete)January 2021
|ignoreisbnerror=
|isbn=((<isbn>))
October 2020
|ignore-isbn-error=
|isbn=((<isbn>))
January 2021
|interviewerlink=|interviewer-link=October 2020
|interviewerlinkn=
|interviewer-linkn=
October 2020
|interviewernlink=
|interviewern-link=
October 2020
|interviewermask=|interviewer-mask=October 2020
|interviewermaskn=
|interviewer-maskn=
October 2020
|interviewernmask=
|interviewern-mask=
October 2020
|last-author-amp=|name-list-style=ampJanuary 2021
|lastauthoramp=|name-list-style=ampJanuary 2021
|laydate=|lay-date=April 2021
|laysource=|lay-source=April 2021
|layurl=|lay-url=April 2021
|mailinglist=|mailing-list=May 2021
|mapurl=|map-url=May 2021
|name-list-format=|name-list-style=April 2021
|nocat=|no-tracking=January 2021
|no-cat=|no-tracking=October 2020
|nopp=|no-pp=May 2021
|notracking=|no-tracking=October 2020
|publicationdate=|publication-date=May 2021
|publicationplace=|publication-place=May 2021
|registration=|url-access=registrationJanuary 2020
|sectionurl=|section-url=April 2021
|serieslink=|series-link=May 2021
|seriesno=|series-number=April 2021
|seriesnumber=|series-number=January 2021
|series-separator=(delete)October 2020
|subjectlink=|subject-link=January 2021
|subjectlinkn=
|subject-linkn=
January 2021
|subjectnlink=
|subjectn-link=
January 2021
|subscription=|url-access=subscriptionJanuary 2020
|timecaption=|time-caption=April 2021
|titlelink=|title-link=April 2021
|transcripturl=|transcript-url=May 2021
Description
Authors
  • last: Surname of a single author. Do not wikilink—use author-link instead. For corporate authors or authors for whom only one name is listed by the source, use last or one of its aliases (e.g. |author=Bono). Aliases: surname, author, last1, surname1, author1.
    • author: this parameter is used to hold the complete name of a single author (first and last) or to hold the name of a corporate author. This parameter should never hold the names of more than one author. Do not wikilink—use author-link instead.
    • first: Given or first names of author; for example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use author-link instead. Aliases: given, first1, given1. Requires last; first name will not display if last is empty.
    • OR: for multiple authors, use last1, first1 through lastn, firstn, where n is any consecutive number for an unlimited number of authors (each firstn requires a corresponding lastn, but not the other way around).
      See the display parameters to change how many authors are displayed.
      Aliases: surname1, given1 through surnamen, givenn, or author1 through authorn. For an individual author plus an institutional author, you can use |first1=...​|last1=...​|author2=...​.
    • author-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author—not the author's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: author-link1, author1-link, authorlink.
    • OR: for multiple authors, use author-link1 through author-linkn. Aliases: author1-link through authorn-link.
    • name-list-style: accepts a limited list of keywords as value; when set to amp, ampersand, or &, inserts an ampersand between the last two names in a name list; when set to and, inserts the conjunction 'and' between the last two names of a name list; when set to vancdisplays name lists in Vancouver style when the lists use the last/first forms of name parameters.
  • vauthors: comma-separated list of author names in Vancouver style; enclose corporate or institutional author names in doubled parentheses. End with etal if appropriate:
    |vauthors=Smythe JB, ((Megabux Corp.)), etal
    author-link and author-mask may be used for the individual names in |vauthors= as described above
  • authors: Free-form list of author names; use of this parameter is discouraged because it does not contribute to a citation's metadata; not an alias of last.
  • contributor-last: (book cites only) surname of the author of contribution (which is required). Aliases: contributor-surname, contributor1, contributor1-last, contributor-last1.
    • contributor-first: Given or first names of contributor. Do not wikilink—use contributor-link instead. Aliases: contributor-given, contributor1-first, contributor-first1.
    • OR: for multiple contributors, use contributor-last1, contributor-first1 through contributor-lastn, contributor-firstn where n is any consecutive number for an unlimited number of contributors (each contributor-firstn requires a corresponding contributor-lastn, but not the other way around). Aliases: contributor1-last, contributor1-first through contributorn-last, contributorn-first, or contributor1 through contributorn.
    • contributor-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the contributor—not the contributor's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: contributor-link1, contributor1-link.
    • OR: for multiple contributors, use contributor-link1 through contributor-linkn. Aliases: contributor1-link through contributorn-link.
  • translator-last: Surname of translator. Do not wikilink—use translator-link instead. Aliases: translator-surname, translator1, translator1-last, translator-last1.
    • translator-first: Given or first names of translator. Do not wikilink—use translator-link instead. Aliases: translator-given, translator1-first, translator-first1.
    • OR: for multiple translators, use translator-last1, translator-first1 through translator-lastn, translator-firstn, where n is any consecutive number for an unlimited number of translators (each translator-firstn requires a corresponding translator-lastn, but not the other way around). Aliases: translator1-last, translator1-first through translatorn-last, translatorn-first, or translator1 through translatorn.
    • translator-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the translator—not the translator's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: translator-link1, translator1-link.
    • OR: for multiple translators, use translator-link1 through translator-linkn. Aliases: translator1-link through translatorn-link.
  • collaboration: Name of a group of authors or collaborators; requires author, last, or vauthors listing one or more primary authors; follows author name-list; appends "et al." to author name-list.
  • others: To record other contributors to the work, including illustrators. For the parameter value, write Illustrated by John Smith.
  • Note: When using shortened footnotes or parenthetical referencing styles with templates, do not use multiple names in one field, or else the anchor will not match the inline link.
Title
(See also Help:Citation Style 1 § Titles and chapters.)
title: Title of source. Can be wikilinked to an existing Wikipedia article or url may be used to add an external link, but not both. Displays in italics. If script-title is defined, use title to hold a Romanization (if available) of the title in script-title.
  • script-title: Original title for languages that do not use a Latin-based script (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, etc.); not italicized, follows italicized Romanization defined in title (if present). Must be prefixed with one of the supported language codes to help browsers properly display the script:
    ... |title=Tōkyō tawā |script-title=ja:東京タワー |trans-title=Tokyo Tower ...
  • trans-title: English translation of the title if the source cited is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets after title; if url is defined, then trans-title is included in the link. Use of the language parameter is recommended.
Titles containing certain characters will not display and link correctly unless those characters are encoded.
newline[]|
space&#91;&#93;{{!}} (preferred)
{{bracket|text}}&#124; or {{pipe}}
title-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the source named in title – do not use a web address; do not wikilink.
type: Provides additional information about the media type of the source. May alternatively be used to identify the type of manuscript linked to in the title, if this is not the final version of a manuscript (e.g. if a preprint of a manuscript is freely available, but the version of record is behind a paywall). Format in sentence case. Displays in parentheses following the title. The reserved keyword none can be used to disable the display of a type. Examples: Thesis, Booklet, Accepted manuscript, CD liner, Press release. Alias: medium.
  • chapter: The chapter heading of the source. May be wikilinked or may use chapter-url, but not both. Displays in quotes. If script-chapter is defined, use chapter to hold a Romanization (if available) of the title in script-chapter
    • script-chapter: Chapter heading for languages that do not use a Latin-based script (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, etc); follows Romanization defined in chapter (if present). Must be prefixed with one of the supported language codes to help browsers properly display the script:
      ... |chapter=Tōkyō tawā |script-chapter=ja:東京タワー |trans-chapter=Tokyo Tower ...
