Turkic languages
Not to be confused with Trukic languages or Turkish language.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least 35[1] documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Southern Europe, Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Western Asia, North Asia (particularly in Siberia), and East Asia. The Turkic languages originated in a region of East Asia spanning Western China to Mongolia, where Proto-Turkic is thought to have been spoken,[2] from where they expanded to Central Asia and farther west during the first millennium.[3] They are characterized as a dialect continuum.[4]
EthnicityTurkic peoples
Western Asia
Central Asia
North Asia
East Asia
Southern Europe
Eastern Europe
Linguistic classificationOne of the world's primary language families
ISO 639-5trk

The distribution of the Turkic languages
Turkic languages are spoken as a native language by some 170 million people, and the total number of Turkic speakers, including second language speakers, is over 200 million.[5][6] The Turkic language with the greatest number of speakers is Turkish, spoken mainly in Anatolia and the Balkans; its native speakers account for about 40% of all Turkic speakers.[3]
Characteristic features such as vowel harmony, agglutination, and lack of grammatical gender, are almost universal within the Turkic family.[3] There is a high degree of mutual intelligibility among the various Oghuz languages, which include Turkish, Azerbaijani, Turkmen, Qashqai, Gagauz, Balkan Gagauz Turkish and Oghuz-influenced Crimean Tatar.[7] Although methods of classification vary, the Turkic languages are usually considered to be divided equally into two branches: Oghur, the only surviving member of which is Chuvash, and Common Turkic, which includes all other Turkic languages including the Oghuz sub-branch.
Languages belonging to the Kipchak subbranch also share a high degree of mutual intelligibility among themselves. Kazakh and Kyrgyz may be better seen as mutually intelligible dialects of a single tongue that are regarded as separate languages for sociopolitical reasons.[citation needed] They differ mainly phonetically while the lexicon and grammar are much the same, although both have standardized written forms that may differ in some ways. Until the 20th century, both languages used a common written form of Chaghatay Turki.[8]
Turkic languages show many similarities with the Mongolic, Tungusic, Koreanic, and Japonic languages. These similarities led some linguists to propose an Altaic language family, though this proposal is widely rejected by Western historical linguists.[9][10] Similarities with the Uralic languages even caused these families to be regarded as one for a long time under the Ural-Altaic hypothesis.[11][12][13] However, there has not been sufficient evidence to conclude the existence of either of these macrofamilies, the shared characteristics between the languages being attributed presently to extensive prehistoric language contact.
See also: Altaic languages
Turkic languages are null-subject languages, have vowel harmony (with the notable exception of Uzbek), extensive agglutination by means of suffixes and postpositions, and lack of grammatical articles, noun classes, and grammatical gender. Subject–object–verb word order is universal within the family. The root of a word is usually only a few consonants.
See also: Proto-Turkic language, Turkic peoples, and Turkic migration
The homeland of the Turkic peoples and their language is suggested to be somewhere between the Transcaspian steppe and Northeastern Asia (Manchuria),[14] with genetic evidence pointing to the region near South Siberia and Mongolia as the "Inner Asian Homeland" of the Turkic ethnicity.[15] Similarly several linguists, including Juha Janhunen, Roger Blench and Matthew Spriggs, suggest that modern-day Mongolia is the homeland of the early Turkic language.[16]
Extensive contact took place between Proto-Turks and Proto-Mongols approximately during the first millennium BC; the shared cultural tradition between the two Eurasian nomadic groups is called the "Turco-Mongol" tradition. The two groups shared a similar religion system, Tengrism, and there exists a multitude of evident loanwords between Turkic languages and Mongolic languages. Although the loans were bidirectional, today Turkic loanwords constitute the largest foreign component in Mongolian vocabulary.[17]
Some lexical and extensive typological similarities between Turkic and the nearby Tungusic and Mongolic families, as well as the Korean and Japonic families (all formerly widely considered to be part of the so-called Altaic language family) has in more recent years been instead attributed to prehistoric contact amongst the group, sometimes referred to as the Northeast Asian sprachbund. A more recent (circa first millennium BC) contact between "core Altaic" (Turkic, Mongolic, and Tungusic) is distinguished from this, due to the existence of definitive common words that appear to have been mostly borrowed from Turkic into Mongolic, and later from Mongolic into Tungusic, as Turkic borrowings into Mongolic significantly outnumber Mongolic borrowings into Turkic, and Turkic and Tungusic do not share any words that do not also exist in Mongolic.
