Article 66 of the Turkish Constitution
defines a "Turk" as "anyone who is bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship". While the legal use of the term "Turkish" as it pertains to a citizen
of Turkey is different from the term's ethnic definition,
the majority of the Turkish population (an estimated 70–75 percent) is of Turkish ethnicity.
The vast majority of Turks are Muslims
Etymology and definition
The first definite references to the "Turks" mainly come from Chinese
sources which date back to the sixth century. In these sources, "Turk" appears as "Tujue" (Chinese
), which referred to the Göktürks
There are several theories regarding the origin of the ethnonym "Turk". There is claim it may be connected to Herodotus
's (c. 484–425 BC) reference to Targitaos, a king of the Scythians
however, Mayrhofer (apud Lincoln) assigned Iranian etymology for Ταργιτάος Targitaos
from Old Iranian
, meaning "he whose strength is long-lasting".
During the first century AD., Pomponius Mela
refers to the "Turcae" in the forests north of the Sea of Azov
, and Pliny the Elder
lists the "Tyrcae" among the people of the same area.;
yet English archaeologist Ellis Minns
contended that Tyrcae
Τῦρκαι is "a false correction" for Ἱύρκαι Iyrcae
, a people who dwelt beyond the Thyssagetae
, according to Herodotus
, iv. 22)
There are references to certain groups in antiquity whose names might have been foreign transcriptions of Tür(ü)k
such as Togarma
and so on; but the information gap is so substantial that any connection of these ancient people to the modern Turks is not possible.
In the 19th century, the word Türk
referred to Anatolian
peasants. The Ottoman ruling class identified themselves as Ottomans
, not as Turks.
In the late 19th century, as the Ottoman upper classes adopted European ideas of nationalism
, the term Türk
took on a more positive connotation.
Prehistory, Ancient era and Early Middle Ages
The early Turkic peoples
descended from agricultural communities in Northeast Asia
who moved westwards into Mongolia
in the late 3rd millennium BC, where they adopted a pastoral lifestyle.
By the early 1st millennium BC, these peoples had become equestrian nomads
In subsequent centuries, the steppe populations of Central Asia
appear to have been progressively replaced and Turkified
by East Asian
nomadic Turks, moving out of Mongolia.
In Central Asia, the earliest surviving Turkic-language
texts, found on the eighth-century Orkhon inscription monuments
, were erected by the Göktürks
in the sixth century CE, and include words not common to Turkic but found in unrelated Inner Asian languages.
Although the ancient Turks were nomadic
, they traded wool, leather, carpets, and horses for wood, silk, vegetables and grain, as well as having large ironworking stations in the south of the Altai Mountains
during the 600s CE. Most of the Turkic peoples were followers of Tengrism
, sharing the cult of the sky god Tengri
, although there were also adherents of Manichaeism
, Nestorian Christianity
However, during the Muslim conquests
, the Turks entered the Muslim world
proper as slaves
, the booty of Arab raids and conquests.
The Turks began converting to Islam
after the Muslim conquest of Transoxiana
through the efforts of missionaries
, and merchants. Although initiated by the Arabs
, the conversion
of the Turks to Islam was filtered through Persian
and Central Asian culture. Under the Umayyads
, most were domestic servants, whilst under the Abbasid Caliphate
, increasing numbers were trained as soldiers.
By the ninth century, Turkish commanders were leading the caliphs
’ Turkish troops into battle. As the Abbasid Caliphate declined, Turkish officers assumed more military and political power by taking over or establishing provincial dynasties with their own corps of Turkish troops.
In dire straits, the Byzantine Empire turned to the West for help, setting in motion the pleas that led to the First Crusade
Once the Crusaders
, the Seljuk Turks established the Sultanate of Rum
from their new capital, Konya
, in 1097.
By the 12th century, Europeans had begun to call the Anatolian region "Turchia" or "Turkey", the land of the Turks.
The Turkish society in Anatolia was divided into urban, rural and nomadic populations;
(Turkmen) tribes who had arrived into Anatolia at the same time as the Seljuks kept their nomadic ways.
