: 東京, Tōkyō [toːkʲoː] (listen)
), officially the Tokyo Metropolis
: 東京都, Tōkyō-to
), is the de facto capital[note 1]
and most populous prefecture of Japan
. Located at the head of Tokyo Bay
, the prefecture forms part of the Kantō region
on the central Pacific coast of Japan
's main island of Honshu
. Tokyo is the political and economic center of the country, as well as the seat of the Emperor of Japan
and the national government
. As of 2021, the prefecture has an estimated population of 13,960,236.
The Greater Tokyo Area
is the most populous metropolitan area
in the world, with more than 37.393 million residents as of 2020.
Originally a fishing village, named Edo
, the city became a prominent political center in 1603, when it became the seat of the Tokugawa shogunate
. By the mid-18th century, Edo was one of the most populous cities in the world at over one million. Following the end of the shogunate
in 1868, the imperial capital in Kyoto
was moved to the city, which was renamed Tokyo (literally "eastern capital"). Tokyo was devastated by the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake
, and again by Allied bombing raids
during World War II
. Beginning in the 1950s, the city underwent rapid reconstruction and expansion, going on to lead Japan's post-war economic recovery
. Since 1943, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government
has administered the prefecture's 23 special wards
(formerly Tokyo City
), various bed towns
in the western area, and two outlying island chains
Tokyo was originally known as Edo
), a kanji
compound of 江
, "cove, inlet") and 戸
, "entrance, gate, door").
The name, which can be translated as "estuary
", is a reference to the original settlement's location at the meeting of the Sumida River
and Tokyo Bay
. During the Meiji Restoration
in 1868, the name of the city was changed to Tokyo (東京
, from 東 tō
"east", and 京kyō
"capital") when it became the new imperial capital,
in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital (京) in the name of the capital city (for example, Kyoto
(京城), Beijing (北京), Nanjing
(南京), and Xijing
During the early Meiji period
, the city was sometimes called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph
. Some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei";
however, this pronunciation is now obsolete.
Tokyo was originally a small fishing village, Edo, in what was formerly part of the old Musashi Province
. Edo was first fortified by the Edo clan
, in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan
built Edo Castle
. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu
moved from Mikawa Province
(his lifelong base) to the Kantō region
. When he became shōgun
in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period
, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century.
But Edo was still the home of the Tokugawa shogunate
and not the capital of Japan
(the Emperor himself lived in Kyoto
from 794 to 1868).
During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa
, and in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.
The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires, earthquakes, and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry
in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda
, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation.
Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations, especially in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments.
Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that these widespread rebellious demonstrations were causing to further consolidate power by overthrowing the last Tokugawa shōgun
, in 1867.
After 265 years, the Pax Tokugawa
came to an end.
Kidai Shōran (熈代勝覧), 1805. It illustrates scenes from the Edo period taking place along the Nihonbashi main street in Tokyo.
In 1869, the 17-year-old Emperor Meiji
moved to Edo, and in accordance, the city was renamed Tokyo (meaning Eastern Capital). The city was divided into Yamanote and Shitamachi
. Tokyo was already the nation's political and cultural center,
and the emperor's residence made it a de facto imperial capital as well, with the former Edo Castle becoming the Imperial Palace
. The city of Tokyo
was officially established on May 1, 1889.
The Tokyo Metro Ginza Line
portion between Ueno
was the first subway line built in Japan and East Asia completed on December 30, 1927.
Central Tokyo, like Osaka
, has been designed since about 1900 to be centered on major railway stations in a high-density fashion, so suburban railways were built relatively cheaply at street level and with their own right-of-way
. Though expressways
have been built in Tokyo, the basic design has not changed.
In 1943, the city of Tokyo
merged with the prefecture of Tokyo
to form the "Metropolitan Prefecture" of Tokyo. Since then, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government
served as both the prefecture government for Tokyo, as well as administering the special wards of Tokyo
, for what had previously been Tokyo City. World War II
wreaked widespread destruction of most of the city due to the persistent Allied air raids on Japan
and the use of incendiary bombs
. The bombing of Tokyo
in 1944 and 1945 is estimated to have killed between 75,000 and 200,000 civilians and left more than half of the city destroyed.
The deadliest night of the war came on March 9–10, 1945, the night of the American "Operation Meetinghouse
as nearly 700,000 incendiary bombs rained on the eastern half of the city, mainly in heavily residential wards. Two-fifths of the city were completely burned, more than 276,000 buildings were demolished, 100,000 civilians were killed, and 110,000 more were injured.
Between 1940 and 1945, the population of Japan's capital city dwindled from 6,700,000 to less than 2,800,000, with the majority of those who lost their homes living in "ramshackle, makeshift huts".
After the war, Tokyo became the base from which the United States under Douglas MacArthur
administered Japan for six years. Tokyo struggled to rebuild as occupation authorities
stepped in and drastically cut back on Japanese government rebuilding programs, focusing instead on simply improving roads and transportation. Tokyo did not experience fast economic growth until the 1950s.
and commuter rail network became one of the busiest in the world
as more and more people moved to the area. In the 1980s, real estate prices skyrocketed during a real estate and debt bubble
. The bubble burst in the early 1990s, and many companies, banks, and individuals were caught with mortgage-backed debts while real estate was shrinking in value. A major recession followed, making the 1990s Japan's "Lost Decade
from which it is now slowly recovering.
projects in Tokyo have also been going on for centuries. The most prominent is the Odaiba
area, now a major shopping and entertainment center. Various plans have been proposed
for transferring national government functions from Tokyo to secondary capitals in other regions of Japan, to slow down rapid development in Tokyo and revitalize economically lagging areas of the country. These plans have been controversial
within Japan and have yet to be realized.
The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami
that devastated much of the northeastern coast of Honshu was felt in Tokyo. However, due to Tokyo's earthquake-resistant infrastructure, damage in Tokyo was very minor compared to areas directly hit by the tsunami,
although activity in the city was largely halted.
The subsequent nuclear crisis
caused by the tsunami has also largely left Tokyo unaffected, despite occasional spikes in radiation
On September 7, 2013, the IOC
selected Tokyo to host the 2020 Summer Olympics
. Tokyo was supposed to be the first Asian city to host the Olympic Games twice.
However, due to the global outbreak and economic impact of COVID-19 pandemic
, the 2020 Summer Olympics games were ultimately postponed to 2021 and it is unclear how the city will deal with an increasing number of issues, urging scholars to offer possible alternatives approaches to tackle the most urgent problems.