Old Turkic Kul-chur inscription with the Old Turkic alphabet (c. 8th century). Töv Province, Mongolia
Turkic languages also show some Chineseloanwords that point to early contact during the time of Proto-Turkic.[18]
Robbeets (et al. 2015 and et al. 2017) suggest that the homeland of the Turkic languages was somewhere in Manchuria, close to the Mongolic, Tungusic and Koreanic homeland (including the ancestor of Japonic), and that these languages share a common "Transeurasian" origin.[19] More evidence for the proposed ancestral "Transeurasian" origin was presented by Nelson et al. 2020 and Li et al. 2020.[20][21]
Early written records
10th-century Irk Bitig or "Book of Divination" written in Old Uyghur language with the Orkhon script
The first established records of the Turkic languages are the eighth century AD Orkhon inscriptions by the Göktürks, recording the Old Turkic language, which were discovered in 1889 in the Orkhon Valley in Mongolia. The Compendium of the Turkic Dialects (Divânü Lügati't-Türk), written during the 11th century AD by Kaşgarlı Mahmud of the Kara-Khanid Khanate, constitutes an early linguistic treatment of the family. The Compendium is the first comprehensive dictionary of the Turkic languages and also includes the first known map of the Turkic speakers' geographical distribution. It mainly pertains to the Southwestern branch of the family.[22]
The Codex Cumanicus (12th–13th centuries AD) concerning the Northwestern branch is another early linguistic manual, between the Kipchak language and Latin, used by the Catholicmissionaries sent to the Western Cumans inhabiting a region corresponding to present-day Hungary and Romania. The earliest records of the language spoken by Volga Bulgars, the parent to today's Chuvash language, are dated to the 13th–14th centuries AD.
Geographical expansion and development
Yuan dynasty Buddhist inscription written in Old Uyghur language with Old Uyghur alphabet on the east wall of the Cloud Platform at Juyong Pass
With the Turkic expansion during the Early Middle Ages (c. 6th–11th centuries AD), Turkic languages, in the course of just a few centuries, spread across Central Asia, from Siberia to the Mediterranean. Various terminologies from the Turkic languages have passed into Persian, Hindustani, Russian, Chinese, and to a lesser extent, Arabic.[23][verification needed]
The geographical distribution of Turkic-speaking peoples across Eurasia since the Ottoman era ranges from the North-East of Siberia to Turkey in the West.[24] (See picture in the box on the right above.)
For centuries, the Turkic-speaking peoples have migrated extensively and intermingled continuously, and their languages have been influenced mutually and through contact with the surrounding languages, especially the Iranian, Slavic, and Mongolic languages.[25]
This has obscured the historical developments within each language and/or language group, and as a result, there exist several systems to classify the Turkic languages. The modern genetic classification schemes for Turkic are still largely indebted to Samoilovich (1922).[citation needed]
The Turkic languages may be divided into six branches:[26]
In this classification, Oghur Turkic is also referred to as Lir-Turkic, and the other branches are subsumed under the title of Shaz-Turkic or Common Turkic. It is not clear when these two major types of Turkic can be assumed to have diverged.[27]
With less certainty, the Southwestern, Northwestern, Southeastern and Oghur groups may further be summarized as West Turkic, the Northeastern, Kyrgyz-Kipchak, and Arghu (Khalaj) groups as East Turkic.[28]
Geographically and linguistically, the languages of the Northwestern and Southeastern subgroups belong to the central Turkic languages, while the Northeastern and Khalaj languages are the so-called peripheral languages.
Hruschka, et al. (2014)[29] use computational phylogenetic methods to calculate a tree of Turkic based on phonological sound changes.
