; Arabicised epithet: ظاهر الدين طغتكين
Zahir ad-Din Tughtikin
; died February 12, 1128), also spelled Tughtegin
, was a Turkic military leader, who was atabeg of Damascus
from 1104 to 1128. He was the founder of the Burid dynasty
Toghtekin was a junior officer to Tutush I
, Seljuq emir of Damascus
and Syria. After the former's death in 1095, civil war erupted, and Toghtekin supported Tutush's son Duqaq
of the city against Ridwan
, the emir of Aleppo
. In the chaotic years which ensued Toghtekin was sent to reconquer the town of Jebleh
, which had rebelled against the qadi
, but he was unable to accomplish his task.
On October 21, 1097, a Crusader army began the siege of Antioch
. The local emir, Yaghi-Siyan
, though nominally under Ridwan's suzerainty, appealed to Duqaq to send an armed force to their rescue. Duqaq sent Toghtekin, but on December 31, 1097, he was defeated by Bohemund of Taranto
and Robert II of Flanders
, and was forced to retreat. Another relief attempt was made by a joint force under Kerbogha
, the atabeg of Mosul
, and Toghtekin, which was also crushed by the Crusaders on June 28, 1098.
When the Crusaders moved southwards from the newly conquered Antioch, the qadi
of Jebleh sold his town to Duqaq, who installed Toghtekin's son, Taj al-Muluk Buri
as its ruler. His tyrannical rule, however, led to his quick downfall. In 1103, Toghtekin was sent by Duqaq to take possession of Homs
at the request of its inhabitants, after the emir Janah al-Dawla
had been murdered by Assassins
by order of Ridwan.
The following year Duqaq died and Toghtekin, now acting as regent and de facto
ruler, had the former's junior son Tutush II
proclaimed emir, while he married Duqaq's widow and reserved for himself the title of atabeg. After deposing Tutush II he had the brother of Duqaq, Irtash
, named emir, but soon afterward he had him exiled. Irtash, with the support of Aytekin al-Halabi, the emir of Bosra
, tried to reconquer Damascus, but was pushed back by Toghtekin and forced to find help at the court of King Baldwin I of Jerusalem
Around 1106 Toghtekin intervened to momentarily raise the siege of Tripoli
by the Crusaders, but could not prevent the definitive capture of the city. In May 1108 he was able to defeat a small Christian force under Gervaise of Bazoches
, lord of Galilee
. Gervaise was proposed to be freed in exchange for his possession, but he refused and was executed. In April 1110 Toghtekin besieged and captured Baalbek
and named his son Buri as governor, replacing al-Taj Gümüshtegin
Late in November 1111, the town of Tyre
, which was besieged by Baldwin's troops, put itself under Toghtekin's protection. Toghtekin, supported by Fatimid
forces, intervened, forcing the Franks to raise the siege on April 10, 1112; however, he refused to take part in the anti-Crusade effort launched by Mawdud
of Mosul, fearing that the latter could take advantage of it to gain rule over the whole of Syria.
Nonetheless, the next year the two Muslim commanders allied in reply to the ravages of Baldwin I and Tancred of Antioch
. Their army besieged Tiberias
, but they were unable to conquer it despite a sound victory at the Battle of Al-Sannabra
in 1113 and they were forced to retreat to Damascus when Christian reinforcements arrived and supplies began to run out. During his sojourn in the city, Mawdud was killed by the Assassins
on October 2, 1113. The inhabitants accused Toghtekin of the deed. In 1114, he signed an alliance against the Franks with the new emir of Aleppo
, Alp Arslān al-Akhras
, but the latter was murdered a short time later by his atabeg Luʾluʾ al-Yaya
In 1115 Toghtekin decided to ally himself with the Kingdom of Jerusalem
against the Seljuk general Aqsunqur al-Bursuqi
, who had been sent by the Seljuk sultan Muhammad I Tapar
to fight the Crusaders. The following year, judging the Franks too powerful, he visited Baghdad to obtain a pardon from the sultan, though never forgetting to remain independent himself between the two main forces.
Allied with Ilghazi
, emir of Aleppo
, he attacked Athareb
in the Principality of Antioch
, but was defeated at the Battle of Hab
on August 14, 1119. In the June of the following year he sent help to Ilghazi, who was again under peril of annihilation in the same place. In 1122 the Fatimids, no longer able to defend Tyre, sold it to Toghtekin, who installed a garrison there, but the garrison was unable to prevent its capture by the Frankss on July 7, 1124.
In 1125, al-Bursuqi, now in control of Aleppo, appeared in the Antiochean territory with a large army which Toghtekin joined; however, the two were defeated at the Battle of Azaz
on June 11, 1125. The following January Toghtekin also had to repel an invasion by Baldwin II of Jerusalem
. In late 1126 he again invaded the Principality of Antioch with Bursuqi, but again with no results.
Toghtekin died in 1128. He was succeeded by his son Buri.
In popular culture
In the Turkish TV series, Diriliş: Ertuğrul,
he is portrayed by the Turkish actor Uğur Güneş
. However, the character portrayed in the series has no relation to the historical figure of Toghtekin and his name is spelt as 'Tuğtekin'. In the series, he is portrayed as the cousin of Ertuğrul
- Grousset, René (1934). Histoire des croisades et du royaume franc de Jérusalem - I. 1095-1130 L'anarchie musulmane.
- Maalouf, Amin (1984). The Crusades Through Arab Eyes. New York: Schocken Books. ISBN 0-8052-0898-4.
- Runciman, Steven (1951). A History of the Crusades, Volume One: The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Cambridge University Press. pp. 215, 221–222.
Last edited on 14 December 2020, at 16:08
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