Geography and government
Satellite photo of Tokyo in 2018 taken by ESA Sentinel-2
The mainland portion of Tokyo lies northwest of Tokyo Bay
and measures about 90 km (56 mi) east to west and 25 km (16 mi) north to south. The average elevation in Tokyo is 40 m (131 ft). Chiba Prefecture
borders it to the east, Yamanashi
to the west, Kanagawa
to the south, and Saitama
to the north. Mainland Tokyo is further subdivided into the special wards (occupying the eastern half) and the Tama area (多摩地域) stretching westwards. Tokyo has a latitude
of 35.65 (near the 36th parallel north
), which makes it more southern than Rome
(40.41) and New York City
Also within the administrative boundaries of Tokyo Metropolis are two island chains in the Pacific Ocean directly south: the Izu Islands
, and the Ogasawara Islands
, which stretch more than 1,000 km (620 mi) away from the mainland. Because of these islands and the mountainous regions to the west, Tokyo's overall population density figures far under-represent the real figures for the urban and suburban regions of Tokyo.
In addition to these 23 special wards, Tokyo also includes 26 more cities (市
-shi), five towns (町
-chō or machi), and eight villages (村
-son or -mura), each of which has a local government. The Tokyo Metropolitan Government
administers the whole metropolis including the 23 special wards and the cities and towns that constitute the prefecture. It is headed by a publicly elected governor and metropolitan assembly. Its headquarters
is in Shinjuku
The special wards
) of Tokyo comprise the area formerly incorporated as Tokyo City
. While falling under the jurisdiction of Tokyo Metropolitan Government, each ward is also a borough
with its own elected leader and council, like other cities of Japan. The special wards use the word "city" in their official English name (e.g. Chiyoda City).
The wards differ from other cities in having a unique administrative relationship with the prefectural government. Certain municipal functions, such as waterworks, sewerage, and fire-fighting, are handled by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. To pay for the added administrative costs, the prefecture collects municipal taxes, which would usually be levied by the city.
The special wards of Tokyo are:
23 special wards of Tokyo
The "three central wards" of Tokyo – Chiyoda, Chūō and Minato – are the business core of the city, with a daytime population more than seven times higher than their nighttime population.
Chiyoda Ward is unique in that it is in the very heart of the former Tokyo City
, yet is one of the least populated wards. It is occupied by many major Japanese companies
and is also the seat of the national government
, and the Japanese emperor
. It is often called the "political center" of the country. Akihabara
, known for being an otaku
cultural center and a shopping district for computer goods, is also in Chiyoda.
Tama Area (Western Tokyo)
To the west of the special wards, Tokyo Metropolis consists of cities, towns, and villages that enjoy the same legal status as those elsewhere in Japan.
While serving as "bed towns
" for those working in central Tokyo, some of them also have a local commercial and industrial base, such as Tachikawa
. Collectively, these are often known as the Tama area or Western Tokyo
Twenty-six cities lie within the western part of Tokyo. These are:
Cities of the Tama area
The Tokyo Metropolitan Government has designated Hachiōji, Tachikawa, Machida, Ōme and Tama New Town as regional centers of the Tama area,
as part of its plans to relocate urban functions away from central Tokyo.
Map of Nishi-Tama District in green
The far west of the Tama area is occupied by the district (gun
) of Nishi-Tama
. Much of this area is mountainous and unsuitable for urbanization. The highest mountain in Tokyo, Mount Kumotori
, is 2,017 m (6,617 ft) high; other mountains in Tokyo include Takanosu (1,737 m (5,699 ft)), Odake (1,266 m (4,154 ft)), and Mitake
(929 m (3,048 ft)). Lake Okutama
, on the Tama River
near Yamanashi Prefecture
, is Tokyo's largest lake. The district is composed of three towns (Hinode
) and one village (Hinohara
Towns and villages of Nishi-Tama District
Map of the Izu Islands in black labels
Map of the Ogasawara Islands in black labels
Tokyo has numerous outlying islands, which extend as far as 1,850 km (1,150 mi) from central Tokyo. Because of the islands' distance from the administrative headquarters of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government in Shinjuku, local subprefectural branch offices administer them.
The Ogasawara Islands
include, from north to south, Chichi-jima
, Kita Iwo Jima
, Iwo Jima
, and Minami Iwo Jima
. Ogasawara also administers two tiny outlying islands: Minami Torishima
, the easternmost point in Japan and at 1,850 km (1,150 mi) the most distant island from central Tokyo, and Okinotorishima
, the southernmost point in Japan.
Japan's claim on an exclusive economic zone
(EEZ) surrounding Okinotorishima is contested by China
and South Korea
as they regard Okinotorishima as uninhabitable rocks which have no EEZ.
The Iwo chain and the outlying islands have no permanent population, but hosts Japan Self-Defense Forces
personnel. Local populations are only found on Chichi-Jima and Haha-Jima. The islands form both Ogasawara Subprefecture
and the village of Ogasawara, Tokyo
Ogasawara National Park, a UNESCO World Natural Heritage site
As of March 31, 2008, 36% of the total land area of the prefecture was designated as Natural Parks
(second only to Shiga Prefecture
), namely the Chichibu Tama Kai
, and Ogasawara
National Parks (the last a UNESCOWorld Heritage Site
); Meiji no Mori Takao Quasi-National Park
; and Akikawa Kyūryō
, Hamura Kusabana Kyūryō
, Takao Jinba
, and Tama Kyūryō
Prefectural Natural Parks.
A bilingual sign with instructions (in Japanese and English) in case of an earthquake (Shibuya)
Tokyo is near the boundary of three plates
, making it an extremely active region for smaller quakes and slippage
which frequently affect the urban area with swaying as if in a boat, although epicenters within mainland Tokyo (excluding Tokyo's 2,000 km (1,243 mi)–long island jurisdiction) are quite rare. It is not uncommon in the metro area to have hundreds of these minor quakes (magnitudes 4–6) that can be felt in a single year, something local residents merely brush off but can be a source of anxiety not only for foreign visitors but for Japanese from elsewhere as well. They rarely cause much damage (sometimes a few injuries) as they are either too small or far away as quakes tend to dance around the region. Particularly active are offshore regions and to a lesser extent Chiba
Infrequent powerful quakes
Tokyo has been hit by powerful megathrust
earthquakes in 1703, 1782, 1812, 1855, 1923, and much more indirectly (with some liquefaction
in landfill zones) in 2011
the frequency of direct and large quakes is a relative rarity. The 1923 earthquake, with an estimated magnitude of 8.3, killed 142,000 people, the last time the urban area was directly hit. The 2011 quake focus was hundreds of kilometers away and resulted in no direct deaths in the metropolitan area.
is about 100 km (62 mi) southwest of Tokyo. There is a low risk of eruption. The last recorded was the Hōei eruption
which started on December 16, 1707 and ended about January 1, 1708 (16 days).
