is a British daily national newspaper
based in London
. It began in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register
, adopting its current name on 1 January 1788. The Times
and its sister paper The Sunday Times
(founded in 1821) are published by Times Newspapers, since 1981 a subsidiary of News UK
, in turn wholly owned by News Corp
. The Times
and The Sunday Times
, which do not share editorial staff, were founded independently, and have only had common ownership since 1966.
is the first newspaper to have borne that name, lending it to numerous other papers around the world, such as The Times of India
and The New York Times
. In countries where these other titles are popular, the newspaper is often referred to as The London Times
or as The Times of London
although the newspaper is of national scope and distribution.
had an average daily circulation of 417,298 in January 2019;
in the same period, The Sunday Times
had an average weekly circulation of 712,291.
An American edition of The Times
has been published since 6 June 2006. The Times
has been heavily used by scholars and researchers because of its widespread availability in libraries and its detailed index. A complete historical file of the digitised paper, up to 2010, is online from Gale Cengage
Front page of The Times from 4 December 1788
was founded by publisher John Walter
on 1 January 1785 as The Daily Universal Register,
with Walter in the role of editor.
Walter had lost his job by the end of 1784 after the insurance company for which he worked went bankrupt due to losses from a Jamaican hurricane. Unemployed, Walter began a new business venture.
At that time, Henry Johnson invented the logography, a new typography that was reputedly faster and more precise (although three years later, it was proved less efficient than advertised). Walter bought the logography's patent and with it opened a printing house to produce books.
The first publication of the newspaper The Daily Universal Register
was on 1 January 1785. Walter changed the title after 940 editions on 1 January 1788 to The Times
In 1803, Walter handed ownership and editorship to his son
of the same name.
In spite of Walter Sr's sixteen-month stay in Newgate Prison
printed in The Times
his pioneering efforts to obtain Continental news, especially from France, helped build the paper's reputation among policy makers and financiers.
used contributions from significant figures in the fields of politics, science, literature, and the arts to build its reputation. For much of its early life, the profits of The Times
were very large and the competition minimal, so it could pay far better than its rivals for information or writers. Beginning in 1814, the paper was printed on the new steam-driven cylinder press developed by Friedrich Koenig
In 1815, The Times
had a circulation of 5,000.
was appointed general editor in 1817. In the same year, the paper's printer James Lawson, died and passed the business onto his son John Joseph Lawson (1802–1852). Under the editorship of Barnes and his successor in 1841, John Thadeus Delane
, the influence of The Times
rose to great heights, especially in politics and amongst the City of London
. Peter Fraser and Edward Sterling were two noted journalists, and gained for The Times
the pompous/satirical nickname 'The Thunderer' (from "We thundered out the other day an article on social and political reform."). The increased circulation and influence of the paper was based in part to its early adoption of the steam-driven rotary printing press. Distribution via steam trains
to rapidly growing concentrations of urban populations helped ensure the profitability of the paper and its growing influence.
1890 to 1981
In editorials published on 29 and 31 July 1914, Wickham Steed
, the Times's
Chief Editor, argued that the British Empire
should enter World War I
On 8 May 1920, also under the editorship of Steed
, The Times
in an editorial endorsed the anti-Semitic
fabrication The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion
as a genuine document, and called Jews the world's greatest danger. In the leader entitled "The Jewish Peril, a Disturbing Pamphlet: Call for Inquiry", Steed wrote about The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
What are these 'Protocols'? Are they authentic? If so, what malevolent assembly concocted these plans and gloated over their exposition? Are they forgery? If so, whence comes the uncanny note of prophecy, prophecy in part fulfilled, in part so far gone in the way of fulfillment?".
The following year, when Philip Graves
, the Constantinople
) correspondent of The Times
, exposed The Protocols
as a forgery, The Times
retracted the editorial of the previous year.
, a double agent with primary allegiance to the Soviet Union
, was a correspondent for the newspaper in Spain during the Spanish Civil War
of the late 1930s. Philby was admired for his courage in obtaining high-quality reporting from the front lines of the bloody conflict. He later joined British Military Intelligence (MI6
) during World War II
, was promoted into senior positions after the war ended, and defected to the Soviet Union
when discovery was inevitable in 1963.