These tribes were more numerous than the Seljuks, and rejecting the sedentary lifestyle, adhered to an Islam impregnated with animism
from their central Asian
steppeland origins, which then mixed with new Christian influences. From this popular and syncretist Islam, with its mystical and revolutionary aspects, sects such as the Alevis
between the Turks and local inhabitants, as well as the conversion
of many to Islam, also increased the Turkish-speaking Muslim population in Anatolia.
By 1243, at the Battle of Köse Dağ
, the Mongols
defeated the Seljuk Turks and became the new rulers of Anatolia, and in 1256, the second Mongol invasion of Anatolia caused widespread destruction. Particularly after 1277, political stability within the Seljuk territories rapidly disintegrated, leading to the strengthening of Turkoman principalities in the western and southern parts of Anatolia called the "beyliks
A map of the independent beyliks
in Anatolia during the early 1300s.
When the Mongols defeated the Seljuk Turks and conquered Anatolia
, the Turks became the vassals
of the Ilkhans
who established their own empire in the vast area which stretched from present-day Afghanistan
to present-day Turkey
As the Mongols occupied more lands in Asia Minor, the Turks moved further into western Anatolia and settled in the Seljuk-Byzantine frontier.
By the last decades of the 13th century, the Ilkhans and their Seljuk vassals lost control over much of Anatolia to these Turkoman peoples
A number of Turkish lords managed to establish themselves as rulers of various principalities
, known as "Beyliks
" or emirates
. Amongst these beyliks, along the Aegean
coast, from north to south, stretched the beyliks of Karasi
. Inland from Teke was Hamid
and east of Karasi was the beylik of Germiyan
To the north-west of Anatolia, around Söğüt
, was the small and, at this stage, insignificant, Ottoman beylik. It was hemmed in to the east by other more substantial powers like Karaman
, which ruled from the Kızılırmak River
to the Mediterranean
. Although the Ottomans
were only a small principality among the numerous Turkish beyliks, and thus posed the smallest threat to the Byzantine authority, their location in north-western Anatolia, in the former Byzantine province of Bithynia
, became a fortunate position for their future conquests. The Latins
, who had conquered the city of Constantinople
in 1204 during the Fourth Crusade
, established a Latin Empire
(1204–61), divided the former Byzantine territories in the Balkans
and the Aegean
among themselves, and forced the Byzantine Emperors into exile at Nicaea
). From 1261 onwards, the Byzantines were largely preoccupied with regaining their control in the Balkans.
Toward the end of the 13th century, as Mongol power began to decline, the Turcoman chiefs assumed greater independence.
The Ottoman Empire
was a Turkish empire that lasted from 1299 to 1922.
The loss of almost all Ottoman
territories during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey
, in 1923, produced waves of Turkish refugees, who were known as "Muhacirs
", who fled from hostile regions of the Balkans
, the Black Sea
, the Aegean islands
, the island of Cyprus
, the Sanjak of Alexandretta
, the Middle East
, and the Soviet Union
to migrate to Anatolia
and Eastern Thrace
Under its founder, Osman I
, the nomadic Ottoman beylik expanded along the Sakarya River
and westward towards the Sea of Marmara
. Thus, the population of western Asia Minor
had largely become Turkish
-speaking and Muslim
It was under his son, Orhan I
, who had attacked and conquered the important urban center of Bursa
in 1326, proclaiming it as the Ottoman capital, that the Ottoman Empire
developed considerably. In 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe
and established a foothold on the Gallipoli Peninsula
while at the same time pushing east and taking Ankara
Many Turks from Anatolia began to settle in the region which had been abandoned by the inhabitants who had fled Thrace
before the Ottoman invasion.