During the Hōei eruption, the ash amount was 4 cm in southern Tokyo (bay area) and 2 cm to 0.5 cm in central Tokyo.Kanagawa
had 16 cm to 8 cm ash and Saitama
0.5 to 0 cm.
If the wind blows north-east it could send volcanic ash
to Tokyo metropolis.
According to the government, less than a millimeter of the volcanic ash from a Mt. Fuji
eruption could cause power grid problems such as blackouts and stop trains in the Tokyo metropolitan area.
A mixture of ash with rain could stick to cellphone antennas, power lines and cause temporary power outages.
The affected areas would need to be evacuated.
is the world's largest underground diversion floodwater facility
Tokyo is located on the Kantō Plain
with 5 river systems and dozens of rivers that expand during each season.
Important rivers are Edogawa
In 1947 Typhoon Kathleen
struck Tokyo, destroying 31,000 homes and killing 1,100 people.
In 1958 Typhoon Ida
inflicted 400mm rain in 1 week which flooded streets.
In the 1950s and 1960s, the government
invested 6–7% of the national budget on disaster and risk reduction.
A huge system of dams, levees and tunnels was constructed.
The purpose is to manage heavy rain, typhonic
rain, and river floods.
Tokyo has currently the world's largest underground floodwater diversion facility called the Metropolitan Area Outer Underground Discharge Channel
It took 13 years to build and was completed in 2006. The MAOUDC is a 6.3 km long system of tunnels, 22 meters underground, with 70 meter tall cylindrical tanks, where each tank is large enough to fit a space shuttle or the Statue of Liberty.
During floods, excess water is collected from rivers and drained to the Edo River
Low-lying areas of Kōtō
near the Arakawa River
are most at risk of flooding.
The former city of Tokyo and the majority of Tokyo prefecture lie in the humid subtropical climate
zone (Köppen climate classificationCfa
with hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters with occasional cold spells. The region, like much of Japan, experiences a one-month seasonal lag
, with the warmest month being August, which averages 26.4 °C (79.5 °F), and the coolest month being January, averaging 5.2 °C (41.4 °F). The record low temperature is −9.2 °C (15.4 °F) on January 13, 1876, while the record high is 39.5 °C (103.1 °F) on July 20, 2004. The record highest low temperature is 30.3 °C (86.5 °F) on August 12, 2013, making Tokyo one of only seven observation sites in Japan that have recorded a low temperature over 30 °C (86.0 °F).
Annual rainfall averages nearly 1,530 millimeters (60.2 in), with a wetter summer and a drier winter. Snowfall is sporadic, but does occur almost annually.
Tokyo also often sees typhoons every year, though few are strong. The wettest month since records began in 1876 was October 2004, with 780 millimeters (30 in) of rain,
including 270.5 mm (10.65 in) on the ninth of that month;
the last of four months on record to observe no precipitation is December 1995.
Annual precipitation has ranged from 879.5 mm (34.63 in) in 1984 to 2,229.6 mm (87.78 in) in 1938.
Tokyo has experienced significant warming of its climate since temperature records began in 1876.
The western mountainous area of mainland Tokyo, Okutama
also lies in the humid subtropical climate (Köppen classification Cfa
Tokyo's easternmost territory, the island of Minamitorishima
in Ogasawara village
, is in the tropical savanna climate zone (Köppen classification Aw
). Tokyo's Izu and Ogasawara islands are affected by an average of 5.4 typhoons a year, compared to 3.1 in mainland Kantō.
Tokyo has enacted a measure to cut greenhouse gases. Governor Shintaro Ishihara
created Japan's first emissions cap system
, aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emission
by a total of 25% by 2020 from the 2000 level.
Tokyo is an example of an urban heat island
, and the phenomenon is especially serious in its special wards.
According to the Tokyo Metropolitan Government,
the annual mean temperature has increased by about 3 °C (5.4 °F) over the past 100 years. Tokyo has been cited as a "convincing example of the relationship between urban growth and climate".
In 2006, Tokyo enacted the "10 Year Project for Green Tokyo" to be realized by 2016. It set a goal of increasing roadside trees in Tokyo to 1 million (from 480,000), and adding 1,000 ha of green space 88 of which will be a new park named "Umi no Mori" (sea forest) which will be on a reclaimed island in Tokyo Bay
which used to be a landfill.
From 2007 to 2010, 436 ha of the planned 1,000 ha of green space was created and 220,000 trees were planted bringing the total to 700,000. In 2014, road side trees in Tokyo have increased to 950,000, and a further 300 ha of green space has been added.
As of October 2012, the official intercensal estimate
showed 13.506 million people in Tokyo with 9.214 million living within Tokyo's 23 wards.
During the daytime, the population swells by over 2.5 million as workers and students commute from adjacent areas. This effect is even more pronounced in the three central wards of Chiyoda
, and Minato
, whose collective population as of the 2005 National Census was 326,000 at night, but 2.4 million during the day.
In 1889, the Home Ministry
recorded 1,375,937 people in Tokyo City
and a total of 1,694,292 people in Tokyo-fu
In the same year, a total of 779 foreign nationals were recorded as residing in Tokyo. The most common nationality was English (209 residents), followed by American nationals (182) and Chinese nationals (137).
Tokyo historical population since 1920
This chart is growth rate of municipalities of Tokyo, Japan. It is estimated by census carried out in 2005 and 2010.
10.0% and over
10.0% and over
is a popular upscale shopping area in Tokyo.
Tokyo Tower at night
Tokyo is a major international finance center;
it houses the headquarters of several of the world's largest investment banks
and insurance companies, and serves as a hub for Japan's transportation, publishing, electronics
and broadcasting industries. During the centralized growth of Japan's economy following World War II
, many large firms moved their headquarters from cities such as Osaka
(the historical commercial capital) to Tokyo, in an attempt to take advantage of better access to the government. This trend has begun to slow due to ongoing population growth in Tokyo and the high cost of living there.
Tokyo emerged as a leading international financial center
(IFC) in the 1960s and has been described as one of the three "command centers" for the world economy
, along with New York City and London.
