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Turki bin Abdullah Al Saud (1755–1834)
  (Redirected from Turki bin Abdullah bin Muhammad Al Saud)
Turki bin Abdullah Al Saud (Arabic: ترکي بن عبدالله بن محمد‎‎) (1755–1834) was the founder of the Second Saudi State and ruled Najd from 1823–1834[1] following administration by the Ottoman Empire.[2]
Turki bin Abdullah Al Saud
Imam of Nejd
Reign1824–9 May 1834
PredecessorAbdullah bin Saud
Muhammad Ali of Egypt
SuccessorMishari bin Abdul Rahman bin Mishari
Reign1819–1820
Born1755
Died9 May 1834 (aged 78–79)
Riyadh, Emirate of Nejd
Issue
Names
Turki bin Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Saud bin Muhammad bin Muqrin Al Maridi Al Adui
DynastyHouse of Saud
FatherAbdullah bin Muhammad
Family background and early life
Turki was born in 1755.[3] He was the son of Abdullah bin Muhammad who was the youngest son of Muhammad bin Saud, founder of the First Saudi State, and the brother of Abdulaziz bin Muhammad, the second ruler and first Imam of the State.[4] Imam Abdulaziz's grandson, Abdullah bin Saud, was the last Imam of the First Saudi State. This made Turki the first cousin once removed of Imam Abdullah bin Saud.[5][6]
Ascent
Turki fought in the defense of Diriyah against the Egyptians and hostile tribes, including Banu Khalid.[7] He escaped when the city was seized by Ibrahim Pasha in 1818, marking the end of the First Saudi State.[8] He spent the next two years in hiding due to the ensuing persecution of the Al Saud with Abdullah bin Saud being sent to Cairo and then, to İstanbul to be executed by the Ottomans.[5] Turki briefly collaborated with Mohammad bin Mishari bin Muammar, an Arab client of Muhammad Ali, who aspired to rule Najd himself.[1] However, when Mishari bin Saud, the last Imam’s brother, escaped from Egyptian captivity to reassert Saudi rule, Turki joined him and was appointed governor of Riyadh.[9] Ibn Muammar quickly crushed the revolt, however, and imprisoned Mishari. Turki retaliated by capturing Ibn Muammar and his son (also named Mishari). An attempt to exchange both men for Mishari bin Saud before the latter was returned to Egyptian custody failed, resulting in the execution of Ibn Muammar and his son. Turki was then forced back into hiding. By this time, many senior members of the House of Saud had been killed, exiled, or imprisoned, leaving Turki as one of the few within the family willing and able to assume leadership.[1][10]
Reign
In 1823, Turki reemerged to form an alliance with Sawaid, the ruler of Jalajil in Sudair,[11] and had soon established himself in Irqah. He made further incursions into Najd, in which he seized major settlements such as Durma and Manfuhah in order to isolate Riyadh and its Egyptian garrison.[12] By August 1824, Riyadh itself came under siege and fell a few months later; Turki designated Riyadh as the new Saudi capital the same year[11][13] as Diriyah had been devastated and largely depopulated by the Egyptians during their occupation.[14] In Riyadh he constructed Qasr Al Hukm in 1824 to be used as the headquarters of the Amir.[15]
Though he had succeeded in reestablishing a viable Saudi polity, Turki chose to remain a nominal vassal of the Ottomans due to what had happened to Abdullah bin Saud.[5] This in no way inhibited his attempts over the next several years to consolidate his hold in Najd, with Kharj, Qasim, and Jabal Shammar all having submitted to Saudi rule by 1828 despite clashes with the local Bedouin.[16][17] With Hejaz and the Red Sea remaining in Egyptian hands, further expansion was directed eastwards. The conquest of the Eastern Province was achieved in 1830, in response to a Bedouin invasion from this region led by the Banu Khalid.[7][18] Efforts to extend Saudi influence along the Persian Gulf littoral, however, met with mixed success. The mere threat of invasion was enough to subdue Oman in 1833 yet Bahrain revolted in the same year (having agreed to pay tribute three years prior), a situation that remained unresolved at the time of Turki’s death.[19]
In addition to his religious personality and extensive involvement in war Turki was also a patron of poets, namely Rahman bin Jabir and Abdulaziz bin Hamad bin Nasir bin Muammar, during his reign.[19]
Assassination
In spite of his success in returning the House of Saud to power, Turki could not avoid falling victim to familial intrigue.[20] On 9 May 1834, as the imam was leaving the mosque, he was ambushed and slain by three assassins working for his cousin (and fellow member of the House of Saud) Mishari bin Abdul Rahman.[21] It was Mishari who then emerged “with an unsheathed sword”,[1] insisting that he, and not Faisal (who was away on campaign against Bahrain), was the new imam.[20] Faisal, however, quickly learned of his father's assassination and hurried back to Riyadh. He reached this city by the end of May, defeating and executing Mishari within a matter of weeks.[22] Yet this was only a partial victory as it would take almost a decade of fighting against other would-be usurpers before Faisal succeeded in establishing his authority as Turki’s successor.
