) is the main town, and a commune
in Tindouf Province
, close to the Mauritanian
, Western Saharan
borders. The commune has population of around 160,000 but the census and population estimates do not count the Sahrawi
refugees making the population as of the 2008 census 45,966,
up from 25,266 in 1998,
and an annual population growth rate of 6.3%.
Tindouf in 1880.
The town of Tindouf was built near an isolated Saharan oasis
in 1852 by members of the Tajakant
tribe, but sacked and destroyed by the Reguibat
, another Sahrawi
tribe in 1895, and the Tajakant tribe were expelled from the region. It remained deserted until French
troops arrived in the area in 1934. Since Algerian independence
in 1962, the town has been deliberately built up, partly because of its importance as a last outpost before the Moroccan, Sahrawi and Mauritanian borders.
In 1963, the area was the scene of fighting between Algerian and Moroccan forces laying claim to western Algeria, in the Sand War
. The region has since been heavily militarized, increasing its relevance. Since the mid-70s, the Tindouf region served as base for the Polisario Front
, a Sahrawi nationalist organization fighting for Western Sahara
's independence. The Polisario Front is headquartered in self-administered refugee camps south of the city, which filled up as Moroccan and Mauritanian forces conquered Western Sahara in 1975. During the war years of 1975–1990, Polisario forces struck in Western Sahara, Mauritania (until 1979) and southern Morocco
(including the region of Tata
), using the Tindouf region as their rear base area, with Algerian protection and support. Since 1990 the area has been quiet, although the refugee community remains in Algeria, pending a UN-sponsored peace process and a referendum on independence. (See Minurso
Tindouf has a population of 47,965 (2010 estimates),
though this figure is of questionable authenticity, given the fact that the exact number is a sensitive issue due to the Sahrawi
refugees, who are excluded from the estimate.
Tindouf has a hot desert climate
(Köppen climate classification BWh
), with extremely hot summers and very warm winters. There is very little rain for most of the year, generally concentrated in February and —associated with the West African Monsoon
— by September–October. The region can be hit by rare events of heavy rain, such as in February 2006
or October 2015.
Summer daytime temperatures commonly approach 45 °C (113 °F) with blazing sunshine, while winter nighttime temperatures can sometimes drop to 5 °C (41 °F) or less.
6.1% of the population has a tertiary education, and another 18.8% has completed secondary education.
The overall literacy rate is 75.0%, and is 79.7% among males and 70.1% among females.
The commune is composed of five localities:
- ^ a b Wilaya de Tindouf : répartition de la population résidente des ménages ordinaires et collectifs, selon la commune de résidence et la dispersion (2008 Census, ONS).
- ^ a b "Population: Béchar Wilaya" (PDF) (in French). Office National des Statistiques Algérie. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- ^ "Algeria Communes". Statoids. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
- ^ "Tindouf Airport". OurAirports. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- ^ Tindouf in the World Gazetteer
- ^ "WFP assists Sahrawi refugees hit by torrential rains". World Food Programme. 2006-02-16.
- ^ UNHCR - Devastating flooding affects 25,000 Sahrawi refugees in Tindouf camps
- ^ "moyennes 1981/2010". Meteo-Climate-Bz. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
- ^ "Structure relative de la population résidente des ménages ordinaires et collectifs âgée de 6 ans et plus selon le niveau d'instruction et la commune de résidence" (PDF) (in French). Office National des Statistiques Algérie. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- ^ "Taux d'analphabétisme et taux d'alphabétisation de la population âgée de 15 ans et plus, selon le sexe et la commune de résidence " (PDF) (in French). Office National des Statistiques Algérie. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- ^ "Décret n° 84-365, fixant la composition, la consistance et les limites territoriale des communes. Wilaya d'El Oued" (PDF) (in French). Journal officiel de la République Algérienne. 19 December 1984. p. 1562. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 March 2013. Retrieved 2 March 2013.
- Tindouf travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Media related to Tindouf at Wikimedia Commons
Last edited on 25 May 2021, at 21:05
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