Map showing Roman Tusuros
The bishopric ceased to function following the seventh-century arrival of Islam
. The remains of an ancient church are visible in the foundations of an old mosque
Four bishops (two canonical, two schismatic Donatist
heretics) are historically documented
It has had the following incumbents, so far of the fitting Episcopal (lowest) rank:
- Joseph Leo Cardijn (born Belgium) (1925 February 15, 1965 February 22, 1965), Founder of the international Young Christian Workers (CAJ) then without prelature; later created Cardinal-Deacon of S. Michele Arcangelo (1965.02.25 – death 1967.07.25)
- Giovanni Benelli (June 11, 1966 - June 3, 1977) as papal diplomat : Apostolic Pro-Nuncio to Senegal (1966.06.11 – 1967.06.29), Apostolic Delegate to Western Africa (1966.06.11 – 1967.06.29) and Roman Curia official : Substitute for General Affairs of Secretariat of State (1967.06.29 – 1977.06.03); later Metropolitan Archbishop of Firenze (Italy) (1977.06.03 – 1982.10.26), created Cardinal-Priest of S. Prisca (1977.06.27 – death 1982.10.26)
- Thomas Cajetan Kelly (June 12, 1977 December 28, 1981) as Auxiliary bishop of Archdiocese of Washington (D.C.. United States) (1977.06.12 – 1981.12.28); later Metropolitan Archbishop of Louisville (USA) (1981.12.28 – retired 2007.06.12), died 2011
- Paul Lanneau (1982.02.14 – death 2017.01.26), first as Auxiliary Bishop of Archdiocese of Mechelen-Brussels(Belgium) (Belgium) (1982.02.14 – 2002.03.20), then as emeritus.
- Bishop-elect Amilton Manoel da Silva, Passionists (C.P.) (2017.06.07 – ...) as Auxiliary Bishop of Archdiocese of Curitiba (Brazil) (2017.06.07 – ...).
close to Tozeur (Tunisia).
Tozeur has a hot desert climate
(Köppen climate classification BWh
) typical of the northern edge of the Sahara Desert
. The annual average rainfall amount reaches 80.8 mm, and the annual mean temperature (day and night) reaches 22.2 °C, both making the city hot and dry year-round. The weather is usually settled and sunny throughout the year. Summers are extremely hot with daily highs often exceeding 45 °C in the shade, and the sirocco
may push temperatures above 50 °C. During winters, it can sometimes freeze at night and just before the sunrise, as the temperature may drop below 0 °C.
With hundreds of thousands of palm trees
, Tozeur is a large oasis
are exported from Tozeur. In ancient times, before the advent of motorized vehicles, the oasis was important for the transportation through the Sahara
, which took place in caravans
. The name of the city in antiquity was Tusuros, it was an important Roman outpost. The medina
(old city) of Tozeur, contains traditional architecture, fashion and workmanship.
Tozeur, in common with the surrounding Jerid region
, is noted for its yellow/brownish brickwork
as well as its patterns in geometric designs which form the facades of most buildings in the old city and the new tourist zone.
A round gate, the entrance to the carpet market. "Shop Berber". A satellite dish. A tower of a mosque, Tozeur, 1997
A local in traditional Berber
clothing in the Medina, 2007
Inner courtyard of a house, Tozeur, 2020.
Double square door of a recently constructed house, 2020.
Panorama of Tozeur houses viewed from the roof of the Café Berbère, 2020.
The old town of Ouled El Hadef
(also known as Medina of Tozeur
) is an example of the local brickwork which is one of the oldest neighborhoods in Tozeur and was a home for Jews
Tozeur has a football club who plays in the First Professional Federation of Football in Tunisia, the team is called LPS Tozeur
. In 2010/2011 season the club almost made it to the First Professional Federation of Football.
Although still the largest part of the local economy, dates and farming are becoming less appealing to the young, who are more often employed in tourism. Tourism is heavily developed and promoted, and Tozeur is considered a center of "desert tourism" (Arabic: السياحة الصحراوية). The annual "International Festival of Oases" (Arabic: المهرجان الدولي للواحات بتوزر) takes place in the town in November and December each year.
The government initiated two large-scale projects:
- Tapping of deep aquifers by wells. This led to the depletion of most natural springs and abandonment of the traditional irrigation canals. Tozeur's oasis has been irrigated based on an open surface canal system designed in the 13th century by engineer Ibn Chabbat. This traditional irrigation system is currently being replaced by a system of concrete pipes. Water that was traditionally free to farmers is now being sold to offset the cost of these projects and pipes.