    • trans-chapter: English translation of the chapter heading, if the source cited is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets after the chapter field; if chapter-url is defined, then trans-chapter is included in the link. Use of the language parameter is recommended.
  • contribution: A separately-authored part of author's book. May be wikilinked or may use contribution-url, but not both. Values of Afterword, Foreword, Introduction, or Preface will display unquoted; any other value will display in quotation marks. The author of the contribution is given in contributor.
language: The language (or a comma-separated list of the languages) in which the source is written, as either the ISO 639 language code (preferred) or the full language name. Examples: |language=ru; |lang=fr, pt-br; |lang=Russian; |language=French, Portuguese. See the list of supported codes and names. Do not use templates or wikilinks. Displays in parentheses with "in" before the language name or names. When the only source language is English, no language is displayed in the citation. The use of languages recognized by the citation module adds the page to the appropriate subcategory of Category:CS1 foreign language sources. Because cs1|2 templates are often copied from en.wiki to other wikis, the use of language codes is preferred so that language names render in the correct language and form: espagnol at a French-language wiki instead of the English word "Spanish". Aliases: lang
Date
date: Date of referenced source. Can be full date (day, month, and year) or partial date (month and year, season and year, or year). Use same format as other publication dates in the citations.[date 1] Required when year is used to disambiguate
{{sfn}}
links to multiple-work citations by the same author in the same year.[more] Do not wikilink. Displays after the authors and is enclosed in parentheses. If there is no author, then displays after the publisher.
For acceptable date formats, see Help:Citation Style 1 § Dates.
For approximate year, precede with "c. ", like this: |date=c. 1900.
For no date, or "undated", use |date=n.d.
Automatic date formatting: Citation Style 1 and 2 templates, including this template, automatically render dates in all date parameters (such as |date=, |publication-date=, |access-date=, |archive-date=, etc.) except for |orig-date= in the style specified by the article'sortemplate. See those templates' documentation for details.
  • year: Year of source being referenced. The usage of this parameter is discouraged; use the more flexible |date= parameter instead unless both of the following conditions are met:
    1. The |date= format is YYYY-MM-DD.
    2. The citation requires a CITEREF​disambiguator​.
  • orig-date: Original publication date or year; displays in square brackets after the date (or year). For clarity, please supply specifics. For example: |orig-date=First published 1859 or |orig-date=Composed 1904. As |orig-date= does not support automatic date formatting, use the same date format as defined by |df= (or, if it exists in the article, by |cs1-dates= of a
    or template), or as used in the |date= parameter. Alias: orig-year
  • df: date format; sets rendered dates to the specified format; does not support date ranges or seasonal dates; overrides the automatic date formatting described above. Accepts one value which may be one of these:
    dmy – set publication dates to day month year format; access- and archive-dates are not modified;
    mdy – as above for month day, year format
    ymd – as above for year initial numeric format YYYY-MM-DD
    dmy-all – set publication, access-, and archive-dates to day month year format;
    mdy-all – as above for month day, year format
    ymd-all – as above for year initial numeric format YYYY-MM-DD
^ Publication dates in references within an article should all have the same format. This may be a different format from that used for archive and access dates.
See MOS:DATEUNIFY.
Publisher
  • publisher: Name of publisher; may be wikilinked if relevant. The publisher is the company, organization or other legal entity that publishes the work being cited. Do not use the publisher parameter for the name of a work (e.g. a website, book, encyclopedia, newspaper, magazine, journal, etc.). If the name of the publisher changed over time use the name as stated in the publication or at the time of the source's publication. Corporate designations such as "Ltd", "Inc.", or "GmbH" are not usually included. Not normally used for periodicals. Omit where the publisher's name is substantially the same as the name of the work (for example, The New York Times Co. publishes The New York Times newspaper, so there is no reason to name the publisher). Displays after title.
  • place: For news stories with a dateline, that is, the location where the story was written. If the name of the location changed over time use the name as stated in the publication or at the time of the source's publication. In earlier versions of the template this was the publication place, and for compatibility, will be treated as the publication place if the publication-place parameter is absent; see that parameter for further information. Alias: location
  • publication-place: Geographical place of publication; generally not wikilinked; omit when the name of the work includes the publication place; examples: The Boston Globe, The Times of India. Displays after the title. If the name of the publication place changed over time use the name as stated in the publication or at the time of the source's publication. If only one of publication-place, place, or location is defined, it will be treated as the publication place and will show after the title; if publication-place and place or location are defined, then place or location is shown before the title prefixed with "written at" and publication-place is shown after the title.
  • publication-date: Date of publication when different from the date the work was written. Displays only if date (or year) are defined and only if different, else publication-date is used and displayed as date. Use the same format as other dates in the article; do not wikilink. Follows publisher; if work is not defined, then publication-date is preceded by "published" and enclosed in parenthesis.
  • via: Name of the content deliverer (if different from publisher). via is not a replacement for publisher, but provides additional detail. It may be used when the content deliverer presents the source in a format other than the original (e.g. NewsBank), when the URL provided does not make clear the identity of the deliverer, where no URL or DOI is available (EBSCO), or if the deliverer requests attribution.
    See the access level parameters to display access restrictions.
Edition, series, volume
edition: When the publication has more than one edition; for example: "2nd", "Revised", and so forth. Appends the string " ed." after the field, so |edition=2nd produces "2nd ed." Does not display if a periodical field is defined.
series or version: When the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal where the issue numbering has restarted.
volume: For one publication published in several volumes. Displays after the title and series fields; volume numbers should be entered just as a numeral (e.g. 37); volume values that are wholly digits, wholly uppercase Roman numerals, or less than five characters will appear in bold. Any non-numeric value of five or more characters will be presumed to follow some other convention and will not appear in bold. In rare cases publications carry both, an ongoing volume and a year-related value; if so, provide them both, for example |volume=IV / #10.
In-source locations
  • page: The number of a single page in the source that supports the content. Use either |page= or |pages=, but not both. Displays preceded by p. unless |no-pp=yes. If hyphenated, use {{hyphen}} to indicate this is intentional (e.g. |page=3{{hyphen}}12​), otherwise several editors and semi-automated tools will assume this was a misuse of the parameter to indicate a page range and will convert |page=3-12 to |pages=3{{ndash}}12. Alias: p.
  • OR: pages: A range of pages in the source that supports the content. Use either |page= or |pages=, but not both. Separate using an en dash (–); separate non-sequential pages with a comma (,); do not use to indicate the total number of pages in the source. Displays preceded by pp. unless |no-pp=yes.
    Hyphens are automatically converted to en dashes; if hyphens are appropriate because individual page numbers contain hyphens, for example: pp. 3-1–3-15, use double parentheses to tell the template to display the value of |pages= without processing it, and use {{hyphen}} to indicate to editors that a hyphen is really intended: |pages=((3{{hyphen}}1{{ndash}}3{{hyphen}}15))​. Alternatively, use |at=, like this: |at=pp. 3-1&ndash;3-15. Alias: pp.
    no-pp: Set to yes, y, or true to suppress the p. or pp. notations where this is inappropriate; for example, where |page=Front cover or
    |pages=passim
    .
  • OR: at: For sources where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient. Overridden by |page= or |pages=. Use only one of |page=, |pages=, or |at=.
    Examples: page (p.) or pages (pp.); section (sec.), column (col.), paragraph (para.); track; hours, minutes and seconds; act, scene, canto, book, part, folio, stanza, back cover, liner notes, indicia, colophon, dust jacket, verse.