Between 1941 and 1946, the left-wing British historian E. H. Carr
was assistant editor. Carr was well known for the strongly pro-Soviet tone of his editorials.
In December 1944, when fighting broke out in Athens
between the Greek Communist ELAS
and the British Army, Carr in a Times leader
sided with the Communists, leading Winston Churchill
to condemn him and the article in a speech to the House of Commons.
As a result of Carr's editorial, The Times
became popularly known during that stage of World War II as "the threepenny Daily Worker
" (the price of the Communist Party's Daily Worker
being one penny).
An industrial dispute prompted the management to shut the paper for nearly a year from 1 December 1978 to 12 November 1979.
The Thomson Corporation management were struggling to run the business due to the 1979 energy crisis
and union demands. Management sought a buyer who was in a position to guarantee the survival of both titles, and had the resources and was committed to funding the introduction of modern printing methods.
Frontpage weekly magazine "The Times" May 15 1940, With headline: "The Old prime minister and the new".
In 1981, The Times
and The Sunday Times
were bought from Thomson by Rupert Murdoch's News International
The acquisition followed three weeks of intensive bargaining with the unions by company negotiators John Collier and Bill O'Neill
. Murdoch gave legal undertakings to maintain separate journalism resources for the two titles.
The Royal Arms
was reintroduced to the masthead at about this time, but whereas previously it had been that of the reigning monarch, it would now be that of the House of Hanover
, who were on the throne when the newspaper was founded.
After 14 years as editor, William Rees-Mogg
resigned upon completion of the change of ownership.
Murdoch began to make his mark on the paper by appointing Harold Evans
as his replacement.
One of his most important changes was the introduction of new technology and efficiency measures. Between March 1981 and May 1982, following agreement with print unions, the hot-metal Linotype
printing process used to print The Times
since the 19th century was phased out and replaced by computer input and photo-composition. This allowed print room staff at The Times
and The Sunday Times
to be reduced by half. However, direct input of text by journalists ("single-stroke" input) was still not achieved, and this was to remain an interim measure until the Wapping dispute
of 1986, when The Times
moved from New Printing House Square
in Gray's Inn Road (near Fleet Street
) to new offices in Wapping
seven times British International Journalist of the Year,
resigned as foreign correspondent in 1988 over what he saw as "political censorship" of his article on the shooting-down of Iran Air Flight 655
in July 1988. He wrote in detail about his reasons for resigning from the paper due to meddling with his stories, and the paper's pro-Israel stance.
In June 1990, The Times
ceased its policy of using courtesy titles ("Mr", "Mrs", or "Miss" prefixes) for living persons before full names on first reference, but it continues to use them before surnames on subsequent references. In 1992, it accepted the use of "Ms" for unmarried women "if they express a preference."
In November 2003, News International began producing the newspaper in both broadsheet and tabloid sizes.
Over the next year, the broadsheet edition was withdrawn from Northern Ireland
, and the West Country
. Since 1 November 2004, the paper has been printed solely in tabloid format.
On 6 June 2005, The Times
redesigned its Letters page, dropping the practice of printing correspondents' full postal addresses. Published letters were long regarded as one of the paper's key constituents. According to its leading article
"From Our Own Correspondents", the reason for removal of full postal addresses was to fit more letters onto the page.
In a 2007 meeting with the House of Lords
Select Committee on Communications, which was investigating media ownership and the news, Murdoch stated that the law and the independent board prevented him from exercising editorial control.
In March 2016, the paper dropped its rolling digital coverage for a series of 'editions' of the paper at 9am, midday and 5pm on weekdays.
The change also saw a redesign for the paper's app for smartphones and tablets.
In April 2018, IPSO upheld a complaint against The Times
for its report of a court hearing in a Tower Hamlets fostering case.
In April 2019, Culture secretary Jeremy Wright
said he was minded to allow a request by News UK
to relax the legal undertakings given in 1981 to maintain separate journalism resources for The Times
and The Sunday Times
In 2019, IPSO upheld complaints against The Times
over their article "GPS data shows container visited trafficking hotspot",
and for three articles as part of a series on pollution in Britain's waterways – "No river safe for bathing", "Filthy Business" and "Behind the story".