However, the Byzantines were not the only ones to suffer from the Ottoman advance for, in the mid-1330s, Orhan annexed the Turkish beylik of Karasi
. This advancement was maintained by Murad I
who more than tripled the territories under his direct rule, reaching some 100,000 square miles (260,000 km2
), evenly distributed in Europe
and Asia Minor
Gains in Anatolia were matched by those in Europe; once the Ottoman forces took Edirne
), which became the capital of the Ottoman Empire in 1365, they opened their way into Bulgaria
in 1371 at the Battle of Maritsa
With the conquests of Thrace
, Macedonia, and Bulgaria, significant numbers of Turkish emigrants settled in these regions.
This form of Ottoman-Turkish colonization
became a very effective method to consolidate their position and power in the Balkans
. The settlers consisted of soldiers, nomads, farmers, artisans and merchants
and other religious functionaries, and administrative personnel.
In 1453, Ottoman armies, under Sultan Mehmed II
, conquered Constantinople
Mehmed reconstructed and repopulated the city, and made it the new Ottoman capital.
After the Fall of Constantinople
, the Ottoman Empire entered a long period of conquest and expansion
with its borders eventually going deep into Europe
, the Middle East
, and North Africa
. Selim I
dramatically expanded the empire's eastern and southern frontiers in the Battle of Chaldiran
and gained recognition as the guardian of the holy cities of Mecca
His successor, Suleiman the Magnificent
, further expanded the conquests after capturing Belgrade
in 1521 and using its territorial base to conquer Hungary
, and other Central European territories, after his victory in the Battle of Mohács
as well as also pushing the frontiers of the empire to the east.
Following Suleiman's death, Ottoman victories continued, albeit less frequently than before. The island of Cyprus
was conquered, in 1571, bolstering Ottoman dominance over the sea routes of the eastern Mediterranean
However, after its defeat at the Battle of Vienna
, in 1683, the Ottoman army was met by ambushes and further defeats; the 1699 Treaty of Karlowitz
, which granted Austria the provinces of Hungary and Transylvania
, marked the first time in history that the Ottoman Empire actually relinquished territory.
By the 19th century, the empire began to decline
uprisings occurred across the empire. Thus, the last quarter of the 19th and the early part of the 20th century saw some 7–9 million Muslim refugees (Turks and some Circassians
, etc.) from the lost territories of the Caucasus
, and the Mediterranean
islands migrate to Anatolia
and Eastern Thrace
By 1913, the government of the Committee of Union and Progress
started a program of forcible Turkification
of non-Turkish minorities.
By 1914, the World War I
broke out, and the Turks scored some success in Gallipoli
during the Battle of the Dardanelles
in 1915. During World War I, the government of the Committee of Union and Progress continued to implement its Turkification policies, which affected non-Turkish minorities, such as the Armenians
during the Armenian Genocide
and the Greeks
during various campaigns of ethnic cleansing and expulsion
In 1918, the Ottoman Government agreed to the Mudros Armistice
with the Allies
People on the Anafartalar Boulevard, Ankara
in the 1950s
Throughout the 1920s and the 1930s, Turks, as well as other Muslims
, from the Balkans
, the Black Sea
, the Aegean islands
, the island of Cyprus
, the Sanjak of Alexandretta
), the Middle East
, and the Soviet Union
continued to arrive in Turkey
, most of whom settled in urban north-western Anatolia.
The bulk of these immigrants, known as "Muhacirs
", were the Balkan Turks who faced harassment and discrimination in their homelands.
However, there were still remnants of a Turkish population in many of these countries because the Turkish government wanted to preserve these communities so that the Turkish character of these neighbouring territories could be maintained.
One of the last stages of ethnic Turks immigrating to Turkey was between 1940 and 1990 when about 700,000 Turks arrived from Bulgaria. Today, between a third and a quarter of Turkey's population are the descendants of these immigrants.
Traditional areas of Turkish settlement
In the latter half of the 11th century, the Seljuks began settling in the eastern regions of Anatolia
. In 1071, the Seljuk Turks defeated the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert
, beginning the enlargement of their empire and sphere of influence in Anatolia; the Turkish language
were introduced to Anatolia
and gradually spread over the region.
The slow transition from a predominantly Christian
-speaking Anatolia to a predominantly Muslim
-speaking one was underway.
Ethnic Turks make up between 70% to 75% of Turkey's population.