In the 2020 Global Financial Centers Index
, Tokyo was ranked as having the fourth most competitive financial center in the world (alongside cities such as New York City
, Hong Kong
, San Francisco
in the top 10), and second most competitive in Asia (after Shanghai
The Japanese financial market opened up slowly in 1984 and accelerated its internationalization with the "Japanese Big Bang" in 1998.
Despite the emergence of Singapore and Hong Kong as competing financial centers, the Tokyo IFC manages to keep a prominent position in Asia. The Tokyo Stock Exchange
is Japan's largest stock exchange
, and third largest in the world by market capitalization
and fourth largest by share turnover. In 1990 at the end of the Japanese asset price bubble
, it accounted for more than 60% of the world stock market value.
Tokyo had 8,460 ha (20,900 acres) of agricultural land as of 2003,
according to the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
, placing it last among the nation's prefectures. The farmland is concentrated in Western Tokyo. Perishables such as vegetables, fruits, and flowers can be conveniently shipped to the markets in the eastern part of the prefecture. Komatsuna
are the most important vegetables; as of 2000, Tokyo supplied 32.5% of the komatsuna
sold at its central produce market.
With 36% of its area covered by forest, Tokyo has extensive growths of cryptomeria
and Japanese cypress
, especially in the mountainous western communities of Akiruno, Ōme, Okutama, Hachiōji, Hinode, and Hinohara. Decreases in the price of timber, increases in the cost of production, and advancing old age among the forestry population have resulted in a decline in Tokyo's output. In addition, pollen, especially from cryptomeria, is a major allergen
for the nearby population centers. Tokyo Bay was once a major source of fish. Most of Tokyo's fish production comes from the outer islands, such as Izu Ōshima and Hachijō-Jima. Skipjack tuna
, and aji
are among the ocean products.
Tourism in Tokyo
is also a contributor to the economy. In 2006, 4.81 million foreigners and 420 million Japanese visits to Tokyo were made; the economic value of these visits totaled 9.4 trillion yen according to the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Many tourists visit the various downtowns, stores, and entertainment districts throughout the neighborhoods of the special wards of Tokyo
. Cultural offerings include both omnipresent Japanese pop culture
and associated districts such as Shibuya
, subcultural attractions such as Studio Ghibli
anime center, as well as museums like the Tokyo National Museum
, which houses 37% of the country's artwork national treasures
The Toyosu Market
in Tokyo is the largest wholesale fish and seafood market in the world since it opened on October 11, 2018.
It is also one of the largest wholesale food markets of any kind. It is located in the Toyosu
area of Kōtō
ward. The Toyosu market holds strong to the traditions of its predecessor, the Tsukiji Fish Market
and Nihonbashi fish market, and serves some 50,000 buyers and sellers every day. Retailers, whole-sellers, auctioneers, and public citizens alike frequent the market, creating a unique microcosm of organized chaos that still continues to fuel the city and its food supply after over four centuries.
Tokyo, as the center of the Greater Tokyo Area
, is Japan's largest domestic and international hub for rail and ground transportation. However, its airspace has been under the US military's exclusive control after World War II
. Public transportation within Tokyo is dominated by an extensive network of clean and efficient
trains and subways run by a variety of operators, with buses, monorails and trams playing a secondary feeder role. There are up to 62 electric train lines and more than 900 train stations in Tokyo.Shibuya Crossing
is the "world's busiest pedestrian crossing", with around 3,000 people crossing at a time.
As a result of World War II, Japanese planes are generally forbidden to fly over Tokyo.
Therefore, Japan constructed airports outside Tokyo. Narita International Airport
in Chiba Prefecture
is the major gateway for international travelers to Japan. Japan's flag carrier Japan Airlines
, as well as All Nippon Airways
, have a hub at this airport. Haneda Airport
on the reclaimed land at Ōta
, offers domestic and international flights. As of 2018, some flight routes into Haneda are permitted through Tokyo airspace.
Rail is the primary mode of transportation in Tokyo,
which has the most extensive urban railway network in the world and an equally extensive network of surface lines. JR East
operates Tokyo's largest railway network, including the Yamanote Line
loop that circles the center of downtown Tokyo. It operates rail lines in the entire metropolitan area of Tokyo and in the rest of the northeastern part of Honshu
. JR East is also responsible for Shinkansen
high-speed rail lines.
Expressways link the capital to other points in the Greater Tokyo area, the Kantō region, and the islands of Kyushu
. To build them quickly before the 1964 Summer Olympics
, most were constructed above existing roads.
Other transportation includes taxis operating in the special wards and the cities and towns. Also, long-distance ferries serve the islands of Tokyo and carry passengers and cargo to domestic and foreign ports.
Tokyo has many universities, junior colleges, and vocational schools. Many of Japan's most prestigious universities are in Tokyo, including University of Tokyo
, Hitotsubashi University
, Meiji University
, Tokyo Institute of Technology
, Waseda University
, Tokyo University of Science
, Sophia University
, and Keio University
Some of the biggest national universities
in Tokyo are:
Publicly run kindergartens, elementary schools (years 1 through 6), and primary schools (7 through 9) are operated by local wards or municipal offices. Public secondary schools in Tokyo are run by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Board of Education
and are called "Metropolitan High Schools". Tokyo also has many private schools from kindergarten through high school:
Tokyo has many theaters for performing arts. These include national and private theaters for traditional forms of Japanese drama. Noteworthy are the National Noh Theatre
and the Kabuki-za
Symphony orchestras and other musical organizations perform modern and traditional music. The New National Theater Tokyo
is the national center for the performing arts, including opera, ballet, contemporary dance and drama.
Tokyo also hosts modern Japanese and international pop, and rock music at venues ranging in size from intimate clubs to internationally known areas such as the Nippon Budokan
Cuisine in Tokyo is internationally acclaimed. In November 2007, Michelin
released their first guide for fine dining in Tokyo, awarding 191 stars in total, or about twice as many as Tokyo's nearest competitor, Paris. As of 2017, 227 restaurants in Tokyo have been awarded (92 in Paris). Twelve establishments were awarded the maximum of three stars (Paris has 10), 54 received two stars, and 161 earned one star.
Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics
, thus becoming the first Asian city to host the Summer Games
. The National Stadium, also known as the Olympic Stadium
, was host to a number of international sporting events. In 2016, it was to be replaced by the New National Stadium
. With a number of world-class sports venues, Tokyo often hosts national and international sporting events such as basketball tournaments, women's volleyball tournaments, tennis tournaments, swim meets, marathons, rugby union and sevens rugby games, football, American football exhibition games, judo, and karate
. Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium
, in Sendagaya, Shibuya, is a large sports complex that includes swimming pools, training rooms, and a large indoor arena. According to Around the Rings, the gymnasium has played host to the October 2011 artistic gymnastics world championships, despite the International Gymnastics Federation's initial doubt in Tokyo's ability to host the championships following the March 11 tsunami.