IPSO also upheld complaints in 2019 against articles headlined "Funding secret of scientists against hunt trophy ban",
and "Britons lose out to rush of foreign medical students"
features news for the first half of the paper; the Opinion/Comment section begins after the first news section with world news normally following this. The business pages begin on the centre spread, and are followed by The Register, containing obituaries, a Court & Social section, and related material. The sport section is at the end of the main paper. In April 2016, the cover price of The Times
became £1.40 on weekdays and £1.50 on Saturdays.
main supplement, every day, is the times2
, featuring various columns.
It was discontinued in early March 2010,
but reintroduced on 12 October 2010 after discontinuation was criticised.
Its regular features include a puzzles section called Mind Games
. Its previous incarnation began on 5 September 2005, before which it was called T2
and previously Times 2
The supplement contains arts and lifestyle features, TV and radio listings, and theatre reviews. The newspaper employs Richard Morrison
as its classical music critic.
The Saturday edition of The Times
contains a variety of supplements. These supplements were relaunched in January 2009 as: Sport
, Saturday Review
(arts, books, TV listings and ideas), Weekend
(including travel and lifestyle features), Playlist
(an entertainment listings guide) and The Times Magazine
(columns on various topics).
The Times Magazine
The Times Magazine
features columns touching on various subjects such as celebrities, fashion and beauty, food and drink, homes and gardens or simply writers' anecdotes. Notable contributors include Giles Coren
, Food and Drink Writer of the Year in 2005 and Nadiya Hussain
, winner of The Great British Bake Off
and The Sunday Times
have had an online presence since March 1999, originally at the-times.co.uk
, and later at timesonline.co.uk
. There are now two websites: thetimes.co.uk
is aimed at daily readers, and the thesundaytimes.co.uk
site at providing weekly magazine-like content. There are also iPad
and Android editions of both newspapers. Since July 2010, News UK
has required readers who do not subscribe to the print edition to pay £2 per week to read The Times
and The Sunday Times
Visits to the websites have decreased by 87% since the paywall was introduced, from 21 million unique users per month to 2.7 million.
In April 2009, the timesonline
site had a readership of 750,000 readers per day.
In October 2011, there were around 111,000 subscribers to The Times'
has had the following eight owners since its foundation in 1785:
At the time of Harold Evans' appointment as editor in 1981, The Times
had an average daily sale of 282,000 copies in comparison to the 1.4 million daily sales of its traditional rival The Daily Telegraph
By November 2005, The Times
sold an average of 691,283 copies per day, the second-highest of any British "quality
" newspaper (after The Daily Telegraph
, which had a circulation of 903,405 copies in the period), and the highest in terms of full-rate sales.
By March 2014, average daily circulation of The Times
had fallen to 394,448 copies,
compared to The Daily Telegraph'
with the two retaining respectively the second-highest and highest circulations among British "quality" newspapers. In contrast The Sun
, the highest-selling "tabloid" daily newspaper in the United Kingdom, sold an average of 2,069,809 copies in March 2014,
and the Daily Mail
, the highest-selling "middle market" British daily newspaper, sold an average of 1,708,006 copies in the period.
The Sunday Times
has a significantly higher circulation than The Times
, and sometimes outsells The Sunday Telegraph
. In January 2019, The Times
had a circulation of 417,298
and The Sunday Times
In a 2009 national readership survey, The Times
was found to have the highest number of ABC1
25–44 readers and the largest numbers of readers in London of any of the "quality" papers.
is the originator of the widely used Times New Roman
typeface, originally developed by Stanley Morison
of The Times
in collaboration with the Monotype Corporation
for its legibility in low-tech printing. In November 2006, The Times
began printing headlines in a new font, Times Modern
. The Times
was printed in broadsheet
format for 219 years, but switched to compact
size in 2004 in an attempt to appeal more to younger readers and commuters using public transport. The Sunday Times
remains a broadsheet.
[T]he various typefaces used before the introduction (The) Times New Roman [sic
] didn't really have a formal name.
They were a suite of types originally made by Miller and Co. (later Miller & Richards) in Edinburgh around 1813, generally referred to as "modern". When The Times began using Monotype (and other hot-metal machines) in 1908, this design was remade by Monotype for its equipment. As near as I can tell, it looks like Monotype Series no. 1 — Modern (which was based on a Miller & Richards typeface) — was what was used up until 1932.
