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Global Competitiveness Report
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The Global Competitiveness Report (GCR)[1] is a yearly report published by the World Economic Forum. Since 2004, the Global Competitiveness Report ranks countries based on the Global Competitiveness Index,[1] developed by Xavier Sala-i-Martin and Elsa V. Artadi.[2] Before that, the macroeconomic ranks were based on Jeffrey Sachs's Growth Development Index and the microeconomic ranks were based on Michael Porter's Business Competitiveness Index. The Global Competitiveness Index integrates the macroeconomic and the micro/business aspects of competitiveness into a single index.
The report "assesses the ability of countries to provide high levels of prosperity to their citizens". This in turn depends on how productively a country uses available resources. Therefore, the Global Competitiveness Index measures the set of institutions, policies, and factors that set the sustainable current and medium-term levels of economic prosperity."[3][4]
Description
Since 2004, the report ranks the world's nations according to the Global Competitiveness Index,[2] based on the latest theoretical and empirical research.[5] It is made up of over 110 variables, of which two thirds come from the Executive Opinion Survey, and one third comes from publicly available sources such as the United Nations. The variables are organized into twelve pillars,[6] with each pillar representing an area considered as an important determinant of competitiveness.
One part of the report is the Executive Opinion Survey, which is a survey of a representative sample of business leaders in their respective countries. Respondent numbers have increased every year and is currently just over 13,500 in 142 countries (2010).[7]
The report notes that as a nation develops, wages tend to increase, and that in order to sustain this higher income, labor productivity must improve for the nation to be competitive. In addition, what creates productivity in Sweden is necessarily different from what drives it in Ghana. Thus, the GCI separates countries into three specific stages: factor-driven, efficiency-driven, and innovation-driven, each implying a growing degree of complexity in the operation of the economy.
The report has twelve pillars of competitiveness. These are:
  1. Institutions
  2. Appropriate infrastructure
  3. Stable macroeconomic framework
  4. Good health and primary education
  5. Higher education and training
  6. Efficient goods markets
  7. Efficient labor markets
  8. Developed financial markets
  9. Ability to harness existing technology
  10. Market sizeboth domestic and international
  11. Production of new and different goods using the most sophisticated production processes
  12. Innovation
In the factor-driven stage countries compete based on their factor endowments, primarily unskilled labor and natural resources. Companies compete on the basis of prices and sell basic products or commodities, with their low productivity reflected in low wages. To maintain competitiveness at this stage of development, competitiveness hinges mainly on well-functioning public and private institutions (pillar 1), appropriate infrastructure (pillar 2), a stable macroeconomic framework (pillar 3), and good health and primary education (pillar 4).
As wages rise with advancing development, countries move into the efficiency-driven stage of development, when they must begin to develop more efficient production processes and increase product quality. At this point, competitiveness becomes increasingly driven by higher education and training (pillar 5), efficient goods markets (pillar 6), efficient labor markets (pillar 7), developed financial markets (pillar 8), the ability to harness the benefits of existing technologies (pillar 9), and its market size, both domestic and international (pillar 10).
Finally, as countries move into the innovation-driven stage, they are only able to sustain higher wages and a higher standard of living if their businesses are able to compete by providing new or unique products. At this stage, companies must compete by producing new and different goods using the most sophisticated production processes (pillar 11) and through innovation (pillar 12).
Thus, the impact of each pillar on competitiveness varies across countries, in function of their stages of economic development. Therefore, in the calculation of the GCI, pillars are given different weights depending on the per capita income of the nation.[8] The weights used are the values that best explain growth in recent years[9] For example, the sophistication and innovation factors contribute 10% to the final score in factor and efficiency-driven economies, but 30% in innovation-driven economies. Intermediate values are used for economies in transition between stages.
The Global Competitiveness Index's annual reports are somewhat similar to the Ease of Doing Business Index and the Indices of Economic Freedom, which also look at factors affecting economic growth (but not as many as the Global Competitiveness Report). Data from the Global Competitiveness Index relating to the strength of auditing and reporting standards, institutions and judicial independence is used in the Basel AML Index, a money laundering risk assessment tool developed by the Basel Institute on Governance.
Limitations
In spite of the World Economic Forum's Global Risks Report which is increasingly identifying environmental pressures as the dominant risks to humanity, none of the indicators used to determine this report's competitiveness ranking reflect any of the countries' environmental dimensions such as energy, water, climate risks, resource or food security, etc. The Global Competitiveness Report 2018[10] and 2019[11] used the ecological footprint as a context indicator, but the footprint was not included in the scoring algorithm that determines the ranking.