  • For |quote-page= and |quote-pages= used in conjunction with |quote=, see here.
URL
  • url: URL of an online location where the text of the publication named by title can be found. Cannot be used if title is wikilinked. If applicable, the link may point to the specific page(s) referenced. Remove tracking parameters from URLs, e.g. #ixzz2rBr3aO94 or ?utm_source=google&utm_medium=...&utm_term=...&utm_campaign=...​.
    For linking to pages in PDF files or in Google Books, see WP:PAGELINKS.
    Do not link to any commercial booksellers, such as Amazon; use |isbn= or |oclc= to provide neutral search links for books. Invalid URLs, including those containing spaces, will result in an error message.
    • access-date: Full date when the content pointed to by url was last verified to support the text in the article; do not wikilink; requires url; use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations.[date 1] Not required for linked documents that do not change. For example, access-date is required for online sources, such as personal websites, that do not have a publication date; see WP:CITEWEB. Access dates are not required for links to published research papers, published books, or news articles with publication dates. Note that access-date is the date that the URL was found to be working and to support the text being cited. See "Automatic date formatting" above for details about interaction withand . Can be hidden or styled by registered editors. Alias: accessdate.
    • archive-url: The URL of an archived snapshot of a web page. Typically used to refer to services such as Internet Archive
      , WebCite
      and archive.is
      ; requires archive-date and url. By default (overridden by |url-status=live) the archived link is displayed first, with the original link at the end. Alias: archiveurl.
      • archive-date: Archive-service snapshot-date; preceded in display by default text "archived from the original on". Use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations. This does not necessarily have to be the same format that was used for citing publication dates.[date 1] Do not wikilink; templated dates are discouraged. See "Automatic date formatting" above for details about interaction withand . Alias: archivedate.
      • url-status: this optional parameter is ignored if archive-url is not set. If omitted, or with null value, the default value is |url-status=dead. When the URL is still live, but pre-emptively archived, then set |url-status=live; this changes the display order, with the title retaining the original link and the archive linked at the end. When the original URL has been usurped for the purposes of spam, advertising, or is otherwise unsuitable, setting |url-status=unfit or |url-status=usurped suppresses display of the original URL (but |url= and |archive-url= are still required).
      • archive-format: File format of the work referred to by archive-url; for example: PDF, DOC, or XLS; displayed in parentheses after the archive link. HTML is implied and should not be specified. File format annotation is automatically rendered when a PDF icon is displayed. Does not change the external link icon. Note: External link icons do not include alt text; thus, they do not add file format information for the visually impaired.
    • url-access:
  • format: File format of the work referred to by url; for example: PDF, DOC, or XLS; displayed in parentheses after title. (For media format, use type.) HTML is implied and should not be specified. File format annotation is automatically rendered when a PDF icon is displayed. Does not change the external link icon. Note: External link icons do not include alt text; thus, they do not add file format information for the visually impaired.
URLs must begin with a supported URI scheme. http:// and https:// will be supported by all browsers; however, ftp://, gopher://, irc://, ircs://, mailto: and news: may require a plug-in or an external application and should normally be avoided. IPv6 host-names are currently not supported.
If URLs in citation template parameters contain certain characters, then they will not display and link correctly. Those characters need to be percent-encoded. For example, a space must be replaced by %20. To encode the URL, replace the following characters with:
Characterspace"'<>[]{|}
Encoding%20%22%27%3C%3E%5B%5D%7B%7C%7D
Single apostrophes do not need to be encoded; however, unencoded multiples will be parsed as italic or bold markup. Single curly closing braces also do not need to be encoded; however, an unencoded pair will be parsed as the double closing braces for the template transclusion.
^ a b Access-date and archive-date in references should all have the same format – either the format used for publication dates, or YYYY-MM-DD.
See MOS:DATEUNIFY.
Chapter URL
  • chapter-url: URL of an online location where the text of the publication named by chapter or contribution can be found. Cannot be used if those parameters are wikilinked. Should be at the same site as url, if any. If chapter-url is used, url should only be used if the beginning of the work and the cited chapter are on separate webpages at the site. Aliases: contribution-url, section-url.
  • chapter-format: Format of the work referred to by chapter-url; for example: PDF, DOC, or XLS; displayed in parentheses after chapter. HTML is implied and should not be specified. Does not change the external link icon. Note: External link icons do not include alt text; thus, they do not add format information for the visually impaired.
Anchor
ref: the citation's HTML anchor identifier, when different from its default. When set,
|ref=ID
generates an anchor with the given ID (the id= attribute in the citation's
<cite id="ID">
HTML tag). Setting
|ref=ID
identifies the template as a target and allows wikilinking to full references, especially useful with short-form citations like shortened notes and parenthetical referencing. The default anchor ID is suitable for use with {{sfn}} and {{harv}} templates. Since April 2020, the parameter / keyword pair |ref=harv has no special meaning; this deprecated setting should not be used and may be removed from existing cs1|2 templates. To inhibit anchor ID creation, set |ref=none. Aliases: none.
Identifiers
id: A unique identifier, used where none of the specialized identifiers are applicable; wikilink or use a template as applicable. For example, |id=NCJ 122967 will append "NCJ 122967" at the end of the citation. You can use templates such as |id={{NCJ|122967}} to append NCJ122967 instead.
The following identifiers create links and are designed to accept a single value. Using multiple values or other text will break the link and/or invalidate the identifier. In general, the parameters should include only the variable part of the identifier, e.g. |rfc=822 or |pmc=345678.
  • arxiv: arXiv identifier; for example: |arxiv=hep-th/9205027 (before April 2007) or |arxiv=0706.0001 (April 2007 – December 2014) or |arxiv=1501.00001 (since January 2015). Do not include extraneous file extensions like ".pdf" or ".html". Aliases: eprint.
  • asin: Amazon Standard Identification Number; if first character of asin value is a digit, use isbn. Because this link favours one specific distributor, include it only if standard identifiers are not available. Example |asin=B00005N5PF. Aliases: ASIN.
    asin-tld: ASIN top-level domain for Amazon sites other than the US; valid values: ae, au, br, ca, cn, de, es, fr, in, it, jp, mx, nl, pl, sa, se, sg, tr, uk. Aliases: none.
  • bibcode: bibcode; used by a number of astronomical data systems; for example: 1974AJ.....79..819H. Aliases: none.
  • biorxiv: bioRxiv id, as in the entire DOI (e.g. 10.1101/078733 for http://biorxiv.org/content/early/2016/10/01/078733 or https://doi.org/10.1101/078733​; 10.1101/2020.07.24.220400 for https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.24.220400​). Aliases: none.
  • citeseerx: CiteSeerX id, a string of digits and dots found in a CiteSeerX URL (e.g. 10.1.1.176.341 for http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.176.341​). Aliases: none.
  • doi: Digital object identifier; for example: 10.1038/news070508-7​. It is checked to ensure it begins with (10.). Aliases: DOI.
    • Supports accept-this-as-written markup to indicate valid DOIs using a non-standard format, see below.
    • doi-broken-date: Date a valid DOI was found to be non-working/inactive at https://doi.org. Use the same format as other dates in the article. Aliases: none.
  • eissn: International Standard Serial Number for the electronic media of a serial publication; eight characters may be split into two groups of four using a hyphen, but not an en dash or a space; example |eissn=1557-2986. Aliases: EISSN.