The following isoglosses are traditionally used in the classification of the Turkic languages:[30][26]
Additional isoglosses include:
isoglossOld TurkicTurkishTurkmenAzerbaijaniQashqaiUzbekUyghurTatarKazakhKyrgyzAltayWestern YugurFu-yü GyrgysKhakasTuvanSakha/YakutKhalajChuvash
z/r (nine)toquzdokuzdokuzdoqquzdoqquztoʻqqiztoqquztuɣïztoǵyztoɣuztoɣusdohghusdoɣustoɣïstostoɣustoqquztăχăr
*h- (foot)adaqayakaýakayaqayaqoyoqayaqayaqaıaqayaqayaqazaqazïχazaχadaqataχhadaqura
*VdV (foot)adaqayakaýakayaqayaqoyoqayaqayaqaıaqayaqayaqazaqazïχazaχadaqataχhadaqura
*-ɣ (mountain)tāɣdağ*dagdağdaɣtogʻtaghtawtaýtaɣdaχtaɣdaɣtıatāɣtu
suffix *-lïɣ (mountainous)tāɣlïɣdağlıdaglydağlıdaɣlïɣtogʻliktaghliqtawlïtaýlytōlūtūlutaɣliɣdaɣluɣ
*In the standard Istanbul dialect of Turkish, the ğ in dağ and dağlı is not realized as a consonant, but as a slight lengthening of the preceding vowel.
The following table is based upon the classification scheme presented by Lars Johanson (1998)[33]
Proto-TurkicCommon TurkicSouthwestern Common Turkic (Oghuz)
West Oghuz
East Oghuz
South Oghuz
Northwestern Common Turkic (Kipchak)
Kipchak (extinct)
West Kipchak
North Kipchak (Volga–Ural Turkic)
South Kipchak (Aralo-Caspian)
Southeastern Common Turkic (Karluk)
West Karluk
East Karluk
Northeastern Common Turkic (Siberian)
North Siberian
South SiberianSayan Turkic
Yenisei Turkic
Chulym Turkic
Chulym (Küerik)
Altai Turkic[35]
Altay Oirot and dialects such as Tuba, Qumanda, Qu, Teleut, Telengit
Vocabulary comparison
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The following is a brief comparison of cognates among the basic vocabulary across the Turkic language family (about 60 words).
Empty cells do not necessarily imply that a particular language is lacking a word to describe the concept, but rather that the word for the concept in that language may be formed from another stem and is not cognate with the other words in the row or that a loanword is used in its place.
Also, there may be shifts in the meaning from one language to another, and so the "Common meaning" given is only approximate. In some cases, the form given is found only in some dialects of the language, or a loanword is much more common (e.g. in Turkish, the preferred word for "fire" is the Persian-derived ateş, whereas the native od is dead). Forms are given in native Latin orthographies unless otherwise noted.
Common meaningProto-TurkicOld TurkicTurkishAzerbaijaniKarakhanidQashqaiTurkmenTatarKaraimBashkirKazakhKyrgyzUzbekUyghurSakha/YakutChuvash
father, ancestor*ata, *kaŋata, apa, qaŋbaba, atababa, ataapa, atabowa/ataataata, atayataata, atayataataotaataağaatte, aśu, aşşe
mother*ana, *ögana, ögana, anneanaana, eneana/nänäeneana, änianaana, inä(y)/asayanaeneonaanaiyeanne, annü, amăşĕ
son*oguloɣuloğuloğuloɣul, ohuloğulogululuvulululuuloʻgʻiloghuluolıvăl, ul
man*ēr, *érkekererkekər/erkəkerkekkišierkekirėrir, irkäker, erkekerkekerkakererar/arśın
person*kiĺi, *yạlaŋukkiši, yalaŋuqkişikişikišikişikeşekišikeşekisikişikishikishikihiśın
mother-in-lawkaynanaqaynanaqäynänägaýyn eneqayın anaqäynäqaıyn enekayneneqaynonaqeyinanahuńama
Body parts
heart*yürekyürekyürekürəkjürekiräg/ürägýürekyöräküriak, jürekyöräkjúrekjürökyurakyüreksürexçĕre
hair*s(i)ač, *kïlsač, qïlsaç, kılsaç, qılsač, qɨltik/qelsaç, gylçäç, qılčač, sač, qɨlsäs, qılshash, qylçaç, kılsoch, qilsach, qilbattax, kılśüś, hul