Tokyo was also selected to host a number of games for the 2019 Rugby World Cup
, and to host the 2020 Summer Olympics
and the Paralympics
on September 7, 2013.
In popular culture
Akihabara is the most popular area for fans of anime, manga, and games.
As the largest population center in Japan and the site of the country's largest broadcasters and studios, Tokyo is frequently the setting for many Japanese movies
, television shows, animated series (anime
), web comics
, light novels
, video games
, and comic books (manga
). In the kaiju
(monster movie) genre, landmarks of Tokyo are usually destroyed by giant monsters such as Godzilla
Sister cities and states
As of 2021, Tokyo has twinning
or friendship agreements with the following sixteen cities and states:
, Spain (since April 1965)
, Australia (since May 1984)
, South Korea (since September 1988)
, Indonesia (since October 1989)
, Egypt (since October 1990)
, Russia (since July 1991)
, Germany (since May 1994)
, Italy (since July 1996)
, India (since April 2002)
, United Kingdom (since October 2015)
Friendship and cooperation agreements
International academic and scientific research
Research and development in Japan
and the Japanese space program
are globally represented by several of Tokyo's medical and scientific facilities, including the University of Tokyo
and other universities in Tokyo
, which work in collaboration with many international institutions. Especially with the United States, including NASA
and the many private spaceflight companies,
Tokyo universities have working relationships with all of the Ivy League
institutions (including Harvard
and Yale University
along with other research universities
and development laboratories
, such as Stanford
, and the UC
campuses throughout California,
as well as UNM
and Sandia National Laboratories
, New Mexico.
Other partners worldwide include Oxford University
in the United Kingdom,
the National University of Singapore
the University of Toronto
and Tsinghua University
No Japanese law has designated Tokyo as the Japanese capital.
- ^ 都庁は長野市. Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Archived from the original on April 19, 2014. Retrieved April 12, 2014. Shinjuku is the location of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Office. But Tokyo is not a "municipality". Therefore, for the sake of convenience, the notation of prefectural is "Tokyo".
- ^ "令和元年全国都道府県市区町村別面積調（１０月１日時点）" (in Japanese). Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. December 26, 2019. Retrieved April 28, 2020.
- ^ "東京都の山 | 国土地理院" (in Japanese). Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. Retrieved April 28, 2020.
- ^ a b "「東京都の人口（推計）」の概要-令和3年1月1日現在｜東京都" (in Japanese). Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Retrieved February 17, 2021.
- ^ a b "The World's Cities in 2018" (PDF). United Nations. Retrieved May 5, 2020.
- ^ "都民経済計算（都内総生産等）30年度速報・元年度見込｜東京都" (in Japanese). Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Retrieved April 28, 2020.
- ^ Ōshima, Tadamori (February 23, 2018). "衆議院議員逢坂誠二君提出日本の首都に関する質問に対する答弁書". The House of Representatives, Japan. Retrieved August 21, 2020. There is no law or regulation that expressly defines Tokyo as the capital. However, we are of the opinion that Tokyo is generally accepted in society to be the capital of Japan.
- ^ "Global 500". Fortune. Retrieved July 25, 2019.
- ^ a b "The Global Financial Centres Index 28"(PDF). Long Finance. September 2020. Retrieved October 4, 2020.
- ^ a b "Tokyo – GoJapanGo". Tokyo Attractions – Japanese Lifestyle. Mi Marketing Pty Ltd. Archived from the original on April 26, 2012. Retrieved April 18, 2012.
- ^ a b "Metropolitan Area Outer Underground Discharge Channel". Archived from the original on September 14, 2018. Retrieved January 10, 2015.
- ^ a b Hornyak, Tim (December 16, 2017). "Heart of gold: The Ginza Line celebrates its 90th birthday". Japan Times. Archived from the original on December 16, 2017. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
- ^ a b Room, Adrian. Placenames of the World. McFarland & Company (1996), p. 360Archived January 1, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. ISBN 0-7864-1814-1.
- ^ US Department of State. (1906). A digest of international law as in diplomatic discussions, treaties and other international agreements (John Bassett Moore, ed.), Volume 5, p. 759Archived January 1, 2016, at the Wayback Machine; excerpt, "The Mikado, on assuming the exercise of power at Yedo, changed the name of the city to Tokio".
- ^ Fiévé, Nicolas & Paul Waley (2003). Japanese Capitals in Historical Perspective: Place, Power and Memory in Kyoto, Edo and Tokyo. p. 253.
- ^ 明治東京異聞～トウケイかトウキョウか～東京の読み方 (in Japanese). Tokyo Metropolitan Archives. 2004. Archived from the original on October 6, 2008. Retrieved September 13, 2008.
- ^ McClain, James, James; et al. (1994). Edo and Paris: Urban Life and the State in the Early Modern Era. p. 13.
- ^ Sorensen, Andre (2004). The Making of Urban Japan: Cities and Planning from Edo to the Twenty-First Century. p. 16.
- ^ Naitō, Akira (2003). Edo, the City That Became Tokyo: An Illustrated History. pp. 33, 55.
- ^ Naitō, Akira (2003). Edo, the City That Became Tokyo: An Illustrated History. pp. 182–183.
- ^ Naitō, Akira (2003). Edo, the City That Became Tokyo: An Illustrated History. p. 186.
- ^ Naitō, Akira (2003). Edo, the City That Became Tokyo: An Illustrated History. p. 188.
- ^ "History of Tokyo". Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved October 17, 2007.
- ^ "Tokyo-Yokohama earthquake of 1923". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on June 26, 2015. Retrieved October 10, 2014.
- ^ Tipton, Elise K. (2002). Modern Japan: A Social and Political History. Routledge. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-585-45322-4.
- ^ "9 March 1945: Burning the Heart Out of the Enemy". Wired. Condé Nast Digital. March 9, 2011. Archived from the original on March 15, 2014. Retrieved August 8, 2011.
- ^ "1945 Tokyo Firebombing Left Legacy of Terror, Pain". Common Dreams. Archived from the original on January 3, 2015. Retrieved January 2, 2015.
- ^ Cybriwsky, Roman (1997). Historical Dictionary of Tokyo. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow. p. 22.