The Turkish Cypriots
are the ethnic Turks whose Ottoman Turkish forebears colonised the island of Cyprus
in 1571. About 30,000 Turkish soldiers were given land once they settled in Cyprus, which bequeathed a significant Turkish community. In 1960, a census by the new Republic's government revealed that the Turkish Cypriots formed 18.2% of the island's population.
However, once inter-communal fighting and ethnic tensions between 1963 and 1974 occurred between the Turkish and Greek Cypriots
, known as the "Cyprus conflict
", the Greek Cypriot government conducted a census in 1973, albeit without the Turkish Cypriot populace. A year later, in 1974, the Cypriot government's Department of Statistics and Research estimated the Turkish Cypriot population was 118,000 (or 18.4%).
A coup d'état
in Cyprus on 15 July 1974
by Greeks and Greek Cypriots favouring union with Greece
(also known as "Enosis
") was followed by military intervention
whose troops established Turkish Cypriot control over the northern part of the island.
Hence, census's conducted by the Republic of Cyprus have excluded the Turkish Cypriot population that had settled in the unrecognised Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Between 1975 and 1981, Turkey
encouraged its own citizens to settle in Northern Cyprus; a report by CIA
suggests that 200,000 of the residents of Cyprus are Turkish.
Current estimates suggests that there are approximately 9 million Turks living in Europe
, excluding those who live in the European part
Modern immigration of Turks to Western Europe
began with Turkish Cypriots
migrating to the United Kingdom
in the early 1920s when the British Empire
in 1914 and the residents of Cyprus became subjects of the Crown. However, Turkish Cypriot migration increased significantly in the 1940s and 1950s due to the Cyprus conflict
. Conversely, in 1944, Turks who were forcefully deported from Meskheti
during the Second World War
, known as the Meskhetian Turks
, settled in Eastern Europe
(especially in Russia
). By the early 1960s, migration to Western and Northern Europe
increased significantly from Turkey
when Turkish "guest workers
" arrived under a "Labour Export Agreement" with Germany
in 1961, followed by a similar agreement with the Netherlands
in 1964; France
in 1965; and Sweden
More recently, Bulgarian Turks
, Romanian Turks
, and Western Thrace Turks
have also migrated to Western Europe
The Turkish presence in the Meskheti
region of Georgia
began with the Turkish military expedition of 1578
The majority of Meskhetian Turks, about 70,000, went to Azerbaijan
According to the 2009 Azerbaijani census, there were 38,000 Turks living in the country;
yet in 1999, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
stated that there were 100,000 Meskhetian Turks living in the country.
Furthermore, in 2001, the Baku Institute of Peace and Democracy suggested that there was between 90,000 and 110,000 Meskhetian Turks living in Azerbaijan.
However, due to the ordered deportation of over 115,000 Meskhetian Turks
from their homeland in 1944, during the Second World War
, the majority settled in Central Asia
According to the 1989 Soviet Census
, which was the last Soviet Census, 106,000 Meskhetian Turks lived in Uzbekistan
, 50,000 in Kazakhstan
, and 21,000 in Kyrgyzstan
However, in 1989, the Meshetian Turks who had settled in Uzbekistan became the target of a pogrom
in the Fergana valley
, which was the principal destination for Meskhetian Turkish deportees, after an uprising of nationalism by the Uzbeks
The riots had left hundreds of Turks dead or injured and nearly 1,000 properties were destroyed; thus, thousands of Meskhetian Turks were forced into renewed exile
Soviet authorities recorded many Meskhetian Turks as belonging to other nationalities such as "Azeri
", and "Uzbek
Compared to Turkish immigration to Europe, migration to North America
has been relatively small. According to the US Census Bureau
196,222 Americans in 2013
were of Turkish descent. However, the actual number of Turks is considerably larger, as a significant number of ethnic Turks have migrated to North America not just from Turkey
but also from the Balkans
(such as Bulgaria
and North Macedonia
, and the former Soviet Union
Hence, the Turkish American
community is currently estimated to number about 500,000.