- The second part of these local projects is the initiation of new oases around town. These oases' productivity is very low and their future highly unstable. This situation is slowly leading to the decay of the old oases (due to salinity, poor planning and lack of skilled workers) with productivity plummeting and the health and future of the oases questionable.
The region around Tozeur is seeing a large influx of unemployed workers and their families from the once rich phosphate region of Metlaoui
and Om Laarayes
in hope of work in the tourism sector. The phosphate mines are no longer productive and thousands of workers were laid off after the government sold them to European investors.
Overall the region, and Tozeur in particular, is going through a tough time. The region is embracing the unstable tourism economy and shying away from its traditional agricultural based economy. During the first Gulf War
the sector suffered with a loss of large number of workers and an increase in unemployment. The same happened during September 11, 2001 attacks
and the Iraq War
The city is served by buses, taxis, railway, louage
(shared or group taxi), and Tozeur–Nefta International Airport
with national and international services from London, Paris, Rome and few other European countries (international flight services are mostly during the summer tourism season). Tozeur lies on the edge of the Sahara desert. Tourism activity is higher in the fall and winter months with Douz Festival among others in late December
People from Tozeur
statue at Ras al-Ain (Tozeur)
- Aboul-Qacem Echebbi (Arabic: أبو القاسم الشابي) (b. Tozeur, February, 1909; d. October 9, 1934), is a Tunisian poet. The current Tunisian anthem is based on one of his poems.
- Abu Yazid Makhlad ibn Kayrad (أبو يزيد مخلد بن كيراد), from the Berber Zenata tribe, nicknamed Sahib al-Himar (Arabic: صاحب الحمار) who led a mostly Berber revolution against the Fatimid ruler al-Qa'im. The revolution, almost a success, was finally crushed by the caliph al-Mansur bi-Nasr Allah.
- Ibn Chabbat (ابن شباط) AKA Mohamed Ben Ali Ben Mohamed Ben Ali, (October 16, 1221 – June 17, 1285 in Tozeur), is a writer, historian, engineer and a respected Tunisian social figure in the 13th century. Ibn Chabbat's main contribution and legacy is an open surface canals system for equitable water distribution in the oasis that is still in use nowadays.
- Ibn al-Kardabūs (13th century), jurist and historian of al-Andalus
- Brahim Dargouthi (born 1955) novelist."Nafta" a city located in the governorate of Tozeur, formerly, was known as the cradle of knowledge in North Africa. It is the "Koufa" of Africa.
The people of Tozeur have an unparalleled attachment to knowledge and science. This love for science is associated with high human values, including generosity, communicative enthusiasm, wisdom and humility.
- ^ Tururos at catholic-hierarchy.org.
- ^ Shaw, B.D. (2011). Sacred Violence: African Christians and Sectarian Hatred in the Age of Augustine. Cambridge University Press. p. 271. ISBN 9780521196055. Retrieved 2016-03-29.
- ^ Brent D. Shaw, Sacred Violence: African Christians and Sectarian Hatred the Age of Augustine (Cambridge University Press, 2011) p 271.
- ^ François Decret, Early Christianity in North Africa (Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2009) p150.
- ^ Serge Lancel, Saint Augustine (Hymns Ancient and Modern Ltd, 2002) p356
- ^ Serge Lancel, Saint Augustine (Hymns Ancient and Modern Ltd, 2002) p356
- ^ Titular Episcopal See of Tusuros at GCatholic.org.
- ^ "Les normales climatiques en Tunisie entre 1981 2010" (in French). Ministère du Transport. Archived from the original on 19 December 2019. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
- ^ "Données normales climatiques 1961-1990" (in French). Ministère du Transport. Archived from the original on 21 December 2019. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
- ^ "Les extrêmes climatiques en Tunisie" (in French). Ministère du Transport. Archived from the original on 21 December 2019. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
- ^ "Réseau des stations météorologiques synoptiques de la Tunisie" (in French). Ministère du Transport. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
- ^ Jacobs, Daniel; Morris, Peter (2001). The Rough Guide to Tunisia. Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1-85828-748-5.
The Station ID for Tozeur is 66060111.
Sources and external links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tozeur
Bibliography - ecclesiastical history
- Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig 1931, p. 469
- Stefano Antonio Morcelli, Africa christiana, Volume I, Brescia 1816, pp. 341–342
- J. Mesnage, L'Afrique chrétienne, Paris 1912, pp. 163–164
Last edited on 11 April 2021, at 16:11
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.