- ^ Hewitt, Kenneth (1983). "Place Annihilation: Area Bombing and the Fate of Urban Places". Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 73 (2): 257–284. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8306.1983.tb01412.x.
- ^ Andre Sorensen. The Making of Urban Japan: Cities and Planning from Edo to the Twenty First Century RoutledgeCurzon, 2004. ISBN 0-415-35422-6.
- ^ "Sunshine 60". Skyscraperpage.com. Retrieved September 25, 2008.
- ^ "Tokyo Narita International Airport (NRT) Airport Information (Tokyo, Japan)". Archived from the original on October 17, 2014. Retrieved October 10, 2014.
- ^ "Rail Transport in The World's Major Cities"(PDF). Japan Railway and Transport Review. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 25, 2007. Retrieved October 17, 2007.
- ^ Saxonhouse, Gary R. (ed.); Robert M. Stern (ed.) (2004). Japan's Lost Decade: Origins, Consequences and Prospects for Recovery. Blackwell Publishing Limited. ISBN 978-1-4051-1917-7.
- ^ Worrall, Julian. "The view from the Hills: Minoru Mori defends the Omotesando Hills development and reveals big plans for Tokyo". Metropolis. Archived from the original on November 19, 2006.
- ^ "Shift of Capital from Tokyo Committee". Japan Productivity Center for Socio-Economic Development. Archived from the original on August 25, 2007. Retrieved October 14, 2007.
- ^ "Policy Speech by Governor of Tokyo, Shintaro Ishihara at the First Regular Session of the Metropolitan Assembly, 2003". Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Archived from the original on November 3, 2007. Retrieved October 17, 2007.
- ^ "Despite Major Earthquake Zero Tokyo Buildings Collapsed Thanks to Stringent Building Codes". Archived from the original on September 12, 2011. Retrieved October 11, 2011.
- ^ Williams, Carol J. (March 11, 2011). "Japan earthquake disrupts Tokyo, leaves capital only lightly damaged". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on December 13, 2011. Retrieved October 11, 2011.
- ^ "Tokyo Radiation Levels". Metropolis Magazine. Archived from the original on May 20, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2012.
- ^ "Tokyo radiation levels – daily updates – April". Archived from the original on August 19, 2011. Retrieved October 11, 2011.
- ^ "IOC selects Tokyo as host of 2020 Summer Olympic Games". Archived from the original on October 10, 2014. Retrieved October 10, 2014.
- ^ Imai, Heide; Matjaz Ursic (2020). Creativity in Tokyo: Revitalizing a Mature City. Palgrave. ISBN 978-9811566868.
- ^ "Population of Tokyo, Japan". Mongabay. Archived from the original on January 21, 2012. Retrieved February 10, 2012.
- ^ "Tokyo, Japan Geographic Information". Latlong.net. September 2020. Archived from the original on September 14, 2017. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
- ^ "Population of Tokyo – Tokyo Metropolitan Government". www.metro.tokyo.lg.jp. October 2015. Retrieved September 7, 2020.
- ^ "Local Government in Japan" (PDF). Council of Local Authorities for International Relations. p. 8. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 23, 2008. Retrieved September 14, 2008.
- ^ The Structure of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Archived December 8, 2014, at the Wayback Machine (Tokyo government webpage)
- ^ The Population of Tokyo – Tokyo Metropolitan Government Archived December 23, 2008, at the Wayback Machine (Retrieved on July 4, 2009)
- ^ "Pray For Tokyo: Chiyoda". Karis Japan. Archived from the original on July 20, 2014. Retrieved April 20, 2015.
- ^ "Development of the Metropolitan Centre, Subcentres and New Base". Bureau of Urban Development, Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Archived from the original on October 23, 2007. Retrieved October 14, 2007.
- ^ "Ogasawara Islands: World Natural Heritage". Ogasawara Village Industry and Tourist Board. Archived from the original (Adobe Flash) on March 31, 2017. Retrieved June 29, 2018.
- ^ Yoshikawa, Yukie (2005). "Okinotorishima: Just the Tip of the Iceberg". Harvard Asian Quarterly. 9 (4). Archived from the original on November 4, 2013.
- ^ "General overview of area figures for Natural Parks by prefecture" (PDF). Ministry of the Environment. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 21, 2012. Retrieved February 8, 2012.
- ^ Matsu'ura, Ritsuko S. (January 28, 2017). "A short history of Japanese historical seismology: past and the present". Geoscience Letters. 4 (1): 3. Bibcode:2017GSL.....4....3M. doi:10.1186/s40562-017-0069-4 – via BioMed Central.
- ^ Grunewald, Elliot D.; Stein, Ross S. (2006). "A New 1649–1884 Catalog of Destructive Earthquakes near Tokyo and Implications for the Long-term Seismic Process". Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. 111 (B12): B12306. Bibcode:2006JGRB..11112306G. doi:10.1029/2005JB004059.
- ^ "A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo" (PDF). U.S. Geological Survey. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 25, 2007. Retrieved October 14, 2007.
- ^ Masato Oyama (March 2007). "宝永四年（1707）噴火 (1707 Eruption)". 富士山歴史噴火総解説 (Database of eruptions and other activities of Fuji Volcano, Japan, based on historical records since AD 781) (in Japanese). Shizuoka University. Retrieved September 25, 2008.
- ^ a bhttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Volcanic-ash-downfall_map_of_Mt.Fuji_Hoei-eruption01.jpg Ashfall distribution map for examining disaster prevention measures (Mt. Fuji Hoei eruption)
- ^ a b c d "Mt Fuji eruption could cripple Tokyo". Nippon TV News 24 Japan. Archived from the original on November 8, 2020 – via YouTube.
- ^ a b c d e f g h "The underground cathedral protecting Tokyo from floods". BBC. November 29, 2018. Archived from the original on November 9, 2020.
- ^ a b c "Floods in Tokyo and Safety Tips and Preparation". Plaza Homes. February 28, 2020. Archived from the original on August 14, 2020.
- ^ Peel, M.C., Finlayson, B.L., and McMahon, T.A.: Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification Archived February 10, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1633–1644, 2007.
- ^ a b c d "Archived copy" 観測史上1～10位の値（ 年間を通じての値） (in Japanese). Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on May 19, 2021. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
- ^ "Tokyo observes latest ever 1st snowfall". Archived from the original on March 19, 2007. Retrieved June 9, 2017.