Regarding the Turkish Canadian
community, Statistics Canada
reports that 63,955 Canadians in the 2016 census listed "Turk" as an ethnic origin, including those who listed more than one origin.
The largest concentration of Turkish Americans are in New York City
, and Rochester, New York
; Washington, D.C.
; and Detroit, Michigan
. The majority of Turkish Canadians live in Ontario
, mostly in Toronto
, and there is also a sizable Turkish community in Montreal, Quebec
. With regards to the 2010 United States Census
, the U.S government was determined to get an accurate count of the American population by reaching segments, such as the Turkish community, that are considered hard to count, a good portion of which falls under the category of foreign-born immigrants.
The Assembly of Turkish American Associations
and the US Census Bureau
formed a partnership to spearhead a national campaign to count people of Turkish origin with an organisation entitled "Census 2010 SayTurk" (which has a double meaning in Turkish
, "Say" means "to count" and "to respect") to identify the estimated 500,000 Turks now living in the United States.
A notable scale of Turkish migration to Australia
began in the late 1940s when Turkish Cypriots
began to leave the island of Cyprus
for economic reasons, and then, during the Cyprus conflict
, for political reasons, marking the beginning of a Turkish Cypriot immigration trend to Australia.
The Turkish Cypriot community were the only Muslims
acceptable under the White Australia Policy
many of these early immigrants found jobs working in factories, out in the fields, or building national infrastructure.
In 1967, the governments of Australia and Turkey signed an agreement to allow Turkish citizens to immigrate to Australia.
Prior to this recruitment agreement, there were fewer than 3,000 people of Turkish origin in Australia.
According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics
, nearly 19,000 Turkish immigrants arrived from 1968 to 1974.
They came largely from rural
areas of Turkey, approximately 30% were skilled and 70% were unskilled workers.
However, this changed in the 1980s when the number of skilled Turks applying to enter Australia had increased considerably.
Over the next 35 years the Turkish population rose to almost 100,000.
More than half of the Turkish community settled in Victoria
, mostly in the north-western suburbs of Melbourne
According to the 2006 Australian Census
, 59,402 people claimed Turkish ancestry;
however, this does not show a true reflection of the Turkish Australian
community as it is estimated that between 40,000 and 120,000 Turkish Cypriots
and 150,000 to 200,000 mainland Turks
live in Australia. Furthermore, there has also been ethnic Turks who have migrated to Australia from Bulgaria
and North Macedonia
Arts and Architecture
An example of Turkish classical music.
As Turkey successfully transformed from the religion-based former Ottoman Empire into a modern nation-state with a very strong separation of state and religion, an increase in the modes of artistic expression followed. During the first years of the republic, the government invested a large amount of resources into fine arts; such as museums, theatres, opera houses and architecture. Diverse historical factors play important roles in defining the modern Turkish identity. Turkish culture is a product of efforts to be a "modern" Western state, while maintaining traditional religious and historical values.