— Dan Rhatigan, type director
In 1908, The Times
started using the Monotype Modern
commissioned the serif typefaceTimes New Roman
, created by Victor Lardent
at the English branch of Monotype
, in 1931.
It was commissioned after Stanley Morison
had written an article criticizing The Times
for being badly printed and typographically antiquated.
The font was supervised by Morison and drawn by Victor Lardent, an artist from the advertising department of The Times
. Morison used an older font named Plantin
as the basis for his design, but made revisions for legibility and economy of space. Times New Roman
made its debut in the issue of 3 October 1932.
After one year, the design was released for commercial sale. The Times
stayed with Times New Roman
for 40 years, but new production techniques and the format change from broadsheet
in 2004 have caused the newspaper to switch font five times since 1972. However, all the new fonts have been variants of the original New Roman font:
- Times Europa was designed by Walter Tracy in 1972 for The Times, as a sturdier alternative to the Times font family, designed for the demands of faster printing presses and cheaper paper. The typeface features more open counter spaces.
- Times Roman replaced Times Europa on 30 August 1982.
- Times Millennium was made in 1991, drawn by Gunnlaugur Briem on the instructions of Aurobind Patel, composing manager of News International.
- Times Classic first appeared in 2001. Designed as an economical face by the British type team of Dave Farey and Richard Dawson, it took advantage of the new PC-based publishing system at the newspaper, while obviating the production shortcomings of its predecessor Times Millennium. The new typeface included 120 letters per font. Initially the family comprised ten fonts, but a condensed version was added in 2004.
- Times Modern was unveiled on 20 November 2006, as the successor of Times Classic. Designed for improving legibility in smaller font sizes, it uses 45-degree angled bracket serifs. The font was published by Elsner + Flake as EF Times Modern; it was designed by Research Studios, led by Ben Preston (deputy editor of The Times) and designer Neville Brody.
Historically, the paper was not overtly pro-Tory
, but has been a long time bastion of the English Establishment
and empire. In 1959, the historian of journalism Allan Nevins
analysed the importance of The Times
in shaping the views of events of London's elite:
For much more than a century The Times
has been an integral and important part of the political structure of Great Britain. Its news and its editorial comment have in general been carefully coordinated, and have at most times been handled with an earnest sense of responsibility. While the paper has admitted some trivia to its columns, its whole emphasis has been on important public affairs treated with an eye to the best interests of Britain. To guide this treatment, the editors have for long periods been in close touch with 10 Downing Street
adopted a stance described as "peculiarly detached" at the 1945 general election
; although it was increasingly critical of the Conservative Party
's campaign, it did not advocate a vote for any one party.
However, the newspaper reverted to the Tories for the next election
five years later. It supported the Conservatives for the subsequent three elections, followed by support for both the Conservatives and the Liberal Party
for the next five elections, expressly supporting a Con-Lib coalition in 1974. The paper then backed the Conservatives solidly until 1997, when it declined to make any party endorsement but supported individual (primarily Eurosceptic
For the 2001 general election
, The Times
declared its support for Tony Blair
's Labour government, which was re-elected by a landslide (although not as large as in 1997). It supported Labour again in 2005
, when Labour achieved a third successive win, though with a reduced majority.
In 2004, according to MORI
, the voting intentions of its readership were 40% for the Conservative Party, 29% for the Liberal Democrats
, and 26% for Labour.
For the 2010 general election
, the newspaper declared its support for the Conservatives once again; the election ended in the Tories taking the most votes and seats but having to form a coalition
with the Liberal Democrats
in order to form a government as they had failed to gain an overall majority.
occasionally makes endorsements for foreign elections. In November 2012, it endorsed a second term for Democrat Barack Obama
although it also expressed reservations about his foreign policy.
Libel cases against The Times
In 2019, The Times
published an article about Imam Abdullah Patel which wrongly claimed Patel had blamed Israel for the 2003 murder of a British police officer by a terror suspect in Manchester. The story also wrongly claimed that Patel ran a primary school that had been criticised by Ofsted
for segregating parents at events, which Ofsted said was contrary to "British democratic principles". The Times
settled Patel's defamation claim by issuing an apology and offering to pay damages and legal costs. Patel's solicitor, Zillur Rahman, said the case "highlights the shocking level of journalism to which the Muslim community are often subject".