Legacy
The Second Saudi State would endure until 1891. In addition, Turki was the progenitor of four branches of the House of Saud:
The Imam Turki bin Abdullah Mosque in Riyadh is named in his honour.
References
  1. ^ a b c d Vassiliev 2013
  2. ^ R. Bayly Winder (1950). A history of the Su'udi state from 1233/1818 until 1308/1891 (PhD thesis). Princeton University. ProQuest 304402090. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  3. ^ Esther van Eijk (2010). "Sharia and national law in Saudi Arabia". In Jan Michiel Otto (ed.). Sharia Incorporated. Leiden: Leiden University Press. p. 143. ISBN 9789087280574.
  4. ^ Turki bin Khalid bin Saad bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (2015). Saudi Arabia-Iran relations 1929-2013(PDF) (PhD thesis). King's College London. Retrieved 29 January 2021.
  5. ^ a b c William Smyth (1993). "Historical Setting". In Helen Chapin Metz (ed.). Saudi Arabia: A Country Study. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. pp. 1–44. ISBN 978-0844407913.
  6. ^ Winder 1965, p. 279
  7. ^ a b Roby C. Barrett (June 2015). "Saudi Arabia: Modernity, Stability, and the Twenty-First Century Monarchy" (Report). Joint Special Operations University. Retrieved 8 February 2021.
  8. ^ a b Winder 1965, p. 52.
  9. ^ Winder 1965, p. 64.
  10. ^ Winder 1965, pp. 54-55
  11. ^ a b Christopher Keesee Mellon (May 2015). "Resiliency of the Saudi Monarchy: 1745-1975"(Master's Project). The American University of Beirut. Beirut. Retrieved 23 January 2021.
  12. ^ Winder 1965, pp. 60-63
  13. ^ Mashary A. Al Naim (December 2013). "Urban Transformation in the City of Riyadh: A Study of Plural Urban Identity". Open House International. 38 (4): 70–79. doi​:​10.1108/OHI-04-2013-B0008​.
  14. ^ Winder 1965, p. 64
  15. ^ Mohammed Abdullah Eben Saleh (October 2001). "The Changing Image of Arriyadh City: The Role of Socio-cultural and Religious Traditions in Image Transformation". Cities. 18 (5): 322. doi​:​10.1016/S0264-2751(01)00024-5​.
  16. ^ Winder 1965, pp. 64-65
  17. ^ Winder 1965, pp. 68-69
  18. ^ Winder 1965, pp. 75-78
  19. ^ a b Bilal Ahmad Kutty (1993). Political and religious origins of Saudi Arabia (PDF) (MA thesis). Aligarh Muslim University. p. 41, 69. Retrieved 5 June 2021.
  20. ^ a b Parvaiz Ahmad Khanday (2009). A Critical Analysis of the Religio-Political Conditions of Modern Saudi Arabia (PDF) (PhD thesis). Aligarh Muslim University. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  21. ^ Winder, 1965, p. 94
  22. ^ Jerald L. Thompson (December 1981). H. St. John Philby, Ibn Saud and Palestine (PDF) (MA thesis). University of Kansas. Retrieved 4 October 2020.
  23. ^ a b Gary Samuel Samore (1984). Royal Family Politics in Saudi Arabia (1953-1982) (PhD thesis). Harvard University. pp. 22, 42. ProQuest 303295482. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  24. ^ Eric Hooglund (1993). "Government and Politics". In Helen Chapin Metz (ed.). Saudi Arabia: A Country Study (Fifth ed.). Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. pp. 189–228. ISBN 978-0844407913.
  25. ^ a b Kechichian 2001, pp. 33–34.
  26. ^ "عبدالله بن جلوي بن تركي آل سعود". Obaikan (in Arabic). Retrieved 14 February 2021.
  27. ^ "Royal Family Directory". www.datarabia.com. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
Bibliography
External links
Second State of Saudi Arabia
Preceded by
Office established
Imam of the Second Saudi State
1819–1820
Succeeded by
Muhammad Ali of Egypt
Preceded by
Muhammad Ali of Egypt
Imam of the Second Saudi State
1824–1834
Succeeded by
Mishari bin Abdul Rahman bin Mishari
Last edited on 4 July 2021, at 12:43
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