The mix of cultural influences is dramatized, for example, in the form of the "new symbols of the clash and interlacing of cultures" enacted in the works of Orhan Pamuk
, recipient of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature
Notable individuals include Nureddin
, Yunus Emre
, Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu
, Haji Bektash Veli
, Ali Kuşçu
, Hezârfen Ahmed Çelebi
, Lagâri Hasan Çelebi
, Piri Reis
, Namık Kemal
, İbrahim Şinasi
, Hüseyin Avni Lifij
, Faik Ali Ozansoy
, Mimar Kemaleddin
, İştirakçi Hilmi
, Mustafa Suphi
, Ethem Nejat
, Halid Ziya Uşaklıgil
, Rıza Tevfik Bölükbaşı
, Latife Uşşaki
, Feriha Tevfik
, Fatma Aliye Topuz
, Keriman Halis Ece
, Zeki Rıza Sporel
, Cahide Sonku
, Süleyman Seyyid
, Abdülhak Hâmid Tarhan
, Besim Ömer Akalın
, Orhan Veli Kanık
, Sait Faik Abasıyanık
, Abidin Dino
, Ahmet Ziya Akbulut
, Nazmi Ziya Güran
, Tanburi Büyük Osman Bey
, Vecihi Hürkuş
, Bedriye Tahir
, Halide Edib Adıvar
, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
, Mehmet Emin Yurdakul
, Tevfik Fikret
, Nâzım Hikmet
, Hulusi Behçet
, Nuri Demirağ
, Fahrelnissa Zeid
, Leyla Gencer
, Ahmet Ertegün
, Metin Oktay
, Dilhan Eryurt
, Fikri Alican
, Feza Gürsey
, İsmail Akbay
, Oktay Sinanoğlu
, Gazi Yaşargil
, Behram Kurşunoğlu
, Fethullah Gülen
, Mehmet Öz
, Tansu Çiller
, Cahit Arf
, Muhtar Kent
, Efe Aydan
, Neslihan Demir
, Orhan Pamuk
, and Aziz Sancar
The Turkish language also known as Istanbul Turkish is a southern Oghuz
branch of the Turkic languages
. It is natively spoken by the Turkish people in Turkey
, the island of Cyprus
, and other areas of traditional settlement that formerly, in whole or part, belonged to the Ottoman Empire
. Turkish is the official language
of Turkey. In the Balkans, Turkish is still spoken by Turkish minorities who still live there, especially in Bulgaria
(mainly in Western Thrace
, North Macedonia
(mainly in Dobruja
) and the Republic of Moldova
(mainly in Gagauzia
The Turkish language was introduced to Cyprus
with the Ottoman conquest in 1571 and became the politically dominant, prestigious language, of the administration.
One important change to Turkish literature was enacted in 1928, when Mustafa Kemal initiated the creation and dissemination of a modified version
of the Latin alphabet
to replace the Arabic alphabet based Ottoman script. Over time, this change, together with changes in Turkey's system of education, would lead to more widespread literacy
in the country.
Modern standard Turkish is based on the dialect of Istanbul
Nonetheless, dialectal variation persists, in spite of the levelling
influence of the standard used in mass media and the Turkish education system
since the 1930s.
The terms ağız
often refer to the different types of Turkish dialects.
There are three major Anatolian Turkish dialect groups spoken in Turkey
: the West Anatolian dialect (roughly to the west of the Euphrates
), the East Anatolian dialect (to the east of the Euphrates), and the North East Anatolian group, which comprises the dialects of the Eastern Black Sea coast, such as Trabzon
, and the littoral districts of Artvin
The Balkan Turkish dialects are considerably closer to standard Turkish and do not differ significantly from it, despite some contact phenomena, especially in the lexicon.
In the post-Ottoman period, Cypriot Turkish was relatively isolated from standard Turkish and had strong influences by the Cypriot Greek
dialect. The condition of coexistence with the Greek Cypriots
led to a certain bilingualism whereby Turkish Cypriots
knowledge of Greek
was important in areas where the two communities lived and worked together.
The linguistic situation changed radically in 1974, when the island was divided into a Greek south and a Turkish north (Northern Cyprus
). Today, the Cypriot Turkish dialect is being exposed to increasing standard Turkish through immigration from Turkey
, new mass media, and new educational institutions.
The Meskhetian Turks
speak an Eastern Anatolian
dialect of Turkish
, which hails from the regions of Kars
, and Artvin
The Meskhetian Turkish dialect has also borrowed from other languages (including Azerbaijani
, and Uzbek
), which the Meskhetian Turks have been in contact with during the Russian
According to KONDA research, only 9.7% of the population described themselves as "fully devout," while 52.8% described themselves as "religious."
69.4% of the respondents reported that they or their wives cover their heads (1.3% reporting chador), although this rate decreases in several demographics: 53% in ages 18–28, 27.5% in university graduates, 16.1% in masters-or-higher-degree holders.
Turkey has also been a secular
state since the republican era.
According to a poll, 90% of respondents said the country should be defined as secular in the new Constitution that is being written.
