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Triangular number

A triangular number or triangle number counts objects arranged in an equilateral triangle. Triangular numbers are a type of figurate number, other examples being square numbers and cube numbers. The nth triangular number is the number of dots in the triangular arrangement with n dots on a side, and is equal to the sum of the nnatural numbers from 1 to n. The sequence of triangular numbers (sequence A000217 in the OEIS), starting at the 0th triangular number, is

The first six triangular numbers

0, 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 21, 28, 36, 45, 55, 66, 78, 91, 105, 120, 136, 153, 171, 190, 210, 231, 253, 276, 300, 325, 351, 378, 406, 435, 465, 496, 528, 561, 595, 630, 666...

Formula

Derivation of triangular numbers from a left-justified Pascal's triangle

The triangular numbers are given by the following explicit formulas:

where

is a binomial coefficient. It represents the number of distinct pairs that can be selected from n + 1 objects, and it is read aloud as "n plus one choose two".

The first equation can be illustrated using a visual proof.[1] For every triangular number

, imagine a "half-square" arrangement of objects corresponding to the triangular number, as in the figure below. Copying this arrangement and rotating it to create a rectangular figure doubles the number of objects, producing a rectangle with dimensions

, which is also the number of objects in the rectangle. Clearly, the triangular number itself is always exactly half of the number of objects in such a figure, or:

. The example

follows:

The first equation can also be established using mathematical induction:[2] Since

is equal to one, a basis case is established. It follows from the definition that

, so assuming the inductive hypothesis for

, adding to both sides immediately gives

In other words, since the proposition

(that is, the first equation, or inductive hypothesis itself) is true when

, and since

being true implies that

is also true, then the first equation is true for all natural numbers. The above argument can be easily modified to start with, and include, zero.

The German mathematician and scientist, Carl Friedrich Gauss, is said to have found this relationship in his early youth, by multiplying

pairs of numbers in the sum by the values of each pair n + 1.[3] However, regardless of the truth of this story, Gauss was not the first to discover this formula, and some find it likely that its origin goes back to the Pythagoreans in the 5th century BC.[4] The two formulas were described by the Irish monk Dicuil in about 816 in his Computus.[5]

n

2

The triangular number Tn solves the handshake problem of counting the number of handshakes if each person in a room with n + 1 people shakes hands once with each person. In other words, the solution to the handshake problem of n people is Tn−1.[6] The function T is the additive analog of the factorial function, which is the products of integers from 1 to n.

The number of line segments between closest pairs of dots in the triangle can be represented in terms of the number of dots or with a recurrence relation:

In the limit, the ratio between the two numbers, dots and line segments is

Relations to other figurate numbers

Triangular numbers have a wide variety of relations to other figurate numbers.

Most simply, the sum of two consecutive triangular numbers is a square number, with the sum being the square of the difference between the two (and thus the difference of the two being the square root of the sum). Algebraically,

This fact can be demonstrated graphically by positioning the triangles in opposite directions to create a square:

There are infinitely many triangular numbers that are also square numbers; e.g., 1, 36, 1225. Some of them can be generated by a simple recursive formula:

with

All square triangular numbers are found from the recursion

with

and

A square whose side length is a triangular number can be partitioned into squares and half-squares whose areas add to cubes. This shows that the square of the nth triangular number is equal to the sum of the first n cube numbers.

Also, the square of the nth triangular number is the same as the sum of the cubes of the integers 1 to n. This can also be expressed as

More generally, the difference between the nth m-gonal number and the nth (m + 1)-gonal number is the (n − 1)th triangular number. For example, the sixth heptagonal number (81) minus the sixth hexagonal number (66) equals the fifth triangular number, 15. Every other triangular number is a hexagonal number. Knowing the triangular numbers, one can reckon any centered polygonal number; the nth centered k-gonal number is obtained by the formula

where T is a triangular number.

The positive difference of two triangular numbers is a trapezoidal number.

Other properties

Alternating triangular numbers (1, 6, 15, 28, ...) are also hexagonal numbers.

Every even perfect number is triangular (as well as hexagonal), given by the formula

where Mp is a Mersenne prime. No odd perfect numbers are known; hence, all known perfect numbers are triangular.

For example, the third triangular number is (3 × 2 =) 6, the seventh is (7 × 4 =) 28, the 31st is (31 × 16 =) 496, and the 127th is (127 × 64 =) 8128.

In base 10, the digital root of a nonzero triangular number is always 1, 3, 6, or 9. Hence, every triangular number is either divisible by three or has a remainder of 1 when divided by 9:

0 = 9 × 0

1 = 9 × 0 + 1

3 = 9 × 0 + 3

6 = 9 × 0 + 6

10 = 9 × 1 + 1

15 = 9 × 1 + 6

21 = 9 × 2 + 3

28 = 9 × 3 + 1

36 = 9 × 4

45 = 9 × 5

55 = 9 × 6 + 1

66 = 9 × 7 + 3

78 = 9 × 8 + 6

91 = 9 × 10 + 1

...

There is a more specific property to the triangular numbers that aren't divisible by 3; that is, they either have a remainder 1 or 10 when divided by 27. Those that are equal to 10 mod 27 are also equal to 10 mod 81.

The digital root pattern for triangular numbers, repeating every nine terms, as shown above, is "1, 3, 6, 1, 6, 3, 1, 9, 9".

The converse of the statement above is, however, not always true. For example, the digital root of 12, which is not a triangular number, is 3 and divisible by three.