In 2019, The Times
published an article titled "Female Circumcision is like clipping a nail, claimed speaker". The article featured a photo of Sultan Choudhury
beside the headline, leading some readers to incorrectly infer that Choudhury had made the comment. Choudhury lodged a complaint with the Independent Press Standards Organisation
and sued The Times
for libel. In 2020, The Times
issued an apology, amended its article and agreed to pay Choudhury damages and legal costs. Choudhury's solicitor, Nishtar Saleem, said "This is another example of irresponsible journalism. Publishing sensational excerpts on a ‘free site’ whilst concealing the full article behind a paywall is a dangerous game".
In December 2020, Cage and Moazzam Begg received damages of £30,000 plus costs in a libel case they had brought against The Times
newspaper. In June 2020, a report in The Times
had suggested that Cage and Begg were supporting a man who had been arrested in relation to a knife attack in Reading in which three men were murdered. The Times
report also suggested that Cage and Begg were excusing the actions of the accused man by mentioning mistakes made by the police and others. In addition to paying damages, The Times
printed an apology. Cage stated that the damages amount would be used to "expose state-sponsored Islamophobia and those complicit with it in the press. ... The Murdoch press empire has actively supported xenophobic elements and undermined principles of open society and accountability. ... We will continue to shine a light on war criminals and torture apologists and press barons who fan the flames of hate".
An Irish digital
edition of the paper was launched in September 2015 at TheTimes.ie
A print edition was launched in June 2017, replacing the international edition previously distributed in Ireland.
The Irish edition was set to close in June 2019 with the loss of 20 jobs.
The Times Literary Supplement
) first appeared in 1902 as a supplement to The Times
, becoming a separately paid-for weekly literature and society magazine in 1914.
is owned and published by News International and co-operates closely with The Times
, with its online version hosted on The Times
website, and its editorial offices based in Times House, Pennington Street, London.
Between 1951 and 1966, The Times
published a separately paid-for quarterly science review, The Times Science Review
. The Times
started a new, free, monthly science magazine, Eureka
, in October 2009.
The magazine closed in October 2012.
In popular culture
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- ^ An analysis of The Times reader demographic (based on NMA figures, news agenda and advertising in the paper) can be seen in this study Archived 20 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ "Ultrasparky: It was never called Times Old Roman".
- ^ Morison (1953). A Tally of Types. Cambridge University Press. p. 15.
- ^ Loxley, Simon (2006). Type: the secret history of letters. I. B. Tauris & Co. Ltd. pp. 130–131. ISBN 1-84511-028-5.
- ^ Carter, H. G. (2004). Morison, Stanley Arthur (1889–1967). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. rev. David McKitterick. Oxford University Press.
- ^ "TYPOlis: Times New Roman". Typolis.de. 3 October 1932. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
- ^ Dawson, Peter (17 December 2019). The Essential Type Directory: A Sourcebook of Over 1,800 Typefaces and Their Histories. Running Press. p. 345. ISBN 978-0-7624-6851-5.
- ^ a b c Driver, David (20 November 2006). "After 221 years, the world's leading newspaper shows off a fresh face". The Times. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
- ^ "Typography of News Bigger, faster, better". Fontshop.com. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
- ^ "Neville Brody's Research Studios Creates New Font and Design Changes for The Times as Compact Format Continues to Attract Loyal Readership". LONDON: Prnewswire.co.uk. 15 November 2006. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
- ^ Allan Nevins, "American Journalism and Its Historical Treatment", Journalism Quarterly (1959) 36#4 pp 411–22
- ^ R. B. McCallum and Alison Readman, "The British General Election of 1945", Oxford University Press, 1947, p. 181–2.
- ^ David Butler and Dennis Kavanagh, "The British General Election of 1997", Macmillan, London, 1997, p. 156.
- ^ Lancaster, Dave (1 October 2009). "Which political parties do the newspapers support?". Supanet. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
- ^ "Voting intention by newspaper readership". Ipsos MORI. 9 March 2005. Retrieved 18 July 2009.