- ^ 観測史上1～10位の値（年間を通じての値）. Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- ^ 観測史上1～10位の値（10月としての値）. Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- ^ The JMA Tokyo, Tokyo (東京都 東京) station is at 35°41.4′N 139°45.6′E, JMA: "Archived copy" 気象統計情報>過去の気象データ検索>都道府県の選択>地点の選択. Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on October 1, 2018. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
- ^ "Archived copy" 気象庁 / 平年値（年・月ごとの値） (in Japanese). Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on May 18, 2016. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
- ^ "Archived copy" 気象庁 / 平年値（年・月ごとの値） (in Japanese). Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on November 2, 2014. Retrieved December 16, 2014.
- ^ d.o.o, Yu Media Group. "Tokyo, Japan - Detailed climate information and monthly weather forecast". Weather Atlas. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
- ^ "Station Name: TOKYO WMO Station ID: 47662". Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved July 7, 2020.
- ^ "Archived copy" 気象庁 / 気象統計情報 / 過去の気象データ検索 / 平年値（年・月ごとの値）. Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on March 30, 2013. Retrieved June 24, 2013.
- ^ 観測史上1～10位の値（12月としての値）-小河内（東京都）. Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved September 19, 2019.
- ^ 平年値（年・月ごとの値） (in Japanese). Japan Meteorological Agency.
- ^ 気象統計情報 / 天気予報・台風 / 過去の台風資料 / 台風の統計資料 / 台風の平年値. Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on June 7, 2012. Retrieved August 8, 2012.
- ^ a b Hidenobu Jinnai. Tokyo: A Spatial Anthropology. University of California Press (1995), pp. 1–3 Archived January 1, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. ISBN 0-520-07135-2.
- ^ "Tokyo skyline reaches for new heights with $5.5 billion Mori project". Reuters. August 2, 2019. Archived from the original on August 22, 2019. Retrieved August 22, 2019.
- ^ "World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD)". Wbcsd.org. Archived from the original on January 4, 2009. Retrieved October 18, 2008.
- ^ Barry, Roger Graham & Richard J. Chorley. Atmosphere, Weather and Climate. Routledge (2003), p. 344 Archived January 1, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. ISBN 0-415-27170-3.
- ^ Toshiaki Ichinose, Kazuhiro Shimodozono, and Keisuke Hanaki. Impact of anthropogenic heat on urban climate in Tokyo. Atmospheric Environment 33 (1999): 3897–3909.
- ^ "Heat Island Control Measures". kankyo.metro.tokyo.jp. January 6, 2007. Archived from the original on May 24, 2008. Retrieved October 29, 2010.
- ^ Barry, Roger Graham; Chorley, Richard J. (1987). Atmosphere, Weather and Climate. London: Methuen Publishing. p. 344. ISBN 978-0-416-07152-8.
- ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 16, 2013. Retrieved July 11, 2012.
- ^ "2012 Action Program for Tokyo Vision 2020 – Tokyo Metropolitan Government". Metro.tokyo.jp. Archived from the original on December 9, 2012. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
- ^ 東京都の人口（推計）. Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Archived from the original on October 2, 2018. Retrieved January 17, 2015.
- ^ a b "Population of Tokyo". Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Archived from the original on December 23, 2008. Retrieved January 1, 2009.
- ^ 東京府 編 (1890). 東京府統計書. 明治22年 [Tōkyō-Fu Statistics Book (1889)] (in Japanese). 1. 東京府. pp. 40–41. (National Diet Library Digital Archive) Archived September 6, 2014, at the Wayback Machine (digital page number 32)
- ^ 東京府 編 (1890). 東京府統計書. 明治22年 [Tōkyō-Fu Statistics Book (1889)] (in Japanese). 1. 東京府. pp. 66–67. (National Diet Library Digital Archive) Archived September 6, 2014, at the Wayback Machine (digital page number 46)
- ^ "Tokyo Statistical Yearbook 2018" (Excel 97). Bureau of General Affairs, Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Archived from the original on September 5, 2018. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
- ^ "Financial Centres, All shapes and sizes". The Economist. September 13, 2007. Archived from the original on October 31, 2007. Retrieved October 14, 2007.
- ^ "Top 3 Things to See & Do in Shibuya – Tokyo's Busiest District". April 13, 2017. Archived from the original on February 5, 2019. Retrieved June 9, 2017.
- ^ "The expenses of Japan". The Economist. July 7, 2011. Retrieved July 11, 2020.
- ^ Sassen, Saskia (2001). The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo (2nd ed.). Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-07063-6.
- ^ Ito, Takatoshi; Melvin, Michael. "NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES – JAPAN'S BIG BANG AND THE TRANSFORMATION OF FINANCIAL MARKETS" (PDF). www.nber.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 2, 2018. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
- ^ "Tokyo Stock Exchange". Stock-market.in. Retrieved October 29, 2010.
- ^ Horticulture Statistics Team, Production Statistics Division, Statistics and Information Department, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (July 15, 2003). "Statistics on Cultivated Land Area" (PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on June 24, 2008. Retrieved October 18, 2008.
- ^ Kato, Issei (September 29, 2018). "As Tokyo's historic Tsukiji market closes, fishmongers mourn". Reuters. Archived from the original on October 3, 2018. Retrieved October 4, 2018.
- ^ Hannerz, Ulf (2005). "The Fish Market at the Center of the World (Review)". The Journal of Japanese Studies. 31 (2): 428–431. doi:10.1353/jjs.2005.0044. S2CID 143762239.
- ^ "A Country Study: Japan". The Library of Congress. Chapter 2, Neighborhood. Archived from the original on May 26, 2012. Retrieved October 24, 2007.
- ^ "Orientation – Tokyo Travel Guide | Planetyze". Planetyze. Archived from the original on September 10, 2017. Retrieved July 18, 2017.
- ^ 井上恵一朗 (April 22, 2016). "【東京はてな】 渋谷交差点、1回で3千人横断?". 朝日新聞. p. 29.
- ^ "渋谷スクランブル交差点——世界で最もワイルドな交差点にようこそ". CNN.co.jp. August 25, 2019. Archived from the original on September 23, 2020. Retrieved September 26, 2019.
- ^ "The World's Busiest Pedestrian Crossing". WorldAtlas. Archived from the original on August 12, 2020. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
- ^ U.S. military's Yokota Rapcon airspace is set in six different levels at altitudes between 2,450 and 7,000 meters, stretching over Tokyo and eight other prefectures. Archived June 12, 2018, at the Wayback Machine Japan Times
- ^ Japan gets approval for new flight routes over Haneda airport using U.S. airspace Archived June 12, 2018, at the Wayback Machine Japan Times
- ^ "Revamping Tokyo's expressways could give capital a boost". Yomiuri Shimbun. Archived from the original on November 2, 2012. Retrieved October 8, 2012.