eye*göŕközgözgözközgez/gözgözküzkioź, gozküðkózközkoʻzközxarax, köskuś/koś
eyelash*kirpikkirpikkirpikkirpikkirpikkirpigkirpikkerfekkirpikkerpekkirpikkirpikkiprikkirpikkılaman, kirbiihărpăk
ear*kulkakqulqaqkulakqulaqqulaq, qulqaq, qulxaq, qulɣaqqulaqgulakqolaqqulaxqolaqqulaqkulakquloqqulaqkulgaaxhălha
nose*burunburunburunburunburunburnburunborınburunmoronmurynmurunburunburunmurun, munnumurun
finger*erŋek, *biarŋakerŋekparmakbarmaqbarmaqburmaqbarmaqbarmaqbarmaxbarmaqbarmaqbarmakbarmoqbarmaqtarbaqpürne/porńa
knee*dīŕ, *dǖŕtizdizdiztizle-
(to press with one's knees)
dizdyzteztɨzteðtizetizetizzatiztobukçĕrśi, çerkuśśi
cattle*dabaringek, tabarinek, davar, sığırinək, sığıringek, ingen; tavarseğersygyrsıyırsɨjɨrhıyırsıyrsıyırsigirsiyirınaxĕne
dog*ït, *köpekïtit, köpekitɨtkepägitetit´etıtitititıtyıtă
Other nouns
house*eb, *barkeb, barqev, barkevevävöýöyüy, üvöyúıüyuyöyśurt
tent*otag, *gereküotaɣ, kereküçadır, otağçadır; otaqotaɣ, kereküčadorçadyr; otagçatırodasatırshatyr; otaýçatırchodir; oʻtoqchadir; otaqotuuçatăr
fire*ōtōtod, ateş (Pers.)odotototutotutototoʻtotuotvut/vot
water*sub, *sïbsubsususuvsusuwsusuhıwsuusuvsuuuşıv/şu
ship, boat*gḗmikemigemigəmikemigämiköymägemikämäkemekemekemakemekimĕ
sun/day*güneĺ, *günküngüneş, güngünəş, günkün, qujašgin/güngünqoyaş, könkujašqoyaş, könkúnkünquyosh, kunquyash, künkünhĕvel, kun
ground, earth*topraktopraqtopraktorpaqtopraqtorpaqtopraktufraqtopraq, topraxtupraqtopyraqtopuraktuproqtupraqtoburaxtăpra
hilltop*tepö, *töpötöpütepetəpətepedepetübätebetübätóbetöbötepatöpetöbötüpĕ
god (Tengri)*teŋri, *taŋrïteŋri, burqantanrıtanrıteŋritarï/Allah/XodataňrytäñreTieńritäñretáńiriteñirtangritengritangaratură/toră
sky*teŋri, *kȫkkök, teŋrigökgöykökgey/göygökkükkökkükkókkökkoʻkkökküöxkăvak/koak
new*yaŋï, *yeŋiyaŋïyeniyenijaŋɨyeŋiýaňyyañajɨŋgɨyañıjańajañıyangiyengisañaśĕnĕ
fat*semiŕsemizsemiz, şişmansəmizsemizsemizsimezsemizhimeðsemizsemizsemizsemizemissamăr
white*āk, *ürüŋāq, ürüŋak, beyaz (Ar.)aqaqakaqaqaqaqakoqaqşură
black*karaqarakara, siyah (Pers.)qaraqaraqärägaraqaraqaraqaraqarakaraqoraqaraxarahura, hora
red*kïŕïlqïzïlkızıl, kırmızı (Ar.)qızılqɨzɨlqïzïlgyzylqızılqɨzɨlqıðılqyzylkızılqizilqizilkıhılhĕrlĕ
1*bīrbirbirbirbirbirbirberbir, bɨrberbirbirbirbirbiirpĕrre
3*üčüčüçüçüčuǰ, u̇čüçöčüćösüšüčuch/u̇čüch/üçüsviśśĕ, viśĕ, viś
6*altïaltïaltıaltıaltïaltïalty (altï)altïaltïaltïaltïaltïolti (ålti)altäaltault, ultă, ulttă
8*sekiŕsäkizsekizsəkkizsek(k)iz, sik(k)izsӓkkizsekizsigezsekizhigeðsegizsegizsäkkizsäkkizaɣïssakkăr, sakăr
9*tokuŕtoquzdokuzdoqquztoquzdoġġuzdokuztugïztoɣuztuɣïðtoɣïztoguzto’qqiztoqquztoɣustăxxăr, tăxăr
10*ōnononononononunonunononoʻnonuonvunnă, vună, vun
20*yẹgirmiyigirmi/yégirmiyirmiiyirmiyigirmi, yigirmeigirmi, iyirmiyigrimiyegermeyigirmiyegermežïyïrmaǰïyïrmayigirmäyigirmäsüürbeśirĕm
30*otuŕotuzotuzotuzotuzottizotuz (otuð)otuzotuzutïðotïzotuzo’ttizottuzotutvătăr
40*kïrkqïrqkırkqırxqïrqġèrḫ (ɢərx)kyrk (kïrk)qırq (qïrq)kïrxqïrqqïrïqkïrkqirqqirqtüört uonxĕrĕx
50*elligäligelliǝlli (älli)el(l)igälli, ẹllielliille
60*altmïĺaltmïšaltmışaltmış (altmïš)altmïšaltmïšaltmyş (altmïš)altmïšaltïmïšaltïmïšalpïsaltïmïšoltmish (åltmiš)altmišalta uonultmăl
70*yẹtmiĺyētmiš/syetmişyetmişyetmišyetmišýetmiş (yetmiš)ǰitmešyetmiš/syetmešžetpisǰetimišyetmišyätmišsette uonśitmĕl
80*sekiŕ ōnsäkiz onseksensǝksǝn (säksän)seksünsӓɣsensegsenseksenseksen, seksanhikhenseksenseksensakson (säksån)säksänaɣïs uonsakăr vun(ă)