- ^ Stoddard, Katy (4 May 2010). "Newspaper support in UK general elections". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
- ^ Stoddard, Katy (4 May 2010). "Newspaper support in UK general elections". The Guardian. London.
- ^ Smith, Matthew (7 March 2017). "How left or right-wing are the UK's newspapers? | YouGov". YouGov. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
- ^ "America Decides". The Times. London. 1 November 2012.
- ^ "The Times view on the next prime minister: Boris Johnson at No 10". The Times. 6 July 2019. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
- ^ "The Times's endorsement for the general election: Back to the Future". The Times. 11 December 2019. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- ^ Charlotte, Tobitt (12 December 2019). "Times apologises and pays libel damages to imam who appeared on BBC debate". Press Gazette. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
- ^ "The Times publishes apology to Sultan Choudhury OBE and agrees to pay damages". News Anyway. 25 July 2020. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
- ^ Sabin, Lamiat (4 December 2020). "The Times pays £30k damages over article defaming Muslim activists". Morning Star. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
- ^ Smith, Neil (17 September 2003). "Female stars lead London festival". BBC News. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- ^ "The Times and The Sunday Times Cheltenham Literature Festival". Cheltenham Festivals. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
- ^ "Power or Influence: Can educational journalists make a difference". 1997. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
- ^ Roy Greenslade "Witherow and Ivens confirmed as editors of Times and Sunday Times", theguardian, 27 September 2013
- ^ "Irish edition of The Times launched". Marketing.ie. 16 April 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
- ^ "WATCH: Gavan Reilly gives us an overall update from Midday – #GE16". Today FM.
- ^ "The Ireland edition of The Times available in print". www.news.co.uk. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
- ^ Horgan-Jones, Jack; Slattery, Laura. "Times Ireland to make most editorial staff redundant". The Irish Times.
- ^ "The ultimate review of reviews". London Evening Standard. 6 November 2001. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- ^ Ramsay, Fiona (2 October 2009). "The Times launches science magazine Eureka". Campaign. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
- ^ Twitter, William Turvill (1 October 2012). "News International confirms closure of Times science magazine Eureka". Press Gazette. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
- ^ "The Times Books – our heritage". Collins. Archived from the original on 29 December 2019. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
- ^ Case, Jennifer M.; Huisman, Jeroen (14 October 2015). Researching Higher Education: International perspectives on theory, policy and practice. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-38206-5.
- ^ Shippey, Tom (2016). "Variations on Newspeak: The Open Question of Nineteen Eighty-Four". Hard Reading: Learning from Science Fiction. Liverpool Science Fiction Texts and Studies. Liverpool University Press. p. 233. ISBN 9781781384398.
- ^ Lynskey, Dorian (4 June 2019). The Ministry of Truth: The Biography of George Orwell's 1984. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-385-54406-1.
- ^ Stout, Rex (12 May 2010). Murder by the Book. Random House Publishing Group. pp. vi. ISBN 978-0-307-75606-0.
- ^ Stout, Rex (28 April 2010). Triple Jeopardy. Random House Publishing Group. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-307-75630-5.
- ^ Mullan, John (28 December 2002). "Licence to sell". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- Bingham, Adrian. "The Times Digital Archive, 1785–2006 (Gale Cengage)," English Historical Review (2013) 128#533 pp. 1037–1040. doi:10.1093/ehr/cet144
- Evans, Harold (1983). Good Times, Bad Times. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-78295-9. - includes sections of black-and-white photographic plates, plus a few charts and diagrams in text pages.
- Merrill, John C. and Harold A. Fisher. The world's great dailies: profiles of fifty newspapers (1980) pp. 320–29.
- Morison, Stanley. The History of the Times: Volume 1: The Thunderer" in the Making 1785–1841. Volume 2: The Tradition Established 1841–1884. Volume 3: The Twentieth Century Test 1884–1912. Volume 4 [published in two parts]:The 150th Anniversary and Beyond 1912–1948. (1952)
- Riggs, Bruce Timothy. "Geoffrey Dawson, editor of "The Times" (London), and his contribution to the appeasement movement" (PhD dissertation, U of North Texas, 1993) online, bibliography pp 229–33.
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