    Supports accept-this-as-written markup to indicate valid eISSNs using a non-standard format, see below.
  • hdl: Handle System identifier for digital objects and other resources on the Internet; example |hdl=20.1000/100. Aliases: HDL.
  • isbn: International Standard Book Number; for example: 978-0-8126-9593-9.
    Hyphens in the ISBN are optional, but preferred. Use the ISBN actually printed on or in the book. Use the 13-digit ISBN – beginning with 978 or 979 – when it is available. If only a 10-digit ISBN is printed on or in the book, use it. ISBNs can be found on the page with the publisher's information – usually the back of the title page – or beneath the barcode as a number beginning with 978 or 979 (barcodes beginning with any other numbers are not ISBNs). For sources with the older 9-digit SBN system, use sbn. Do not convert a 10-digit ISBN to 13-digit by just adding the 978 prefix; the last digit is a calculated check digit and just making changes to the numbers will make the ISBN invalid. This parameter should hold only the ISBN without any additional characters. It is checked for length, invalid characters – anything other than numbers, spaces, and hyphens, with "X" permitted as the last character in a 10-digit ISBN – and the proper check digit. Aliases: ISBN, isbn13, ISBN13.
    Supports accept-this-as-written markup to indicate valid ISBNs using a non-standard format, see below.
  • ismn: International Standard Music Number; for example: 979-0-9016791-7-7. Hyphens or spaces in the ISMN are optional. Use the ISMN actually printed on or in the work. This parameter should hold only the ISMN without any additional characters. It is checked for length, invalid characters – anything other than numbers, spaces, and hyphens – and the proper check digit. Aliases: ISMN.
  • issn: International Standard Serial Number; eight characters may be split into two groups of four using a hyphen, but not an en dash or a space; example |issn=2049-3630. Aliases: ISSN.
    Supports accept-this-as-written markup to indicate valid ISSNs using a non-standard format, see below.
  • jfm: Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik; do not include "JFM" in the value; example |jfm=53.0144.01. Aliases: JFM.
  • jstor: JSTOR reference number; for example: |jstor=3793107. Aliases: JSTOR.
  • lccn: Library of Congress Control Number. When present, alphabetic prefix characters are to be lower case and without a space; example |lccn=79-57364 or |lccn=2004042477 or |lccn=e09001178. Aliases: LCCN.
  • mr: Mathematical Reviews; example |mr=630583. Aliases: MR.
  • oclc: OCLC Number for looking up publications in the WorldCat union catalog; example |oclc=9355469. Aliases: OCLC.
  • ol: Open Library identifier; do not include "OL" in the value; example |ol=7030731M. Aliases: OL.
  • osti: Office of Scientific and Technical Information; example |osti=4367507. Aliases: OSTI.
  • pmc: PubMed Central; use article number for open repository full-text of a journal article, e.g. |pmc=345678. Do not include "PMC" in the value.
    See also the pmid parameter, below; these are two different identifiers.
    . Aliases: PMC.
    pmc-embargo-date: Date that pmc goes live; if this date is in the future, then pmc is not linked until that date. Aliases: none.
  • pmid: PubMed; use unique identifier; example |pmid=17322060
    See also the pmc parameter, above; these are two different identifiers.
    Aliases: PMID.
  • rfc: Request for Comments; example |rfc=3143. Aliases: RFC.
  • sbn: Standard Book Number; example |sbn=356-02201-3. Aliases: SBN.
    Supports accept-this-as-written markup to indicate valid SBNs using a non-standard format, see below.
  • ssrn: Social Science Research Network; example |ssrn=1900856. Aliases: SSRN.
  • s2cid: Semantic Scholar corpus ID; example |s2cid=37220927. Aliases: S2CID.
  • zbl: Zentralblatt MATH; example |zbl=0472.53010 For zbMATH search results like JFM 35.0387.02 use |jfm=35.0387.02. Aliases: ZBL.
In very rare cases, valid identifiers (f.e., as actually printed on publications) do not follow their defined standard format or use non-conforming checksums, which would typically cause an error message to be shown. Do not alter them to match a different checksum. In order to suppress the error message, some identifiers (|doi=, |eissn=, |isbn=, |issn=, and |sbn=) support a special accept-this-as-written markup which can be applied to disable the error-checking (as
|<param>=((<value>))
). If the problem is down to a mere typographical error in a third-party source, correct the identifier value instead of overriding the error message.
For some identifiers, it is possible to specify the access status using the corresponding
|<param>-access=
parameter.
For {{cite journal}}, some identifiers (specifying free resources) will automatically be linked to the title when |url= and |title-link= are not used to specify a different link target. This behaviour can be overridden by one out of a number of special keywords for |title-link= to manually select a specific source (|title-link=pmc or |title-link=doi) for auto-linking or to disable the feature (|title-link=none).
It is not necessary to specify a URL to a link identical to a link also produced by an identifier. The |url= parameter (or |title-link=) can then be used for providing a direct deep link to the corresponding document or a convenience link to a resource that would not otherwise be obviously accessible.
Quote
  • quote: Relevant text quoted from the source. Displays enclosed in quotes. When supplied, the citation terminator (a period by default) is suppressed, so the quote must include terminating punctuation. If script-quote is defined, use quote to hold a Romanization (if available) of the text in script-quote.
    • script-quote: Original quotation for languages that do not use a Latin-based script (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, etc.); not italicized, follows italicized Romanization defined in quote (if available). Alias: none. Must be prefixed with one of the supported language codes to help browsers properly display the script:
      ... |quote=Tōkyō tawā |script-quote=ja:東京タワー |trans-quote=Tokyo Tower ...
    • trans-quote: English translation of the quotation if the source quoted is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets. Alias: none.
  • quote-page: The number of a single page quoted in |quote=. Use either |quote-page= or |quote-pages=, but not both. Should be a subset of the page(s) specified in |page=, |pages= or |at=. Displays preceded by p. unless |no-pp=yes. If hyphenated, use {{hyphen}} to indicate this is intentional (e.g. |quote-page=3{{hyphen}}12​). Alias: none.
  • OR: quote-pages: A list or range of pages quoted in |quote=. Use either |quote-page= or |quote-pages=, but not both. Should be a subset of the pages specified in |pages= or |at=. Separate using an en dash (–); separate non-sequential pages with a comma (,). Displays preceded by pp. unless |no-pp=yes is defined. Hyphens are automatically converted to en dashes; if hyphens are appropriate because individual page numbers contain hyphens, for example: pp. 3-1–3-15, use double parentheses to tell the template to display the value of |quote-pages= without processing it, and use {{hyphen}} to indicate to editors that a hyphen is really intended: |quote-pages=((3{{hyphen}}1{{ndash}}3{{hyphen}}15))​. Alias: none.
Editors
  • editor-last: surname of editor. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Where the surname is usually written first—as in Chinese—or for corporate authors, simply use editor-last to include the same format as the source. Aliases: editor-last1, editor1-last, editor-surname, editor-surname1, editor1-surname, editor, editor1.
    • editor: This parameter is used to hold the complete name of a single editor (first and last), or the name of an editorial committee. This parameter should never hold the names of more than one editor.
    • editor-first: given or first names of editor, including title(s); example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Aliases: editor-first1, editor1-first, editor-given, editor-given1, editor1-given.
    • OR: for multiple editors, use editor-last1, editor-first1 through editor-lastn, editor-firstn (Aliases: editorn-last, editor-surnamen or editorn-surname; editorn-first, editor-givenn or editorn-given; editorn). For an individual editor plus an institutional editor, you can use |editor-first1=...​|editor-last1=... |editor2=....