2019 rankings
This is the full ranking of the 2019 report:[11]
RankCountryScore
1
 Singapore
84.8
2 United States83.7
3
 Hong Kong
83.1
4
 Netherlands
82.4
5
  Switzerland
82.3
6
 Japan
82.3
7 Germany81.8
8 Sweden81.2
9 United Kingdom81.2
10
 Denmark
81.2
11 Finland80.2
12
 Taiwan
80.2
13
 South Korea
79.6
14 Canada79.6
15
 France
78.8
16 Australia78.7
17
 Norway
78.1
18 Luxembourg77.0
19 New Zealand76.7
20
 Israel
76.7
21
 Austria
76.6
22
 Belgium
76.4
23
 Spain
75.3
24 Ireland75.1
25 United Arab Emirates75.0
26
 Iceland
74.7
27 Malaysia74.6
28
 China
73.9
29 Qatar72.9
30
 Italy
71.5
31
 Estonia
70.9
32
 Czech Republic
70.9
33
 Chile
70.5
34
 Portugal
70.4
35 Slovenia70.2
36
 Saudi Arabia
70.0
37 Poland68.9
38
 Malta
68.5
39 Lithuania68.4
40
 Thailand
68.1
41 Latvia67.0
42
 Slovakia
66.8
43
 Russia
66.7
44
 Cyprus
66.4
45 Bahrain65.4
46 Kuwait65.1
47 Hungary65.1
48 Mexico64.9
49 Bulgaria64.9
50
 Indonesia
64.6
51
 Romania
64.4
52
 Mauritius
64.3
53 Oman63.6
54
 Uruguay
63.5
55 Kazakhstan62.9
56 Brunei62.8
57
 Colombia
62.7
58 Azerbaijan62.7
59
 Greece
62.6
60
 South Africa
62.4
61
 Turkey
62.1
62 Costa Rica62.0
63 Croatia61.9
64 Philippines61.9
65
 Peru
61.7
66
 Panama
61.6
67
 Vietnam
61.5
68
 India
61.4
69 Armenia61.3
70 Jordan60.9
71
 Brazil
60.9
72
 Serbia
60.9
73 Montenegro60.9
74
 Georgia
60.9
75
 Morocco
60.0
76 Seychelles59.6
NEW 77
 Barbados
58.9
78
 Dominican Republic
58.3
79 Trinidad and Tobago58.3
80 Jamaica58.3
81
 Albania
57.6
82 North Macedonia57.3
83 Argentina57.2
84 Sri Lanka57.1
85
 Ukraine
57.0
86 Moldova56.7
87
 Tunisia
56.4
88
 Lebanon
56.3
89
 Algeria
56.3
90
 Ecuador
55.7
91
 Botswana
55.5
92 Bosnia and Herzegovina54.7
93
 Egypt
54.5
94
 Namibia
54.5
95
 Kenya
54.1
96 Kyrgyzstan54.0
97 Paraguay53.6
98 Guatemala53.5
99 Iran53.0
100
 Rwanda
52.8
101 Honduras52.7
102 Mongolia52.6
103 El Salvador52.6
104 Tajikistan52.4
105 Bangladesh52.1
106
 Cambodia
52.1
107
 Bolivia
51.8
108
   Nepal
51.6
109 Nicaragua51.5
110
 Pakistan
51.4
111
 Ghana
51.2
112 Cape Verde50.8
113
 Laos
50.1
114
 Senegal
49.7
115
 Uganda
48.9
116 Nigeria48.3
117
 Tanzania
48.2
118
 Ivory Coast
48.1
NEW 119
 Gabon
47.5
120
 Zambia
46.5
121
 Eswatini
46.4
122
 Guinea
46.1
123
 Cameroon
46.0
124
 Gambia
45.9
125
 Benin
45.8
126 Ethiopia44.4
127 Zimbabwe44.2
128
 Malawi
43.7
129
 Mali
43.6
130
 Burkina Faso
43.4
131
 Lesotho
42.9
NEW 132
 Madagascar
42.9
133
 Venezuela
41.8
134
 Mauritania
40.9
135 Burundi40.3
136
 Angola
38.1
137
 Mozambique
38.1
138 Haiti36.3
139
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
36.1
140
 Yemen
35.5
141
 Chad
35.1
2018 rankings
This is the top 30 of the 2018 report:[10]
  1.  United States 85.6 (+1)
  2.  Singapore 83.5 (+1)
  3.  Germany 82.8 (+2)
  4.   Switzerland 82.6 (−3)
  5.  Japan 82.5 (+4)
  6.  Netherlands 82.4 (−2)
  7.  Hong Kong 82.3 (−1)
  8.  United Kingdom 82 (—)
  9.  Sweden 81.7 (−2)
  10.  Denmark 80.6 (+2)
