With an approximate population of 105,000, Trier is the fourth-largest city in its state, after Mainz
, and Koblenz
The nearest major cities are Luxembourg
(50 km or 31 mi to the southwest), Saarbrücken
(80 kilometres or 50 miles southeast), and Koblenz
(100 km or 62 mi northeast).
The historical record describes the Roman Empire
subduing the Treveri
in the 1st century BC and establishing Augusta Treverorum about 16 BC.
The name distinguished it from the empire's many other cities
honoring the first emperor Augustus
. The city later became the capital of the province
of Belgic Gaul
; after the Diocletian Reforms
, it became the capital of the prefecture
of the Gauls
, overseeing much of the Western Roman Empire
. In the 4th century, Trier was one of the largest cities in the Roman Empire with a population around 75,000 and perhaps as much as 100,000.
The Porta Nigra
("Black Gate") dates from this era. A residence of the Western Roman Emperor
, Roman Trier was the birthplace of Saint Ambrose
. Sometime between 395 and 418, probably in 407 the Roman administration moved the staff of the Praetorian Prefecture from Trier to Arles
. The city continued to be inhabited but was not as prosperous as before. However, it remained the seat of a governor and had state factories for the production of ballistae
and woolen uniforms
for the troops
, clothing for the civil service, and high-quality garments for the Court. Northern Gaul was held by the Romans along a line from north of Cologne
to the coast at Boulogne
through what is today southern Belgium until 460. South of this line, Roman control was firm, as evidenced by the continuing operation of the imperial arms factory at Amiens
Scale model of Trier around 1800
In the years from 1581 to 1593, the Trier witch trials
were held, perhaps the largest witch trial in European history. It was certainly one of the four largest witch trials in Germany alongside the Fulda witch trials
, the Würzburg witch trial
, and the Bamberg witch trials
. The persecutions started in the diocese of Trier in 1581 and reached the city itself in 1587, where it was to lead to the death of about 368 people, and was as such perhaps the biggest mass execution in Europe in peacetime. This counts only those executed within the city itself, and the real number of executions, counting also those executed in all the witch hunts within the diocese as a whole, was therefore even larger. The exact number of people executed has never been established; a total of 1,000 has been suggested but not confirmed.
The synagogue on Zuckerbergstrasse was looted during the November 1938 Kristallnacht
and later completely destroyed in a bomb attack in 1944. Multiple Stolperstein
have been installed in Trier to commemorate those murdered and exiled during the Shoah
In June 1940 over 60,000 British prisoners of war, captured at Dunkirk and Northern France, were marched to Trier, which became a staging post for British soldiers headed for German prisoner-of-war camps
. Trier was heavily bombed and bombarded in 1944 during World War II
. The city became part of the new state of Rhineland-Palatinate
after the war. The university
, dissolved in 1797, was restarted in the 1970s, while the Cathedral of Trier
was reopened in 1974. Trier officially celebrated its 2,000th anniversary in 1984. On December 1, 2020
, 5 people were killed by an allegedly drunk driver during a vehicle-ramming attack
The Ehrang/Quint district of Trier was heavily damaged and flooded during the July 16, 2021 floods of Germany, Belgium, The Netherlands and Luxembourg.
View of the city from St. Mary's Column (Mariensäule).
Trier from the east (Petrisberg).
Trier sits in a hollow midway along the Moselle
valley, with the most significant portion of the city on the east bank of the river. Wooded and vineyard
-covered slopes stretch up to the Hunsrück
plateau in the south and the Eifel
in the north. The border with the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
is some 15 km (9 mi) away.
Listed in clockwise order, beginning with the northernmost; all municipalities belong to the Trier-Saarburg district Schweich
(all part of the Verbandsgemeinde Schweich an der Römischen Weinstraße
(all in the Verbandsgemeinde Ruwer
(both part of the Verbandsgemeinde Trier-Land
(both part of the Verbandsgemeinde Konz
(all in the Verbandsgemeinde Trier-Land
Organization of city districts
Districts of Trier
The Trier urban area is divided into 19 city districts
. For each district there is an Ortsbeirat
(local council) of between 9 and 15 members, as well as an Ortsvorsteher
(local representative). The local councils are charged with hearing the important issues that affect the district, although the final decision on any issue rests with the city council. The local councils nevertheless have the freedom to undertake limited measures within the bounds of their districts and their budgets.
The districts of Trier with area and inhabitants (December 31, 2009):
Trier has an oceanic climate (Köppen
), but with greater extremes than the marine versions of northern Germany
. Summers are warm except in unusual heat waves and winters are recurrently cold, but not harsh. Precipitation is high despite not being on the coast.