If x is a triangular number, then ax + b is also a triangular number, given a is an odd square and

b =

b =

a − 1

8

. Note that b will always be a triangular number, because 8Tn + 1 = (2n + 1)2, which yields all the odd squares are revealed by multiplying a triangular number by 8 and adding 1, and the process for b given a is an odd square is the inverse of this operation. The first several pairs of this form (not counting 1x + 0) are: 9x + 1, 25x + 3, 49x + 6, 81x + 10, 121x + 15, 169x + 21, … etc. Given x is equal to Tn, these formulas yield T3n + 1, T5n + 2, T7n + 3, T9n + 4, and so on.

The sum of the reciprocals of all the nonzero triangular numbers is

This can be shown by using the basic sum of a telescoping series:

Two other formulas regarding triangular numbers are

and

both of which can easily be established either by looking at dot patterns (see above) or with some simple algebra.

In 1796, Gauss discovered that every positive integer is representable as a sum of three triangular numbers (possibly including T0 = 0), writing in his diary his famous words, "ΕΥΡΗΚΑ!num = Δ + Δ + Δ". This theorem does not imply that the triangular numbers are different (as in the case of 20 = 10 + 10 + 0), nor that a solution with exactly three nonzero triangular numbers must exist. This is a special case of the Fermat polygonal number theorem.

Wacław Franciszek Sierpiński posed the question as to the existence of four distinct triangular numbers in geometric progression. It was conjectured by Polish mathematician Kazimierz Szymiczek to be impossible and was later proven by Fang and Chen in 2007.[7][8]

Formulas involving expressing an integer as the sum of triangular numbers are connected to theta functions, in particular the Ramanujan theta function.[9][10]

Applications

The maximum number of pieces, p obtainable with n straight cuts is the n-th triangular number plus one, forming the lazy caterer's sequence (OEIS A000124)

A fully connected network of n computing devices requires the presence of Tn − 1 cables or other connections; this is equivalent to the handshake problem mentioned above.

In a tournament format that uses a round-robin group stage, the number of matches that need to be played between n teams is equal to the triangular number Tn − 1. For example, a group stage with 4 teams requires 6 matches, and a group stage with 8 teams requires 28 matches. This is also equivalent to the handshake problem and fully connected network problems.

One way of calculating the depreciation of an asset is the sum-of-years' digits method, which involves finding Tn, where n is the length in years of the asset's useful life. Each year, the item loses

(b − s) ×

of its "losable" value in the first year, in the second, in the third, and (the whole) of the losable value.

(b − s) ×

n − y

Tn

, where b is the item's beginning value (in units of currency), s is its final salvage value, n is the total number of years the item is usable, and y the current year in the depreciation schedule. Under this method, an item with a usable life of n = 4 years would lose4

10

3

10

2

10

1

10

in the fourth, accumulating a total depreciation of 10

10

Triangular roots and tests for triangular numbers

By analogy with the square root of x, one can define the (positive) triangular root of x as the number n such that Tn = x:[11]

which follows immediately from the quadratic formula. So an integer x is triangular if and only if8x + 1 is a square. Equivalently, if the positive triangular root n of x is an integer, then x is the nth triangular number.[11]

Alternative name

An alternative name proposed by Donald Knuth, by analogy to factorials, is "termial", with the notation n? for the nth triangular number.[12] However, although some other sources use this name and notation,[13] they are not in wide use.

See also

- Doubly triangular number, a triangular number whose position in the sequence of triangular numbers is also a triangular number
- Tetractys, an arrangement of ten points in a triangle, important in Pythagoreanism

References

- ^ "Triangular Number Sequence". Math Is Fun.
- ^ Andrews, George E. Number Theory, Dover, New York, 1971. pp. 3-4.
- ^ Hayes, Brian. "Gauss's Day of Reckoning". American Scientist. Computing Science. Retrieved 2014-04-16.
- ^ Eves, Howard. "Webpage cites AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS". Mathcentral. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
- ^ Esposito,M. An unpublished astronomical treatise by the Irish monk Dicuil. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, XXXVI C. Dublin, 1907, 378-446.
- ^https://web.archive.org/web/20160310182700/http://www.mathcircles.org/node/835
- ^ Chen, Fang: Triangular numbers in geometric progression
- ^ Fang: Nonexistence of a geometric progression that contains four triangular numbers
- ^ Liu, Zhi-Guo (2003-12-01). "An Identity of Ramanujan and the Representation of Integers as Sums of Triangular Numbers". The Ramanujan Journal. 7 (4): 407–434. doi:10.1023/B:RAMA.0000012425.42327.ae. ISSN 1382-4090.
- ^ Sun, Zhi-Hong (2016-01-24). "Ramanujan's theta functions and sums of triangular numbers". arXiv:1601.06378 [math.NT].
- ^ a b Euler, Leonhard; Lagrange, Joseph Louis (1810), Elements of Algebra, 1 (2nd ed.), J. Johnson and Co., pp. 332–335
- ^ Donald E. Knuth (1997). The Art of Computer Programming: Volume 1: Fundamental Algorithms. 3rd Ed. Addison Wesley Longman, U.S.A. p. 48.
- ^ Stone, John David (2018), Algorithms for Functional Programming, Springer, p. 282, doi:10.1007/978-3-662-57970-1

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to triangular numbers.

- "Arithmetic series", Encyclopedia of Mathematics, EMS Press, 2001 [1994]
- Triangular numbers at cut-the-knot
- There exist triangular numbers that are also square at cut-the-knot
- Weisstein, Eric W. "Triangular Number". MathWorld.
- Hypertetrahedral Polytopic Roots by Rob Hubbard, including the generalisation to triangular cube roots, some higher dimensions, and some approximate formulas

Last edited on 14 May 2021, at 05:48

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