  11.  Finland 80.3 (−1)
  12.  Canada 79.9 (+2)
  13.  Taiwan 79.3 (+2)
  14.  Australia 78.9 (+7)
  15.  South Korea 78.8 (+11)
  16.  Norway 78.2 (−5)
  17.  France 78 (+5)
  18.  New Zealand 77.5 (−5)
  19.  Luxembourg 76.6 (—)
  20.  Israel 76.6 (−4)
  21.  Belgium 76.6 (−1)
  22.  Austria 76.3 (−4)
  23.  Ireland 75.7 (+1)
  24.  Iceland 74.5 (—)
  25.  Malaysia 74.4 (−2)
  26.  Spain 74.2 (+8)
  27.  United Arab Emirates 73.4 (−10)
  28.  China 72.6(−1)
  29.  Czech Republic 71.2 (+2)
  30.  Qatar 71 (−5)
2017–2018 rankings
This is the top 30 of the 2017–2018 report:[12]
  1.   Switzerland 5.86 (—)
  2.  United States 5.85 (+1)
  3.  Singapore 5.71 (−1)
  4.  Netherlands 5.66 (—)
  5.  Germany 5.65 (—)
  6.  Hong Kong 5.53 (+3)
  7.  Sweden 5.52 (−1)
  8.  United Kingdom 5.51 (−1)
  9.  Japan 5.49 (−1)
  10.  Finland 5.49 (—)
  11.  Norway 5.40 (—)
  12.  Denmark 5.39 (—)
  13.  New Zealand 5.37 (—)
  14.  Canada 5.35 (+1)
  15.  Taiwan 5.33 (−1)
  16.  Israel 5.31 (+8)
  17.  United Arab Emirates 5.30 (−1)
  18.  Austria 5.25 (+1)
  19.  Luxembourg 5.23 (+1)
  20.  Belgium 5.23 (−3)
  21.  Australia 5.19 (+1)
  22.  France 5.18 (−1)
  23.  Malaysia 5.17 (+2)
  24.  Ireland 5.16 (−1)
  25.  Qatar 5.11 (−7)
  26.  South Korea 5.07 (—)
  27.  China 5.00 (+1)
  28.  Iceland 4.99 (−1)
  29.  Estonia 4.85 (+1)
  30.  Saudi Arabia 4.83 (−1)
2016–2017 rankings
This is the top 30 of the 2016–2017 report:[13]
  1.   Switzerland 5.81 (—)
  2.  Singapore 5.72 (—)
  3.  United States 5.7 (—)
  4.  Netherlands 5.57 (+1)
  5.  Germany 5.57 (−1)
  6.  Sweden 5.53 (+3)
  7.  United Kingdom 5.49 (+3)
  8.  Japan 5.48 (−2)
  9.  Hong Kong 5.48 (−2)
  10.  Finland 5.44 (−2)
  11.  Norway 5.44 (—)
  12.  Denmark 5.35 (—)
  13.  New Zealand 5.31 (+3)
  14.  Taiwan 5.28 (+1)
  15.  Canada 5.27 (−2)
  16.  United Arab Emirates 5.26 (+1)
  17.  Belgium 5.25 (+2)
  18.  Qatar 5.23 (−4)
  19.  Austria 5.22 (+4)
  20.  Luxembourg 5.2 (—)
  21.  France 5.2 (+1)
  22.  Australia 5.19 (−1)
  23.  Ireland 5.18 (+1)
  24.  Israel 5.18 (+3)
  25.  Malaysia 5.16 (−7)
  26.  South Korea 5.03 (—)
  27.  Iceland 4.96 (+2)
  28.  China 4.95 (—)
  29.  Saudi Arabia 4.84 (−4)
  30.  Estonia 4.78 (—)
2015–2016 rankings
This is the top 30 of the 2015–2016 report:[14]
  1.   Switzerland 5.76 (—)
  2.  Singapore 5.68 (—)
  3.  United States 5.61 (—)
  4.  Germany 5.53 (+1)
  5.  Netherlands 5.50 (+3)
  6.  Japan 5.47 (—)
  7.  Hong Kong 5.46 (—)
  8.  Finland 5.45 (−4)
  9.  Sweden 5.43 (+1)
  10.  United Kingdom 5.43 (−1)
  11.  Norway 5.41 (—)
  12.  Denmark 5.33 (+1)
  13.  Canada 5.31 (+2)
  14.  Qatar 5.30 (+2)
  15.  Taiwan 5.28 (−1)
  16.  New Zealand 5.25 (+1)
  17.  United Arab Emirates 5.24 (−5)
  18.  Malaysia 5.23 (+2)
  19.  Belgium 5.20 (−1)
  20.  Luxembourg 5.20 (−1)
  21.  Australia 5.15 (+1)
  22.  France 5.13 (+1)
  23.  Austria 5.12 (−2)
  24.  Ireland 5.11 (+1)