90*dokuŕ ōntoquz ondoksandoxsantoqsantogsantuksantoksan, toxsantukhantoqsantoksonto'qson (tȯksån)toqsantoɣus uontăxăr vun(ă), tăxăr vunnă
100*yǖŕyüzyüzyüzjüziz/yüzýüzyözjiz, juz, jüzyöðjúzjüzyuzyüzsüüsśĕr
1000*bïŋbïŋbinminmiŋ, menminmüň (müŋ)meŋmin, binmeŋmïŋmïŋming (miŋ)miŋtïhïïnčapin
Common meaningProto-TurkicOld TurkicTurkishAzerbaijaniKarakhanidQashqaiTurkmenTatarKaraimBashkirKazakhKyrgyzUzbekUyghurSakha/YakutChuvash
Azerbaijani "ǝ" and "ä": IPA /æ/
Turkish and Azerbaijani "ı", Karakhanid "ɨ", Turkmen "y", and Sakha "ï": IPA /ɯ/
Turkmen "ň", Karakhanid "ŋ": IPA /ŋ/
Turkish and Azerbaijani "y",Turkmen "ý" and "j" in other languages: IPA /j/
All "ş" and "š" letters: IPA /ʃ/
All "ç" and "č" letters: IPA /ʧ/
Kazakh "ž": IPA /ʒ/
Kyrgyz "ǰ": IPA /ʤ/
Other possible relations
The Turkic language family is currently regarded as one of the world's primary language families.[12] Turkic is one of the main members of the controversial Altaic language family. There are some other theories about an external relationship but none of them are generally accepted.
The possibility of a genetic relation between Turkic and Korean, independently from Altaic, is suggested by some linguists.[41][42][43] The linguist Kabak (2004) of the University of Würzburg states that Turkic and Korean share similar phonology as well as morphology. Li Yong-Sŏng (2014)[42] suggest that there are several cognates between Turkic and Old Korean. He states that these supposed cognates can be useful to reconstruct the early Turkic language. According to him, words related to nature, earth and ruling but especially to the sky and stars seem to be cognates.
The linguist Choi[43] suggested already in 1996 a close relationship between Turkic and Korean regardless of any Altaic connections:
In addition, the fact that the morphological elements are not easily borrowed between languages, added to the fact that the common morphological elements between Korean and Turkic are not less numerous than between Turkic and other Altaic languages, strengthens the possibility that there is a close genetic affinity between Korean and Turkic.
— Choi Han-Woo, A Comparative Study of Korean and Turkic (Hoseo University)
Many historians also point out a close non-linguistic relationship between Turkic peoples and Koreans.[44] Especially close were the relations between the Göktürks and Goguryeo.[45]
Rejected or controversial theories
Some linguists suggested a relation to Uralic languages, especially to the Ugric languages. This view is rejected and seen as obsolete by mainstream linguists. Similarities are because of language contact and borrowings mostly from Turkic into Ugric languages. Stachowski (2015) states that any relation between Turkic and Uralic must be a contact one.[46]
See also
  1. ^ Dybo A.V. (2007). "ХРОНОЛОГИЯ ТЮРКСКИХ ЯЗЫКОВ И ЛИНГВИСТИЧЕСКИЕ КОНТАКТЫ РАННИХ ТЮРКОВ" [Chronology of Turkish Languages and Linguistic Contacts of Early Turks] (PDF) (in Russian). p. 766. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 March 2005. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  2. ^ Janhunen, Juha (2013). "Personal pronouns in Core Altaic". In Martine Irma Robbeets; Hubert Cuyckens (eds.). Shared Grammaticalization: With Special Focus on the Transeurasian Languages. p. 223. ISBN 9789027205995.