    • editor-link: title of existing Wikipedia article about the editor—not the editor's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: editor-link1.
    • OR: for multiple editors, use editor-link1 through editor-linkn (alias editorn-link).
    • name-list-style: accepts a limited list of keywords as value; when set to amp, ampersand, or &, inserts an ampersand between the last two names in a name list; when set to and, inserts the conjunction 'and' between the last two names of a name list; when set to vancdisplays name lists in Vancouver style when the lists use the last/first forms of name parameters.
  • veditors: comma separated list of editor names in Vancouver style; enclose corporate or institutional names in doubled parentheses. End with etal if appropriate:
    |veditors=Smythe JB, ((Megabux Corp.)), etal
    editor-linkn and editor-maskn may be used for the individual names in |veditors=, as described above
  • Display:
    Use display-editors to control the length of the displayed editor name list and to specify when "et al." is included.
    If authors: Authors are first, followed by the included work, then "In" and the editors, then the main work.
    If no authors: Editors appear before the included work; a single editor is followed by "ed."; multiple editors are followed by "eds."
Lay summary
lay-url: URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source; the URL title is set to "Lay summary".
  • lay-source: Name of the source of the lay summary. Displays in italics and preceded by a spaced endash.
  • lay-date: Date of the lay summary. Displays in parentheses.
  • lay-format: File format of the work referred to by lay-url; for example: PDF, DOC, or XLS; displayed in parentheses after lay summary. HTML is implied and should not be specified. File format annotation is automatically rendered when a PDF icon is displayed. Does not change the external link icon. Note: External link icons do not include alt text; thus, they do not add file format information for the visually impaired.
Display options
  • mode: Sets element separator, default terminal punctuation, and certain capitalization according to the value provided. For |mode=cs1, element separator and terminal punctuation is a period (.); where appropriate, initial letters of certain words are capitalized ('Retrieved...'). For |mode=cs2, element separator is a comma (,); terminal punctuation is omitted; where appropriate, initial letters of certain words are not capitalized ('retrieved...'). To override default terminal punctuation use postscript.
  • author-mask:
  • contributor-mask:
  • editor-mask:
  • interviewer-mask:
  • subject-mask:
  • translator-mask:
    Replaces the name of the (first) author with em dashes or text. Set <name>-mask to a numeric value n to set the dash n em spaces wide; set <name>-mask to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, "with". The numeric value 0 is a special case to be used in conjunction with <name>-link—in this case, the value of <name>-link will be used as (linked) text. In either case, you must still include the values for all names for metadata purposes. Primarily intended for use with bibliographies or bibliography styles where multiple works by a single author are listed sequentially such as shortened footnotes. Do not use in a list generated by
    , <references /> or similar as there is no control of the order in which references are displayed. Mask parameters can take an enumerator in the name of the parameter (e.g.
    |authorn-mask=
    ) to apply the mask to a specific name.
  • display-authors:
  • display-contributors:
  • display-editors:
  • display-interviewers:
  • display-subjects:
  • display-translators:
    Controls the number of author or editor names that are displayed when a citation is published. To change the displayed number of names, set display-authors and/or display-editors to the desired number. For example, |display-authors=2 will display only the first two authors in a citation (and not affect the display of editors). Likewise, |display-editors=2 will display only the first two editors (and all authors). |display-authors=0 and |display-editors=0 are special cases suppressing the display of all authors or editors including the et al. By default, all authors and editors are displayed. |display-authors=etal displays all authors in the list followed by et al. Aliases: none.
  • postscript: Controls the closing punctuation for a citation; defaults to a period (.); for no terminating punctuation, specify |postscript=none – leaving |postscript= empty is the same as omitting it, but is ambiguous. Additional text or templates beyond the terminating punctuation may generate an error message. |postscript= is ignored if quote is defined.
Subscription or registration required
Citations of online sources that require registration or a subscription are acceptable in Wikipedia as documented in Verifiability § Access to sources. As a courtesy to readers and other editors, editors should signal restrictions on access to material provided via the external links included in a citation. These levels describe requirements or constraints related to accessing and viewing the cited material; they are not intended to indicate the ability to reuse, or the copyright status, of the material, since that status is not relevant to verifying claims in articles.
Four access levels can be used:
As there are often multiple external links with different access levels in the same citation, each value is attributed to a specific external link.
Access indicators for url-holding parameters
Online sources linked by |url=, |article-url=, |chapter-url=, |contribution-url=, |entry-url=, |map-url=, and |section-url= are presumed to be free-to-read.[1] When they are not free-to-read, editors should mark those sources with the matching access-indicator parameter so that an appropriate icon is included in the rendered citation. Because the sources linked by these url-holding parameters are presumed to be free-to-read, they may not be marked as free.
URL-holding and access-indicator parameters
URLAccessAllowed keywords
|url=|url-access=registration
limited
subscription
|article-url=|article-url-access=
|chapter-url=|chapter-url-access=
|contribution-url=|contribution-url-access=
|entry-url=|entry-url-access=
|map-url=|map-url-access=
|section-url=|section-url-access=
^ This guidance does not restrict linking to websites that are being used as sources to provide content in articles.
For example, this cites a web page that requires registration but not subscription:
{{cite web |url=https://example.com/nifty_data.php |url-access=registration |date=2021-04-15 |title=Nifty example data}}
which renders as:
"Nifty example data". 2021-04-15.
Access indicator for named identifiers
Links inserted by named identifiers are presumed to lie behind a paywall or registration barrier – exceptions listed below. When they are free-to-read, editors should mark those sources with the matching access-indicator parameter so that an appropriate icon is included in the rendered citation. When the sources linked by these named-identifier parameters are not presumed to carry a free-to-read full text (for instance because they're just abstracting services), they may not be marked as limited, registration, or subscription.
Named-identifier and access-indicator parameters
IdentifierAccessAllowed keywords
|bibcode=|bibcode-access=free
|doi=|doi-access=
|hdl=|hdl-access=
|jstor=|jstor-access=
|ol=|ol-access=
|osti=|osti-access=
|s2cid=|s2cid-access=
Some named-identifiers are always free-to-read. For those named identifiers there are no access-indicator parameters; the access level is automatically indicated by the template. These named identifiers are:
  • |arxiv=
  • |biorxiv=
  • |citeseerx=
  • |pmc=
  • |rfc=
  • |ssrn=
For embargoed pmc that will become available in the future, see pmc-embargo-date.
TemplateData
See Template:Cite book/TemplateData.
See also
Reftag, tool for translating Google Books permalinks into Wikipedia references
This template produces COinS metadata; see COinS in Wikipedia for background information.
The above documentation is transcluded from Template:Cite book/doc. (edit | history)
Editors can experiment in this template's sandbox (edit | diff) and testcases (edit) pages.
Please add categories to the /doc subpage. Subpages of this template.
TemplateData
This is the TemplateData documentation for this template used by VisualEditor and other tools; see the monthly parameter usage report for this template.
TemplateData for Cite book
This template formats a citation to a book using the provided bibliographic information (such as author and title) as well as various formatting options.
Template parameters
This template prefers inline formatting of parameters.