  25.  Saudi Arabia 5.07 (−1)
  26.  South Korea 4.98 (—)
  27.  Israel 4.98 (—)
  28.  China 4.89 (—)
  29.  Iceland 4.83 (+1)
  30.  Estonia 4.71 (−1)
2014–2015 rankings
This is the top 30 of the 2014–2015 report:[1]
  1.   Switzerland 5.80 (—)
  2.  Singapore 5.65 (—)
  3.  United States 5.54 (+2)
  4.  Finland 5.50 (−1)
  5.  Germany 5.49 (−1)
  6.  Japan 5.47 (+3)
  7.  Hong Kong 5.46 (—)
  8.  Netherlands 5.45 (—)
  9.  United Kingdom 5.41 (+1)
  10.  Sweden 5.41 (−4)
  11.  Norway 5.35 (—)
  12.  United Arab Emirates 5.33 (+7)
  13.  Denmark 5.29 (+2)
  14.  Taiwan 5.25 (−2)
  15.  Canada 5.24 (−1)
  16.  Qatar 5.26 (−3)
  17.  New Zealand 5.20 (+1)
  18.  Belgium 5.18 (−1)
  19.  Luxembourg 5.17 (+3)
  20.  Malaysia 5.16 (+4)
  21.  Austria 5.16 (−5)
  22.  Australia 5.08 (−1)
  23.  France 5.08 (—)
  24.  Saudi Arabia 5.06 (−4)
  25.  Ireland 4.98 (+3)
  26.  South Korea 4.96 (−1)
  27.  Israel 4.95 (—)
  28.  China 4.89 (+1)
  29.  Estonia 4.71 (+3)
  30.  Iceland 4.71 (+1)
2013–2014 rankings
This is the top 30 of the 2013–2014 report:[15]
  1.   Switzerland 5.67 (—)
  2.  Singapore 5.61 (—)
  3.  Finland 5.54 (—)
  4.  Germany 5.51 (+2)
  5.  United States 5.48 (+2)
  6.  Sweden 5.48 (−2)
  7.  Hong Kong 5.47 (+2)
  8.  Netherlands 5.42 (−3)
  9.  Japan 5.40 (+1)
  10.  United Kingdom 5.37 (−2)
  11.  Norway 5.33 (+4)
  12.  Taiwan 5.29 (+1)
  13.  Qatar 5.24 (−2)
  14.  Canada 5.20 (—)
  15.  Denmark 5.18 (−3)
  16.  Austria 5.15 (—)
  17.  Belgium 5.13 (—)
  18.  New Zealand 5.11 (+5)
  19.  United Arab Emirates 5.11 (+5)
  20.  Saudi Arabia 5.10 (−2)
  21.  Australia 5.09 (−1)
  22.  Luxembourg 5.09 (—)
  23.  France 5.05 (−2)
  24.  Malaysia 5.03 (+1)
  25.  South Korea 5.01 (−6)
  26.  Brunei 4.95 (+2)
  27.  Israel 4.94 (−1)
  28.  Ireland 4.92 (−1)
  29.  China 4.84 (—)
  30.  Puerto Rico 4.67 (+1)
2012–2013 rankings
This is the top 30 of the 2012–2013 report:[16]
  1.   Switzerland 5.72 (—)
  2.  Singapore 5.67 (—)
  3.  Finland 5.55 (+1)
  4.  Sweden 5.53 (−1)
  5.  Netherlands 5.50 (+2)
  6.  Germany 5.48 (—)
  7.  United States 5.47 (−2)
  8.  United Kingdom 5.45 (+2)
  9.  Hong Kong 5.41 (+2)
  10.  Japan 5.40 (−1)
  11.  Qatar 5.38 (+3)
  12.  Denmark 5.29 (−4)
  13.  Taiwan 5.28 (—)
  14.  Canada 5.27 (−2)
  15.  Norway 5.27 (+1)
  16.  Austria 5.22 (+3)
  17.  Belgium 5.21 (−2)
  18.  Saudi Arabia 5.19 (+1)
  19.  South Korea 5.12 (+5)
  20.  Australia 5.12 (—)
  21.  France 5.11 (−3)
  22.  Luxembourg 5.09 (+1)
  23.  New Zealand 5.09 (+2)
  24.  United Arab Emirates 5.07 (+3)
  25.  Malaysia 5.06 (−4)
  26.  Israel 5.02 (−4)
  27.  Ireland 4.91 (+2)
  28.  Brunei 4.87 (—)
  29.  China 4.83 (−3)
  30.  Iceland 4.74 (—)
2011–2012 rankings
This is the top 30 of the 2011–2012 report:[17][18]
  1.   Switzerland 5.75 (—)
  2.  Singapore 5.63 (+1)
  3.  Sweden 5.61 (−1)
  4.  Finland 5.47 (+3)
  5.  United States 5.43 (−1)
