Tripolitania was a separate Italian colony from 1927 to 1934. From 1934 to 1963, Tripolitania was one of three administrative divisions within Italian Libya
and the Kingdom of Libya
, alongside Cyrenaica
to the east and Fezzan
to the south.
The region had been settled since antiquity, first coming to prominence as part of the Carthaginian empire
. Following the defeat of Carthage in the Punic Wars
, Rome organized the region (along with what is now modern day Tunisia
), into a province
known as Africa
, and placed it under the administration of a proconsul
. During the Diocletian reforms
of the late 3rd century, all of North Africa was placed into the newly created Diocese of Africa
, of which Tripolitania was a constituent province.
Detailed map of Tripolitania
In the old system, Tripolitania included Tripoli
, the capital city of Libya and a vast northwestern portion of the country; in the subsequent systems, the sha'biyah of Tripoli has become much smaller than the original Tripolitania, including merely the city of Tripoli and its immediate surroundings. Because the city and the sha'biyah are nowadays almost coextensive, the term "Tripolitania" has more historical than contemporary value. In Arabic the same word (طرابلس) is used for both the city and the region, and that word, used alone, would be understood to mean only the city; in order to designate Tripolitania in Arabic, a qualifier such as "state", "province" or "sha'biyah" is required.
The system of administrative divisions
that included Tripolitania was abolished in the early 1970s in favor of a system of smaller-size municipalities
). The baladiyat system was subsequently changed many times and has lately become the "Sha'biyat
" system. The region that was Tripolitania is now composed of several smaller baladiyat or sha'biyat
In the 7th century, Tripolitania was conquered by the Rashidun Caliphate
, and was inherited by its descendants, the Umayyad Caliphate
and the Abbasid Caliphate. The Fatimid Caliphate ruled from Tunisia to Syria. In the 1140s, the Italo-Normans
invaded Tripoli, but were ousted by the Almohad Caliphate
in 1158. Abu Zakariya Yahya
, an Almohad vassal, established an independent state in Tunisia in 1229 and took control of Tripolitania shortly after. The Hafsids
would control the region until the Ottoman
conquest of 1553.
Official coat of arms of the Italian Tripolitania
: ایالت طرابلس غرب
) extended beyond the region of Tripolitania proper, also including Cyrenaica. Tripolitania became effectively independent under the rulers of the Karamanli dynasty
from 1711 until Ottoman control was re-imposed by Mahmud II
in 1835. Ottoman rule persisted until 1911–12, when it was captured by Italy
in the Italo-Turkish War
. Italy officially granted autonomy after the war, but gradually occupied the region.
Originally administered as part of a single colony, Italian Tripolitania was a separate colony from 26 June 1927 to 3 December 1934, when it was merged into Libya. The Italian fascists constructed the Marble Arch
as a form of an imperial triumphal arch at the border between Tripolitani and Cyrenaica near the coast.
Tripolitania experienced a huge development in the late 1930s, when was created the Italian 4th shore
with the Province of Tripoli
and with Tripoli as a modern "westernized" city. The Tripoli Province ("Provincia di Tripoli" in Italian) was established in 1937, with the official name: Commissariato Generale Provinciale di Tripoli. It was considered a province of the Kingdom of Italy
and lasted until 1943.
During World War II
, several see-saw back and forth campaigns with mobile armour vehicles ebbed and flowed across the North African coastal deserts between first Italian Fascists and the British, soon joined by the Nazi Germans
in 1941. Libya was finally occupied by the western Allies
, the British moving east from Egypt
after their victory at El Alamein
in October 1942 against German Field Marshall Erwin Rommel
and his Afrika Korps
, and the Americans from the west after landings in Operation Torch
in November 1942. From 1942 continuing to the end of the war in 1945 until 1951, when Libya gained independence, Tripolitania and the region of Cyrenaica
were administered by the British Military Administration
. Italy formally renounced its claim upon the territory in 1947.
Tripolitania is Libya's most populous region (compared to Fezzan and Cyrenaica). Tripolitania's population has grown throughout years, as has the population of Libya as a whole. Libya's overall population, however, has grown at a rate slightly greater. Because of this, the percentage of Libya's population living within Tripolitania has decreased.
Source: Gathered from bulletins of censuses 1964, 1973, 1995 and 2006.
The majority of the population in Tripolitania is of Arab-Berber ancestry. Communities of Berber
-speakers lives in the Jebel Nafusa
region, the town of Zuwara
on the coast and the city-oases of Ghadames
Airmail stamp of Tripolitania (1931)
2006 census, based on the sum of population of districts Misrata, Murqub, Tripoli, Jafara, Zawiya, Nuqat al Khams, Jabal al Gharbi, Nalut.
- ^ Abdel Aziz Tarih Sharaf, "Jughrafia Libia", Munsha’at al Ma’arif, Alexandria, 2nd ed., 1971, pp. 232-233.
- ^ "World Statesmen-Libya". Retrieved 12 December 2009.
- ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2013, ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), "Sedi titolari", pp. 819–1013
Last edited on 8 April 2021, at 18:32
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