  3. ^ a b c Katzner, Kenneth (March 2002). Languages of the World, Third Edition. Routledge, an imprint of Taylor & Francis Books Ltd. ISBN 978-0-415-25004-7.
  4. ^ Grenoble, L.A. (2003). Language Policy in the Soviet Union. Springer. p. 10. ISBN 9781402012983.
  5. ^ Brigitte Moser, Michael Wilhelm Weithmann, Landeskunde Türkei: Geschichte, Gesellschaft und Kultur, Buske Publishing, 2008, p.173
  6. ^ Deutsches Orient-Institut, Orient, Vol. 41, Alfred Röper Publushing, 2000, p.611
  7. ^ "Language Materials Project: Turkish". UCLA International Institute, Center for World Languages. February 2007. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 26 April 2007.
  8. ^ Robert Lindsay. "Mutual Intelligibility Among the Turkic Languages".
  9. ^ Vovin, Alexander (2005). "The end of the Altaic controversy: In memory of Gerhard Doerfer". Central Asiatic Journal. 49 (1): 71–132. JSTOR 41928378.
  10. ^ Georg, Stefan; Michalove, Peter A.; Ramer, Alexis Manaster; Sidwell, Paul J. (1999). "Telling general linguists about Altaic". Journal of Linguistics. 35 (1): 65–98. doi​:​10.1017/S0022226798007312​. JSTOR 4176504.
  11. ^ Sinor, 1988, p.710
  12. ^ a b George van DRIEM: Handbuch der Orientalistik. Volume 1 Part 10. BRILL 2001. Page 336
  13. ^ M. A. Castrén, Nordische Reisen und Forschungen. V, St.-Petersburg, 1849
  14. ^ Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Metspalu, Mait; Metspalu, Ene; et al. (21 April 2015). "The Genetic Legacy of the Expansion of Turkic-Speaking Nomads across Eurasia". PLOS Genetics. 11 (4): e1005068. doi​:​10.1371/journal.pgen.1005068​. ISSN 1553-7390. PMC 4405460. PMID 25898006. The origin and early dispersal history of the Turkic peoples is disputed, with candidates for their ancient homeland ranging from the Transcaspian steppe to Manchuria in Northeast Asia,
  15. ^ Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Metspalu, Mait; Metspalu, Ene; et al. (21 April 2015). "The Genetic Legacy of the Expansion of Turkic-Speaking Nomads across Eurasia". PLOS Genetics. 11 (4): e1005068. doi​:​10.1371/journal.pgen.1005068​. ISSN 1553-7390. PMC 4405460. PMID 25898006. Thus, our study provides the first genetic evidence supporting one of the previously hypothesized IAHs to be near Mongolia and South Siberia.
  16. ^ Blench, Roger; Spriggs, Matthew (2003). Archaeology and Language II: Archaeological Data and Linguistic Hypotheses. Routledge. p. 203. ISBN 9781134828692.
  17. ^ Clark, Larry V. (1980). "Turkic Loanwords in Mongol, I: The Treatment of Non-initial S, Z, Š, Č". Central Asiatic Journal. 24 (1/2): 36–59. JSTOR 41927278.
  18. ^ Johanson, Lars; Johanson, Éva Ágnes Csató (29 April 2015). The Turkic Languages. Routledge. ISBN 9781136825279.
  19. ^ Robbeets, Martine (2017). "Transeurasian: A case of farming/language dispersal". Language Dynamics and Change. 7 (2): 210–251. doi​:​10.1163/22105832-00702005​.
  20. ^ Nelson, Sarah. "Tracing population movements in ancient East Asia through the linguistics and archaeology of textile production" (PDF). Cambridge University. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  21. ^ Li, Tao. "Millet agriculture dispersed from Northeast China to the Russian Far East: Integrating archaeology, genetics, and linguistics". Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  22. ^ Soucek, Svat (March 2000). A History of Inner Asia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-65169-1.
  23. ^ Findley, Carter V. (October 2004). The Turks in World History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-517726-8.
  24. ^ Turkic Language tree entries provide the information on the Turkic-speaking regions.