  6.  Germany 5.41 (−1)
  7.  Netherlands 5.41 (+1)
  8.  Denmark 5.40 (+1)
  9.  Japan 5.40 (−3)
  10.  United Kingdom 5.39 (+2)
  11.  Hong Kong 5.36 (—)
  12.  Canada 5.33 (−2)
  13.  Taiwan 5.26 (—)
  14.  Qatar 5.24 (+3)
  15.  Belgium 5.20 (+4)
  16.  Norway 5.18 (−2)
  17.  Saudi Arabia 5.17 (+4)
  18.  France 5.14 (−3)
  19.  Austria 5.14 (−1)
  20.  Australia 5.11 (−4)
  21.  Malaysia 5.08 (+5)
  22.  Israel 5.07 (+2)
  23.  Luxembourg 5.03 (−3)
  24.  South Korea 5.02 (−2)
  25.  New Zealand 4.93 (−2)
  26.  China 4.90 (+1)
  27.  United Arab Emirates 4.89 (−2)
  28.  Brunei 4.78 (—)
  29.  Ireland 4.77 (—)
  30.  Iceland 4.75 (+1)
2010–2011 rankings
This is the top 30 of the 2010–2011 report:[19]
  1.   Switzerland 5.63 (—)
  2.  Sweden 5.56 (+2)
  3.  Singapore 5.48 (—)
  4.  United States 5.43 (–2)
  5.  Germany 5.39 (+2)
  6.  Japan 5.37 (+2)
  7.  Finland 5.37 (–1)
  8.  Netherlands 5.33 (+2)
  9.  Denmark 5.32 (–4)
  10.  Canada 5.30 (–1)
  11.  Hong Kong 5.27 (—)
  12.  United Kingdom 5.25 (+1)
  13.  Taiwan 5.21 (–1)
  14.  Norway 5.14 (—)
  15.  France 5.13 (+1)
  16.  Australia 5.11 (–1)
  17.  Qatar 5.10 (—)
  18.  Austria 5.09 (–1)
  19.  Belgium 5.07 (–1)
  20.  Luxembourg 5.05 (+1)
  21.  Saudi Arabia 4.95 (+6)
  22.  South Korea 4.93 (—)
  23.  New Zealand 4.92 (–3)
  24.  Israel 4.91 (+3)
  25.  United Arab Emirates 4.89 (–2)
  26.  Malaysia 4.88 (–2)
  27.  China 4.84 (+2)
  28.  Brunei 4.75 (+4)
  29.  Ireland 4.74 (–4)
  30.  Chile 4.69 (—)
2009–2010 rankings
This is the top 30 of the 2009–2010 report:[20]
  1.   Switzerland 5.60 (+1)
  2.  United States 5.59 (–1)
  3.  Singapore 5.55 (+2)
  4.  Sweden 5.51 (—)
  5.  Denmark 5.46 (–2)
  6.  Finland 5.43 (—)
  7.  Germany 5.37 (—)
  8.  Japan 5.37 (+1)
  9.  Canada 5.33 (+1)
  10.  Netherlands 5.32 (–2)
  11.  Hong Kong 5.22 (—)
  12.  Taiwan 5.20 (+5)
  13.  United Kingdom 5.19 (–1)
  14.  Norway 5.17 (+1)
  15.  Australia 5.15 (+3)
  16.  France 5.13 (—)
  17.  Austria 5.13 (–3)
  18.  Belgium 5.09 (+1)
  19.  South Korea 5.00 (–6)
  20.  New Zealand 4.98 (+4)
  21.  Luxembourg 4.96 (+4)
  22.  Qatar 4.95 (+4)
  23.  United Arab Emirates 4.92 (+8)
  24.  Malaysia 4.87 (–3)
  25.  Ireland 4.84 (–3)
  26.  Iceland 4.80 (–6)
  27.  Israel 4.80 (–4)
  28.  Saudi Arabia 4.75 (–1)
  29.  China 4.74 (+1)
  30.  Chile 4.70 (+2)
2008–2009 rankings
This is the top 30 of the 2008–2009 report:[21]
  1.  United States 5.74
  2.   Switzerland 5.61
  3.  Denmark 5.58
  4.  Sweden 5.53
  5.  Singapore 5.53
  6.  Finland 5.50
  7.  Germany 5.46
  8.  Netherlands 5.41
  9.  Japan 5.38
  10.  Canada 5.37
  11.  Hong Kong 5.33
  12.  United Kingdom 5.30
  13.  South Korea 5.28
  14.  Austria 5.23
  15.  Norway 5.22
  16.  France 5.22
  17.  Taiwan 5.22
  18.  Australia 5.20
  19.  Belgium 5.14
  20.  Iceland 5.05
  21.  Malaysia 5.04
  22.  Ireland 4.99
  23.  Israel 4.97