ParameterDescriptionTypeStatus
Last namelast last1​author​author1​author1-last​author-last​surname1​author-last1​subject1​surname​author-last​subjectThe surname of the author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link' instead; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authorsStringsuggested
First namefirst given​author-first​first1​given1​author-first1​author1-firstGiven or first name, middle names, or initials of the author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link' instead; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authorsStringsuggested
URLurl URL
The URL of the online location where the text of the publication can be found. Requires schemes of the type "http://..." or maybe even the  protocol relative scheme "//..."
Example
https://books.google.com/books?id=...
Stringoptional
TitletitleThe title of the book; displays in italicsStringrequired
Title linktitle-linkTitle of existing Wikipedia article about the source named in title – do not use a web address; do not wikilink.Page nameoptional
Vancouver style author listvauthors
If using Vancouver style, comma separated list of author names; enclose corporate or institutional author names in doubled parentheses
Example
Smythe JB, ((Megabux Corporation))
Stringoptional
Last name 2last2​author2​surname2​author-last2​author2-last​subject2The surname of the second author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link2' instead; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authorsStringoptional
First name 2first2​given2​author-first2​author2-firstGiven or first name, middle names, or initials of the second author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link2' instead; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authorsStringoptional
Last name 3last3​author3​surname3​author-last3​author3-last​subject3The surname of the third author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link3' instead.Stringoptional
First name 3first3​given3​author-first3​author3-firstGiven or first name, middle names, or initials of the third author; don't wikilink.Stringoptional
Last name 4last4​author4​surname4​author-last4​author4-last​subject4The surname of the fourth author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link4' instead.Stringoptional
First name 4first4​given4​author-first4​author4-firstGiven or first name, middle names, or initials of the fourth author; don't wikilink.Stringoptional
Last name 5last5​author5​surname5​author-last5​author5-last​subject5The surname of the fifth author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link5' instead.Stringoptional
First name 5first5​given5​author-first5​author5-firstGiven or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth author; don't wikilink.Stringoptional
Last name 6last6​author6​surname6​author-last6​author6-last​subject6The surname of the sixth author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link6' instead.Stringoptional
First name 6first6​given6​author-first6​author6-firstGiven or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth author; don't wikilink.Stringoptional
Last name 7last7​author7​surname7​author-last7​author7-last​subject7The surname of the seventh author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link7' instead.Stringoptional
First name 7first7​given7​author-first7​author7-firstGiven or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh author; don't wikilink.Stringoptional
Last name 8last8​author8​surname8​author-last8​author8-last​subject8The surname of the eighth author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link8' instead.Stringoptional
First name 8first8​given8​author-first8​author8-firstGiven or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth author; don't wikilink.Stringoptional
Last name 9last9​author9​surname9​author-last9​author9-last​subject9The surname of the ninth author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link9' instead. If nine authors are defined, then only eight will show and 'et al.' will show in place of the last author.Stringoptional
First name 9first9​given9​author-first9​author9-firstGiven or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth author; don't wikilink.Stringoptional
CollaborationcollaborationName of a group of authors or collaborators; requires author, last, or vauthors which list one or more primary authors; follows author name-list; appends 'et al.' to author name-list.Stringoptional
DatedateFull date of the source; do not wikilinkDateoptional
Workwork​journal​website​newspaper​magazine​encyclopedia​encyclopaedia​dictionaryName of the work in which the cited book text is foundStringoptional
Publisherpublisherinstitution
Name of the publisher; displays after title
Example
[[HarperCollins]]
Stringsuggested
OthersothersUsed to record other contributions to the work, such as 'Illustrated by John Smith' or 'Translated by John Smith'Stringoptional
Year of publicationyearYear of the source being referenced; use 'date' instead, if month and day are also knownStringsuggested
ISBNisbn ISBNISBN13isbn13International Standard Book Number; use the 13-digit ISBN where possibleStringsuggested
Editor last nameeditor-last​editor​editor-surname​editor-last1​editor-surname1​editor1​editor1-last​editor1-surnameThe surname of the editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editorsStringoptional
Editor first nameeditor-first​editor-given​editor-first1​editor-given1​editor1-first​editor1-givenGiven or first name, middle names, or initials of the editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editorsStringoptional
Link for editoreditor-link​editor-link1​editor1-linkTitle of existing Wikipedia article about the editorPage nameoptional
Editor maskeditor-mask​editor1-mask​editor-mask1Replaces the name of the first editor with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing editor separator; for example, 'with' insteadStringoptional
Vancouver style editor listveditors
Comma separated list of editor names in Vancouver style; enclose corporate or institutional names in doubled parentheses
Example
Smythe JB, ((Megabux Corporation))
Stringoptional
EditioneditionWhen the publication has more than one edition; for example: '2nd', 'Revised' etc.; suffixed by ' ed.'Stringoptional
Series identifierseriesversionSeries identifier when the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journalStringoptional
VolumevolumeFor one publication published in several volumesStringoptional
Location of publicationlocationplaceGeographical place of publication; usually not wikilinked; omit when the publication name includes placeStringsuggested
Place of publicationpublication-placePublication place shows after title; if 'place' or 'location' are also given, they are displayed before the title prefixed with 'written at'Stringoptional
Publication datepublication-dateDate of publication when different from the date the work was written; do not wikilinkStringoptional
Pagepage pThe number of a single page in the source that supports the content; displays after 'p.'; use either page= or pages=, but not bothStringoptional
Page(s) citedpages pp
A range of pages in the source that support the content (not an indication of the number of pages in the source); displays after 'pp.'; use either page= or pages=, but not both
Example
5–11
Stringsuggested
AtatMay be used instead of 'page' or 'pages' where a page number is inappropriate or insufficientStringoptional
LanguagelanguageThe language in which the source is written, if not English; use the full language name; do not use icons or templatesStringoptional
Translator last nametranslator-last​translator​translator-last1​translator1​translator1-lastThe surname of the translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional translators.Stringoptional
Translator first nametranslator-first​translator1-first​translator-first1Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional translators.Stringoptional
Script titlescript-titleFor titles in languages that do not use a Latin-based alphabet (Arabic, Bengali, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, etc). Prefix with two-character ISO639-1 language code followed by a colon. For Japanese use: |script-title=ja:...Stringoptional
Translated titletrans-titleAn English language title, if the source cited is in a foreign language; 'language' is recommendedStringoptional
Chapterchapter​contribution​entry​article​sectionThe chapter heading of the source; may be wikilinked or with 'chapter-url' but not both. For the contribution alias, see contributor-lastStringoptional
Script Chapterscript-chapter
Chapter heading for languages that do not use a Latin-based alphabet (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, etc); follows transliteration defined in chapter. Should be prefixed with an ISO 639-1 two-character code to help browsers properly display the script
Example
ja:東京タワー
Stringoptional
Translated chaptertrans-chapterAn English language chapter heading, if the source cited is in a foreign language; 'language' is recommendedStringoptional
Typetype mediumAdditional information about the media type of the source; format in sentence caseStringoptional
FormatformatFormat of the work referred to by 'url'; examples: PDF, DOC, XLS; do not specify HTMLStringoptional
ASINasin ASINAmazon Standard Identification Number; 10 charactersStringoptional
ASIN TLDasin-tldASIN top-level domain for Amazon sites other than the USStringoptional
BibcodebibcodeBibliographic Reference Code (REFCODE); 19 charactersStringoptional
biorXivbiorxivbiorXiv identifier; 6 digitsLineoptional
CiteSeerXciteseerxCiteSeerX identifier; found after the 'doi=' query parameterLineoptional
DOIdoi DOIDigital Object Identifier; begins with '10.'Stringoptional
EISSNeissn EISSN
International Standard Serial Number for the electronic media of a serial publication; eight characters may be split into two groups of four using a hyphen, but not an en dash or a space.