  25. ^ Johanson, Lars (2001). "Discoveries on the Turkic linguistic map" (PDF). Swedish Research Institute in Istanbul. Retrieved 18 March 2007.[permanent dead link]
  26. ^ a b Lars Johanson, The History of Turkic. In Lars Johanson & Éva Ágnes Csató (eds), The Turkic Languages, London, New York: Routledge, 81–125, 1998.Classification of Turkic languages
  27. ^ See the main article on Lir-Turkic.
  28. ^ Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.) (2005). "Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Language Family Trees – Turkic". Retrieved 18 March 2007. The reliability of Ethnologue lies mainly in its statistics whereas its framework for the internal classification of Turkic is still based largely on Baskakov (1962) and the collective work in Deny et al. (1959–1964). A more up-to-date alternative to classifying these languages on internal comparative grounds is to be found in the work of Johanson and his co-workers.
  29. ^ Hruschka, Daniel J.; Branford, Simon; Smith, Eric D.; Wilkins, Jon; Meade, Andrew; Pagel, Mark; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy (2015). "Detecting Regular Sound Changes in Linguistics as Events of Concerted Evolution 10.1016/j.cub.2014.10.064"​. Current Biology. 25 (1): 1–9. doi​:​10.1016/j.cub.2014.10.064​. PMC 4291143. PMID 25532895.
  30. ^ Самойлович, А. Н. (1922). Некоторые дополнения к классификации турецких языков (in Russian). Archived from the original on 19 July 2018. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  31. ^ Larry Clark, "Chuvash", in The Turkic Languages, eds. Lars Johanson & Éva Ágnes Csató (London–NY: Routledge, 2006), 434–452.
  32. ^ Anton Antonov & Guillaume Jacques, "Turkic kümüš ‘silver’ and the lambdaism vs sigmatism debate", Turkic Languages 15, no. 2 (2012): 151–70.
  33. ^ Lars Johanson (1998) The History of Turkic. In Lars Johanson & Éva Ágnes Csató (eds) The Turkic Languages. London, New York: Routledge, 81–125. [1]
  34. ^ Deviating. Historically developed from Southwestern (Oghuz) (Johanson 1998) [2]
  35. ^ a b c "turcologica". Retrieved 22 February 2017.
  36. ^ Tura, Baraba, Tomsk, Tümen, Ishim, Irtysh, Tobol, Tara, etc. are partly of different origin (Johanson 1998) [3]
  37. ^ Aini contains a very large Persian vocabulary component, and is spoken exclusively by adult men, almost as a cryptolect.
  38. ^ Coene 2009, p. 75
  39. ^ Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World. Contributors Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie (revised ed.). Elsevier. 2010. p. 1109. ISBN 978-0080877754. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
  40. ^ Johanson, Lars, ed. (1998). The Mainz Meeting: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Turkish Linguistics, August 3–6, 1994. Turcologica Series. Contributor Éva Ágnes Csató. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 28. ISBN 978-3447038645. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
  41. ^ Sibata, Takesi (1979). "Some syntactic similarities between Turkish, Korean, and Japanese". Central Asiatic Journal. 23 (3/4): 293–296. ISSN 0008-9192. JSTOR 41927271.
  42. ^ a b SOME STAR NAMES IN MODERN TURKIC LANGUAGES-I - Yong-Sŏng LI - Academy of Korean Studies Grant funded by the Korean Government (MEST) (AKS-2010-AGC-2101) - Seoul National University 2014
  43. ^ a b Choi, Han-Woo (1996). "A comparative study of Korean and Turkic: Is Korean Altaic?" (PDF). International Journal of Central Asian Studies. 1.
  44. ^ Babayar, Gaybullah (2004). "On the ancient relations between the Turkic and Korean peoples" (PDF). Journal of Turkic Civilization Studies (1): 151–155.
  45. ^ Tae-Don, Noh (2016). "Relations between ancient Korea and Turkey: An examination of contacts between Koguryŏ and the Turkic Khaganate". Seoul Journal of Korean Studies. 29 (2): 361–369. doi​:​10.1353/seo.2016.0017​. hdl:10371/164838. ISSN 2331-4826. S2CID 151445857.
  46. ^ Stachowski, Marek (2015). "Turkic pronouns against a Uralic background". Iran and the Caucasus. 19 (1): 79–86. doi​:​10.1163/1573384X-20150106​. ISSN 1609-8498.
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