As a result of the European heat wave in 2003
, the highest temperature recorded was 39 °C on 8 August of that year. The lowest recorded temperature was −19.3 °C on February 2, 1956.
Trier is known for its well-preserved Roman and medieval buildings, which include:
- the Porta Nigra, the best-preserved Roman city gate north of the Alps;
- the huge Constantine Basilica, a basilica in the original Roman sense, was the 67 m (219.82 ft) long throne hall of Roman EmperorConstantine; it is today used as a Protestantchurch; adjacent is the Electoral Palace, Trier;
- the Roman Trier Amphitheater;
- the 2nd century AD Roman bridge (Römerbrücke) across the Moselle, the oldest bridge north of the Alps still crossed by traffic;
- ruins of three Roman baths, among them the largest Roman baths north of the Alps; including the Barbara Baths and the Trier Imperial Baths;
- Trier Cathedral (German: Trierer Dom or Dom St. Peter), a Catholic church that dates back to Roman times; its Romanesque west façade with an extra apse and four towers is imposing and has been copied repeatedly; the Cathedral is home to the Holy Tunic, a garment said to be the robe Jesus was wearing when he died, as well as many other relics and reliquaries in the Cathedral Treasury;
- the Liebfrauenkirche (German for Church of Our Lady), which is one of the most important early Gothic churches in Germany, in some ways comparable to the architectural tradition of the French Gothic cathedrals;
- St. Matthias' Abbey (Abtei St. Matthias), a still-in-use monastery in whose medieval church the only apostle north of the Alps is held to be buried;
- St. Gangolf's church is the city's 'own' church near the main market square (as opposed to the Cathedral, the bishop's church); largely Gothic;
- Saint Paulinus' Church, one of the most important Baroque churches in Rhineland-Palatinate and designed in part by the architect Balthasar Neumann;
- two old treadwheel cranes, one being the Gothic "Old Crane" (Alte Krahnen) or "Trier Moselle Crane" (Trierer Moselkrahn) from 1413, and the other the 1774 Baroque crane called the "(Old) Customs Crane" ((Alter) Zollkran) or "Younger Moselle Crane" (Jüngerer Moselkran) (see List of historical harbour cranes).
Rheinisches Landesmuseum Trier
- Rheinisches Landesmuseum (an important archaeological museum for the Roman period; also some early Christian and Romanesque sculpture);
- Domschatzkammer (Treasury of Trier Cathedral; with the Egbert Shrine, the reliquary of the Holy Nail, the cup of Saint Helena and other reliquaries, liturgical objects, ivories, manuscripts, etc., many from the Middle Ages);
- Museum am Dom, formerly Bischöfliches Dom- und Diözesanmuseum (Museum of the Diocese of Trier; religious art, also some Roman artefacts);
- Stadtmuseum Simeonstift (history of Trier, displaying among other exhibits a scale model of the medieval city);
- Karl Marx House; a museum exhibiting Marx's personal history, volumes of poetry, original letters, and photographs with personal dedications. There is also a collection of rare first editions and international editions of his works, as well as exhibits on the development of socialism in the 19th century;
- Toy Museum of Trier;
- Ethnological and open-air museum Roscheider Hof, a museum in the neighbouring town of Konz, right at the city limits of Trier, which shows the history of rural culture in the northwest Rhineland Palatinate and in the area where Germany, Luxembourg and Lorraine meet;
- Fell Exhibition Slate Mine; site in the municipality of Fell, 20 km (12 mi) from Trier, containing an underground mine, a mine museum, and a slate mining trail.
Uni Trier Campus 1
University of applied sciences, central campus
Trier is home to the University of Trier
, founded in 1473, closed in 1796 and restarted in 1970. The city also has the Trier University of Applied Sciences
. The Academy of European Law
(ERA) was established in 1992 and provides training in European law to legal practitioners. In 2010 there were about 40 Kindergärten
25 primary schools and 23 secondary schools in Trier, such as the Humboldt Gymnasium Trier
, Max Planck Gymnasium
, Auguste Viktoria Gymnasium
and the Nelson-Mandela Realschule Plus
, Kurfürst-Balduin Realschule Plus
, Realschule Plus Ehrang
Trier has a municipal theatre, Theater Trier
, for musical theatre, plays and dance.
has direct railway
connections to many cities in the region. The nearest cities by train
are Cologne, Saarbrücken and Luxembourg. Via the motorways A 1
, A 48
and A 64
Trier is linked with Koblenz, Saarbrücken and Luxembourg. The nearest commercial (international) airports are in Luxembourg
(0:40 h by car), Frankfurt-Hahn
(1:00 h), Saarbrücken
(1:00 h), Frankfurt
(2:00 h) and Cologne/Bonn
(2:00 h). The Moselle
is an important waterway and is also used for river cruises. A new passenger railway service on the western side of the Mosel is scheduled to open in December 2018.