Example
2009-0048
Stringoptional
Handle System identifierhdl HDLHandle System identifier for digital objects and other resources on the InternetStringoptional
ISMNismn ISMN
International Standard Music Number; Use the ISMN actually printed on or in the work. Hyphens or spaces in the ISMN are optional.
Example
979-0-9016791-7-7
Stringoptional
ISSNissn ISSNInternational Standard Serial Number; 8 characters; may be split into two groups of four using a hyphenStringoptional
jfm codejfmJahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik classification codeStringoptional
JSTORjstor JSTORJSTOR identifierStringoptional
LCCNlccn LCCNLibrary of Congress Control NumberStringoptional
MRmr MRMathematical Reviews identifierStringoptional
OCLCoclc OCLCOnline Computer Library Center numberStringoptional
OLol OLOpen Library identifier; do not include "OL" at beginning of identifierStringoptional
OSTIosti OSTIOffice of Scientific and Technical Information identifierStringoptional
PMCpmcPubMed Center article numberStringoptional
PMIDpmid PMIDPubMed Unique IdentifierStringoptional
RFCrfcRequest for Comments numberStringoptional
SSRNssrnSocial Science Research NetworkStringoptional
ZblzblZentralblatt MATH journal identifierStringoptional
idid IDA unique identifier used where none of the specialized ones are applicableStringoptional
QuotequotequotationRelevant text quoted from the source; displays last, enclosed in quotes; needs to include terminating punctuationStringoptional
RefrefAn anchor identifier; can be made the target of wikilinks to full references; special value 'harv' generates an anchor suitable for the harv and sfn templatesStringoptional
ModemodeSets separator and terminal punctuation to the style named in the assigned value; allowable values are: 'cs1' or 'cs2'Stringoptional
Postscriptpostscript
The closing punctuation for the citation; ignored if 'quote' is defined; to suppress use reserved keyword 'none'
Default
.
Stringoptional
Author maskauthor-mask​author1-mask​author-mask1Replaces the name of the first author with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, 'with' insteadStringoptional
Author mask 2author-mask2​author2-maskReplaces the name of the second author with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, 'with' insteadStringoptional
Author mask 3author-mask3​author3-maskReplaces the name of the third author with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, 'with' insteadStringoptional
Author mask 4author-mask4​author4-maskReplaces the name of the fourth author with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, 'with' insteadStringoptional
Author mask 5author-mask5​author5-maskReplaces the name of the fifth author with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, 'with' insteadStringoptional
Author mask 6author-mask6​author6-maskReplaces the name of the sixth author with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, 'with' insteadStringoptional
Author mask 7author-mask7​author7-maskReplaces the name of the seventh author with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, 'with' insteadStringoptional
Author mask 8author-mask8​author8-maskReplaces the name of the eighth author with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, 'with' insteadStringoptional
Author mask 9author-mask9​author9-maskReplaces the name of the ninth author with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, 'with' insteadStringoptional
Display authorsdisplay-authorsnumber of authors to display before 'et al.' is usedNumberoptional
Author linkauthor-link​author-link1​author1-link​subject-link​subject-link1​subject1-linkTitle of existing Wikipedia article about the author; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authorsPage nameoptional
Author link 2author-link2​author2-link​subject-link2​subject2-linkTitle of existing Wikipedia article about the second author; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authorsPage nameoptional
Author link 3author-link3​author3-link​subject-link3​subject3-linkTitle of existing Wikipedia article about the third author.Page nameoptional
Author link 4author-link4​author4-link​subject-link4​subject4-linkTitle of existing Wikipedia article about the fourth author.Page nameoptional
Author link 5author-link5​author5-link​subject-link5​subject5-linkTitle of existing Wikipedia article about the fifth author.Page nameoptional
Author link 6author-link6​author6-link​subject-link6​subject6-linkTitle of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth author.Page nameoptional
Author link 7author-link7​author7-link​subject-link7​subject7-linkTitle of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh author.Page nameoptional
Author link 8author-link8​author8-link​subject-link8​subject8-linkTitle of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth author.Page nameoptional
Author link 9author-link9​author9-link​subject-link9​subject9-linkTitle of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth author.Page nameoptional
URL access dateaccess-dateThe full date when the original URL was accessed; do not wikilinkStringoptional
Original yearorig-yearOriginal year of publication; provide specificsStringoptional
Last name of second editoreditor-last2​editor-surname2​editor2​editor2-last​editor2-surnameThe surname of the second editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor2-link'Stringoptional
First name of second editoreditor-first2​editor-given2​editor2-first​editor2-givenGiven or first name, middle names, or initials of the second editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor2-link'Stringoptional
Link for second editoreditor-link2​editor2-linkTitle of existing Wikipedia article about the second editorPage nameoptional
Mask for second editoreditor-mask2​editor2-maskReplaces the name of the second editor with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing editor separator; for example, 'with' insteadStringoptional
Last name of third editoreditor-last3​editor-surname3​editor3​editor3-last​editor3-surnameThe surname of the third editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor3-link'Stringoptional
First name of third editoreditor-first3​editor-given3​editor3-first​editor3-givenGiven or first name, middle names, or initials of the third editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor3-link'Stringoptional
Link for third editoreditor-link3​editor3-linkTitle of existing Wikipedia article about the third editorPage nameoptional
Mask for third editoreditor-mask3​editor3-maskReplaces the name of the third editor with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing editor separator; for example, 'with' insteadStringoptional
Last name of fourth editoreditor-last4​editor-surname4​editor4​editor4-last​editor4-surnameThe surname of the fourth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor4-link'Stringoptional
First name of fourth editoreditor-first4​editor-given4​editor4-first​editor4-givenGiven or first name, middle names, or initials of the fourth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor4-link'Stringoptional
Link for fourth editoreditor-link4​editor4-linkTitle of existing Wikipedia article about the fourth editorPage nameoptional
Mask for fourth editoreditor-mask4​editor4-maskReplaces the name of the fourth editor with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing editor separator; for example, 'with' insteadStringoptional
Last name of fifth editoreditor-last5​editor-surname5​editor5​editor5-last​editor5-surnameThe surname of the fifth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor5-link'Stringoptional
First name of fifth editoreditor-first5​editor-given5​editor5-first​editor5-givenGiven or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor5-link'Stringoptional
Link for fifth editoreditor-link5​editor5-linkTitle of existing Wikipedia article about the fifth editorPage nameoptional
Mask for fifth editoreditor-mask5​editor5-maskReplaces the name of the fifth editor with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing editor separator; for example, 'with' insteadStringoptional
Last name of sixth editoreditor-last6​editor-surname6​editor6​editor6-last​editor6-surnameThe surname of the sixth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor6-link'Stringoptional
First name of sixth editoreditor-first6​editor-given6​editor6-first​editor6-givenGiven or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor6-link'Stringoptional
Link for sixth editoreditor-link6​editor6-linkTitle of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth editorPage nameoptional
Mask for sixth editoreditor-mask6​editor6-maskReplaces the name of the sixth editor with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing editor separator; for example, 'with' insteadStringoptional
Last name of seventh editoreditor-last7​editor-surname7​editor7​editor7-last​editor7-surnameThe surname of the seventh editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor7-link'Stringoptional
First name of seventh editoreditor-first7​editor-given7​editor7-first​editor7-givenGiven or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor7-link'Stringoptional
Link for seventh editoreditor-link7​editor7-linkTitle of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh editorPage nameoptional