  24.  New Zealand 4.93
  25.  Luxembourg 4.85
  26.  Qatar 4.83
  27.  Saudi Arabia 4.72
  28.  Chile 4.72
  29.  Spain 4.72
  30.  China 4.70
You can find the computation and structure of the GCI pp. 49–50 of the Global Competitiveness Report 2013-2014, Full Data Edition.
See also
References
  1. ^ a b c "Global Competitiveness Report 2014-2015 - Reports - World Economic Forum". Global Competitiveness Report 2014-2015.
  2. ^ a b "Sala-i-Martin, Xavier and Elsa V. Artadi, "The Global Competitiveness Index", Global Competitiveness Report, Global Economic Forum 2004
  3. ^ "Global Competitiveness Network: Frequently Asked Questions". Archived from the original on 2009-03-26. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
  4. ^ "Global Competitiveness".
  5. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-10-27. Retrieved 2006-09-27.
  6. ^ See appendix in Page 47 of the 2011-12 report. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GCR_Report_2011-12.pdf
  7. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-03-26. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
  8. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-10-27. Retrieved 2006-09-28.
  9. ^​http://www.columbia.edu/~xs23/papers/WEC_00220_00701_Snowdon.pdf
  10. ^ a b "The Global Competitiveness Report 2018"(PDF).
  11. ^ a b "The Global Competitiveness Report 2019"(PDF).
  12. ^ "Global Competitiveness Report 2017-2018"(PDF). World Economic Forum.
  13. ^ "Global Competitiveness Report 2016-2017"(PDF). World Economic Forum.
  14. ^ "Global Competitiveness Report 2015-2016".
  15. ^​http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GlobalCompetitivenessReport_2013-14.pdf
  16. ^​http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GlobalCompetitivenessReport_2012-13.pdf
  17. ^ "US Competitiveness Ranking Continues to Fall; Emerging Markets Are Closing the Gap | World Economic Forum - US Competitiveness Ranking Continues to Fall; Emerging Markets Are Closing the Gap". Weforum.org. 2011-09-07. Archived from the original on 2013-05-01. Retrieved 2013-04-29.
  18. ^ "World Economic Forum - Home" (PDF). www3.weforum.org. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  19. ^ World Economic Forum. "Table 4: The Global Competitiveness Index 2010–2011 rankings and 2009–2010 comparisons" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-09-22. Retrieved 2010-09-10.
  20. ^ World Economic Forum. "Table 4: The Global Competitiveness Index 2009–2010 rankings and 2008–2009 comparisons" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-10-30. Retrieved 2009-09-09.
  21. ^ World Economic Forum. "The Global Competitiveness Index rankings and 2007–2008 comparisons" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-24. Retrieved 2009-09-10.
External links
Last edited on 9 May 2021, at 14:30
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