Major sports clubs in Trier include:
Twin towns – sister cities
- Metz, France (1957)
- Gloucester, England, UK (1957)
- Ascoli Piceno, Italy (1958)
- 's-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands (1968)
- Pula, Croatia (1971)
- Fort Worth, United States (1987)
- Weimar, Germany (1990)
- Nagaoka, Japan (2006)
- Xiamen, China (2010)
- Eucharius (died ~250), first bishop of Trier
- Constantius Chlorus (c. 250–306), Roman emperor
- Maximian (ca. 250–310), Roman emperor
- Valerius (died 320), second bishop of Trier
- Helena (ca. 250–330), saint, mother of Constantine the Great (residence in Trier by tradition)
- Constantine the Great (c. 272–337), Roman emperor
- Athanasius of Alexandria (296/298–373), saint (in exile ca. 335)
- Paulinus (died 358), bishop of Trier
- Valentinian I (321–375), Roman emperor
- Ausonius (c. 310–395), Roman consul and poet
- Ambrose (c. 340–397), saint
- Apronia of Toul (6th century), nun and saint
- Kaspar Olevianus (1536–1587), theologian
- Heinrich (1777–1838), lawyer, father of Karl Marx
- Henriette Pressburg (1788–1863), mother of Karl Marx
- Johann Anton Ramboux (1790–1866), painter
- Jenny Marx (1814–1881), revolutionary, drama critic
- Karl Marx (1818–1883), social philosopher and revolutionary
- August Beer (1825–1863), scientist
- Frederick A. Schroeder (1833–1899), American politician, mayor of Brooklyn
- Hans am Ende (1864–1918), painter
- Ludwig Kaas (1881–1952), Catholic priest and politician (Zentrum)
- Oswald von Nell-Breuning (1890–1991), theologian
- Charles de Gaulle (1890–1970), General and French statesman, as commander of a battalion of Chasseurs during the French occupation of Rhineland
- Reinhard Heß (1904–1998), painter and glass painter
- Wolf Graf von Baudissin (1907–1993), general, military planner and peace researcher
- Peter Thullen (1907–1996), German-Ecuadorian mathematician
- Klaus Barbie (1913–1991), SS and Gestapo functionary
- Gitta Lind (1925–1974), singer
- Reinhold Bartel (1926–1996), operatic tenor
- Ernst Huberty (born 1927), sports reporter
- Günther Steines (1928–1982), athlete
- Franz Grundheber (born 1937), baritone
- Otmar Seul (born 1943), lawyer, professor
- Helga Zepp-LaRouche (born 1948), journalist and politician
- Xavier Bout de Marnhac (born 1951), French general, former commander of KFOR
- Robert Zimmer (born 1953), philosopher and essayist
- Ernst Ulrich Deuker (born 1954), musician
- François Weigel (born 1964), French pianist, composer and conductor
- Eric Jelen (born 1965), tennis player
- Martin Bambauer (born 1970), church musician
- Frank Findeiß (born 1971), poet
- Anja Kaesmacher (born 1974), operatic soprano
- The Shanes (founded 1991), folk band
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- ^ An honor that is contested by Cologne, Kempten, and Worms.
- ^ "Bevölkerung der Gemeinden am 31.12.2010"(PDF). Statistisches Landesamt Rheinland-Pfalz (in German). 2011. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2012-01-31.
- ^ See: Heinen, pp. 1–12.
- ^ The City of Trier, Trier University, retrieved 11 May 2019
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- ^ List of Stolperstein in Trier (in German).
- ^ Trier: Five die as car ploughs through Germany pedestrian zone. bbc.com. Retrieved 2021-01-04.
- ^ Einwohnerentwicklung von Trier [Population development]. wikipedia.de (in German). Retrieved January 4, 2021.
- ^ "Trier, Germany Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved 2019-02-02.
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- ^ "Stadt Trier – Startseite | Kindergärten in Trier". trier.de, City of Trier. Retrieved 2015-08-26.
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- ^ Fender, Keith (12 February 2014). "Plans approved for Trier suburban line Written by". International Railway Journal. Retrieved 2014-02-25.
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Heinz Monz: Trierer Biographisches Lexikon. Landesarchivverwaltung Rheinland-Pfalz, Koblenz 2000. 539 p. ISBN 3-931014-49-5
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Last edited on 18 July 2021, at 21:44
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