Mask for seventh editoreditor-mask7​editor7-maskReplaces the name of the seventh editor with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing editor separator; for example, 'with' insteadStringoptional
Last name of eighth editoreditor-last8​editor-surname8​editor8​editor8-last​editor8-surnameThe surname of the eighth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor8-link'Stringoptional
First name of eighth editoreditor-first8​editor-given8​editor8-first​editor8-givenGiven or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor8-link'Stringoptional
Link for eighth editoreditor-link8​editor8-linkTitle of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth editorPage nameoptional
Mask for eighth editoreditor-mask8​editor8-maskReplaces the name of the eighth editor with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing editor separator; for example, 'with' insteadStringoptional
Last name of ninth editoreditor-last9​editor-surname9​editor9​editor9-last​editor9-surnameThe surname of the ninth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor9-link'Stringoptional
First name of ninth editoreditor-first9​editor-given9​editor9-first​editor9-givenGiven or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor9-link'Stringoptional
Link for ninth editoreditor-link9​editor9-linkTitle of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth editorPage nameoptional
Mask for ninth editoreditor-mask9​editor9-maskReplaces the name of the ninth editor with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing editor separator; for example, 'with' insteadStringoptional
Display Editorsdisplay-editorsControls the number of editor names that are displayed when a citation is published. To change the displayed number of editors, set display-editors to the desired number. For example, |display-editors=2 will display only the first two editors in a citation. By default, all editors are displayed. |display-editors=etal displays all editors in the list followed by et al.Stringoptional
Translator last name 2translator-last2​translator2​translator2-lastThe surname of the second translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.Stringoptional
Translator first name 2translator-first2​translator2-firstGiven or first name, middle names, or initials of the second translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.Stringoptional
Translator last name 3translator-last3​translator3​translator3-lastThe surname of the third translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.Stringoptional
Translator first name 3translator-first3​translator3-firstGiven or first name, middle names, or initials of the third translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.Stringoptional
Translator last name 4translator-last4​translator4​translator4-lastThe surname of the fourth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.Stringoptional
Translator first name 4translator-first4​translator4-firstGiven or first name, middle names, or initials of the fourth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.Stringoptional
Translator last name 5translator-last5​translator5​translator5-lastThe surname of the fifth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.Stringoptional
Translator first name 5translator-first5​translator5-firstGiven or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.Stringoptional
Translator last name 6translator-last6​translator6​translator6-lastThe surname of the sixth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.Stringoptional
Translator first name 6translator-first6​translator6-firstGiven or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.Stringoptional
Translator last name 7translator-last7​translator7​translator7-lastThe surname of the seventh translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.Stringoptional
Translator first name 7translator-first7​translator7-firstGiven or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.Stringoptional
Translator last name 8translator-last8​translator8​translator8-lastThe surname of the eighth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.Stringoptional
Translator first name 8translator-first8​translator8-firstGiven or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.Stringoptional
Translator last name 9translator-last9​translator9​translator9-lastThe surname of the ninth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.Stringoptional
Translator first name 9translator-first9​translator9-firstGiven or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.Stringoptional
Translator linktranslator-link​translator-link1​translator1-linkTitle of existing Wikipedia article about the translator; can suffix with a numeral to add additional translators.Page nameoptional
Translator link 2translator-link2​translator2-linkTitle of existing Wikipedia article about the second translator.Page nameoptional
Translator link 3translator-link3​translator3-linkTitle of existing Wikipedia article about the third translator.Page nameoptional
Translator link 4translator-link4​translator4-linkTitle of existing Wikipedia article about the fourth translator.Page nameoptional
Translator link 5translator-link5​translator5-linkTitle of existing Wikipedia article about the fifth translator.Page nameoptional
Translator link 6translator-link6​translator6-linkTitle of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth translator.Page nameoptional
Translator link 7translator-link7​translator7-linkTitle of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh translator.Page nameoptional
Translator link 8translator-link8​translator8-linkTitle of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth translator.Page nameoptional
Translator link 9translator-link9​translator9-linkTitle of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth translator.Page nameoptional
Chapter URLchapter-url​contribution-url section-urlThe URL of the online location where the text of the chapter can be foundStringoptional
Format of Chapter URLchapter-format​contribution-format​section-format
Format of the work referred to by chapter-url; displayed in parentheses after chapter. HTML is implied and should not be specified.
Example
PDF, DOC, or XLS
Stringoptional
DOI broken datedoi-broken-dateThe date that the DOI was determined to be brokenStringoptional
URL access levelurl-accessClassification of the access restrictions on the URL ('registration', 'subscription' or 'limited')Stringoptional
Archive URLarchive-urlThe URL of an archived copy of a web page, if or in case the URL becomes unavailable; requires 'archivedate'Stringoptional
Archive Formatarchive-formatFormat of the ArchiveStringoptional
Archive datearchive-dateDate when the original URL was archived; do not wikilinkStringoptional
URL statusurl-status
If set to 'live', the title display is adjusted; useful for when the URL is archived preemptively but still live. Set to "dead" or 'usurped' for broken links. Entering 'unfit' or 'usurped' makes the original link not appear at all.
Default
dead
Example
'dead' or 'live'
Stringoptional
Lay URLlay-urlURL link to a non-technical summary or review of the sourceStringoptional
Lay sourcelay-sourceName of the source of the lay URL; displays in italics, preceded by an en dashStringoptional
Lay datelay-dateDate of the summary; displays in parenthesesStringoptional
Name list stylename-list-styleSet to 'amp' or 'and' to change the separator between the last two names of the name list to ' & ' or ' and ', respectively. Set to 'vanc' to display name lists in Vancouver style.Stringoptional
viavia
Aggregate or database provider, when different from the Publisher. Typically used for Ebooks.
Example
Open Edition, JSTOR
Stringoptional
Bibcode access levelbibcode-accessIf the full text is available from ADS via this Bibcode, type 'free'.Stringoptional
DOI access leveldoi-accessIf the full text is free to read via the DOI, type 'free'.Stringoptional
HDL access levelhdl-accessIf the full text is free to read via the HDL, type 'free'.Stringoptional
Jstor access leveljstor-accessIf the full text is free to read on Jstor, type 'free'.Stringoptional
OpenLibrary access levelol-accessIf the full text is free to read on OpenLibrary, type 'free'.Stringoptional
OSTI access levelosti-accessIf the full text is free to read on OSTI, type 'free'.Stringoptional
IssueissuenumberIssue number. This parameter is not supported by and should generally not be used with cite book. Consider that a different cite template may be more appropriate, such as cite magazine or cite journal. See Help:Citation_Style_1#Pages.Stringoptional
Authors listauthorspeople hostList of authors as a free form list. Use of this parameter is discouraged, "lastn" to "firstn" are preferable. Warning: do not use if last or any of its aliases are used.Stringoptional
AgencyagencyUnusual in cite book. Use if an agency is needed in addition to publisher, etc.Stringoptional
DepartmentdepartmentUnusual in cite book.Unknownoptional
Date formatdfSets rendered dates to the specified formatStringoptional
Last edited on 15 November 2017, at 09:11
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted.
Privacy policy
Terms of Use
Desktop
HomeRandomNearbyLog inSettingsDonateAbout WikipediaDisclaimers
LanguageWatchEdit