- ^ "QS University Rankings: Asia 2016". QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. Archived from the original on June 16, 2016. Retrieved June 13, 2016.
- ^ Milner, Rebecca (2013). "Pocket Tokyo." 4th Edition. Lonely Planet Publications. ISBN 978-1-74220-581-6
- ^ Ozaki, Motoki (June 22, 2019). "About us. The Heart Of Performing Arts In Japan". New National Theatre, Tokyo. Archived from the original on June 22, 2019. Retrieved December 7, 2019.
- ^ Perry, Chris (April 25, 2007). "Rebels on the Bridge: Subversion, Style, and the New Subculture" (Flash). Self-published (Scribd). Archived from the original on October 14, 2007. Retrieved December 4, 2007.
- ^ "Tokyo 'top city for good eating'". BBC News. November 20, 2007. Archived from the original on December 17, 2008. Retrieved October 18, 2008.
- ^ "Tokyo Keeps Gymnastics Worlds, Bolsters Olympics Ambitions". Aroundtherings.com. May 23, 2011. Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
- ^ "BBC World Service: World Update. 'Carl Randall – Painting the faces in Japan's crowded cities'.", BBC World Service, 2016, archived from the original on December 27, 2016, retrieved December 21, 2016
- ^ "'Painting the faces in Japan's crowded cities'.", BBC News – Arts & Entertainment, 2016, archived from the original on February 22, 2017, retrieved July 21, 2018
- ^ 'Tokyo Portraits by Carl Randall'., The Daiwa Anglo Japanese Foundation, London, 2014, archived from the original on December 21, 2016, retrieved December 21, 2016
- ^ 'The BP Portrait Awards 2013'., The National Portrait Gallery, London, 2012, archived from the original on February 6, 2017, retrieved December 21, 2016
- ^ 'Japan Portraits'., Carl Randall – artist website, 2016, archived from the original on December 21, 2016, retrieved December 21, 2016
- ^ "Sister Cities (States) of Tokyo – Tokyo Metropolitan Government". Archived from the original on June 11, 2016. Retrieved May 30, 2016.
- ^ "Friendship and cooperation agreements". Paris: Marie de Paris. Archived from the original on July 1, 2016. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
- ^ The Space Economy in Figures How Space Contributes to the Global Economy: How Space Contributes to the Global Economy. OECD Publishing. 2019. p. 72. ISBN 978-92-64-80595-8. Retrieved December 24, 2019.
- ^ "Six colleges dominate in research stature". Washington Post. March 27, 2012. Archived from the original on December 25, 2019. Retrieved December 24, 2019.
- ^ "Radiation-free stem cell transplants, gene therapy may be within reach". News Center. May 29, 2019. Archived from the original on December 11, 2019. Retrieved December 24, 2019.
- ^ "UTokyo-Berkeley". UTokyo-Berkeley. December 23, 2017. Archived from the original on December 24, 2019. Retrieved December 24, 2019.
- ^ Asavanant, W.; Shiozawa, Y.; Yokoyama, S.; Charoensombutamon, B.; Emura, H.; Alexander, R. N.; Takeda, S.; Yoshikawa, J. I.; Menicucci, N. C.; Yonezawa, H.; Furusawa, A. (2019). "Generation of time-domain-multiplexed two-dimensional cluster state". Science. 366 (6463): 373–376. arXiv:1903.03918. Bibcode:2019Sci...366..373A. doi:10.1126/science.aay2645. PMID 31624214. S2CID 92979929.
- ^ "Rikkyo University". UNM: Global Education Office. Archived from the original on December 24, 2019. Retrieved December 24, 2019.
- ^ United States. Department of Energy (1999). Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico: Environmental Impact Statement. Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico: Environmental Impact Statement. p. 166–PA54. Retrieved December 24, 2019.
- ^ "Archived copy" オックスフォード大学日本事務所. University of Oxford Japan Office. November 30, 2019. Archived from the original on August 7, 2017. Retrieved December 24, 2019.
- ^ "The University of Tokyo – National University of Singapore – 1st Joint Symposium – The University of Tokyo". The University of Tokyo. Archived from the original on December 24, 2019. Retrieved December 24, 2019.
- ^ "Exchange: University of Tokyo – University of Toronto". University of Toronto – Learning Abroad. May 5, 2018. Archived from the original on December 24, 2019. Retrieved December 24, 2019.
- ^ "Tsinghua University News". Tsinghua University. July 27, 2018. Archived from the original on December 24, 2019. Retrieved December 24, 2019.
- Bender, Andrew, and Timothy N. Hornyak. Tokyo (City Travel Guide) (2010)
- Mansfield, Stephen. Dk Eyewitness Top 10 Travel Guide: Tokyo (2013)
- Waley, Paul. Tokyo Now and Then: An Explorer's Guide. (1984). 592 pp
- Yanagihara, Wendy. Lonely Planet Tokyo Encounter
- Allinson, Gary D. Suburban Tokyo: A Comparative Study in Politics and Social Change. (1979). 258 pp.
- Bestor, Theodore. Neighbourhood Tokyo (1989). online edition
- Bestor, Theodore. Tsukiji: The Fish Market at the Centre of the World. (2004) online edition
- Fowler, Edward. San'ya Blues: Labouring Life in Contemporary Tokyo. (1996) ISBN 0-8014-8570-3.
- Friedman, Mildred, ed. Tokyo, Form and Spirit. (1986). 256 pp.
- Jinnai, Hidenobu. Tokyo: A Spatial Anthropology. (1995). 236 pp.
- Perez, Louis G. Tokyo: Geography, History, and Culture (ABC-CLIO, 2019).
- Reynolds, Jonathan M. "Japan's Imperial Diet Building: Debate over Construction of a National Identity". Art Journal. 55#3 (1996) pp. 38+.
- Sassen, Saskia. The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo. (1991). 397 pp.
- Sorensen, A. Land Readjustment and Metropolitan Growth: An Examination of Suburban Land Development and Urban Sprawl in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (2000)
- Taira, J. [re]TOKYO. (2018). San Francisco: ORO Editions. ISBN 978-1-940743-66-0
- Waley, Paul. "Tokyo-as-world-city: Reassessing the Role of Capital and the State in Urban Restructuring". Urban Studies 2007 44(8): 1465–1490. ISSN 0042-0980 Fulltext: Ebsco
Last edited on 18 June 2021, at 07:24
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.