Turkish genomic variation, along with several other Western Asian
populations, looks most similar to genomic variation of South European
populations such as southern Italians.
Data from ancient DNA – covering the Paleolithic
, the Neolithic
, and the Bronze Age
periods – showed that Western Asian genomes, including Turkish ones, have been greatly influenced by early agricultural populations in the area; later population movements, such as those of Turkic speakers, also contributed.
The only whole genome sequencing study of Turkish genetics (on 16 individuals) concluded that the Turkish population forms a cluster with Southern European/Mediterranean populations, and the predicted contribution from ancestral East Asian
populations (presumably Central Asian
) is 21.7%.
However, that is not a direct estimate of a migration rate, due to reasons such as unknown original contributing populations.
Moreover, the genetic variation of various populations in Central Asia "has been poorly characterized"; Western Asian populations may also be "closely related to populations in the east".
A study in 2015 found "7.9% (±0.4) East Asian ancestry in Turks", and the authors suggested that Turks are "genetically shifted towards modern Central Asians" in line with historical mixture of populations from this region.
A 2019 study found that Turkish people cluster with Southern and Mediterranean Europe populations along with groups in the northern part of Southwest Asia
(such as the populations from Caucasus
, Northern Iraq, and Iranians).
Another study found the Circassians
are closest to the Turkish population among sampled European (French, Italian, Sardinian), Middle Eastern (Druze, Palestinian), and Central (Kyrgyz, Hazara, Uygur), South (Pakistani), and East Asian (Mongolian, Han) populations.
Another 2019 study found that Turkish people have the lowest Fst distances
with Caucasus population group and Iranian-Syrian group, compared to East-Central European, European (including Northern and Eastern European), Sardinian, Roma, and Turkmen groups or populations. Caucasus group in the study included samples from "Abkhazians, Adygey, Armenians, Balkars, Chechens, Georgians, Kumyks, Kurds, Lezgins, Nogays, and North Ossetia."
A study involving mitochondrial analysis of a Byzantine-era
population, whose samples were gathered from excavations in the archaeological site of Sagalassos
, found that Sagalassos samples were closest to modern samples from "Turkey, Crimea, Iran and Italy (Campania and Puglia), Cyprus and the Balkans (Bulgaria, Croatia and Greece)."
Modern-day samples from the nearby town of Ağlasun showed that lineages of East Eurasian descent assigned to macro-haplogroup M were found in the modern samples from Ağlasun. This haplogroup is significantly more frequent in Ağlasun (15%) than in Byzantine Sagalassos, but the study concluded that there is "no genetic discontinuity across two millennia in the region."
Another study concluded that the true Central Asian contributions to Anatolia was 13% for males and 22% for females (with wide ranges of confidence intervals
), and the language replacement in Turkey and Azerbaijan might not have been in accordance with the elite dominance model.
According to the Home Affairs Committee
this includes 300,000 Turkish Cypriots
However, some estimates suggest that the Turkish Cypriot community in the UK has reached between 350,000
to 400,000.^ b:
Includes people of mixed ethnic background.^ c:
A further 10,000–30,000 people from Bulgaria live in the Netherlands. The majority are Bulgarian Turks
and are the fastest-growing group of immigrants in the Netherlands.^ d:
This includes Turkish settlers
. 2,000 of these Turkish Cypriots
currently reside in the southern part of the island, the rest on the northern.^ e:
This figure only
includes Turkish citizens
. Therefore, this also includes ethnic minorities from Turkey
; however, it does not
include ethnic Turks who have either been born and/or have become naturalised citizens. Furthermore, these figures do not
include ethnic Turkish minorities
from Bulgaria, Cyprus, Georgia, Greece, Iraq, Kosovo, Macedonia, Romania or any other traditional area of Turkish settlement because they are registered as citizens from the country they have immigrated from rather than their ethnic Turkish identity.^ f:
In addition to Turkish citizens, this figure includes people with ancestral background related to Turkey, so it includes ethnic minorities of Turkey.^ g:
This figure only includes Turks of Western Thrace
. A further 5,000 live in the Rhodes
In addition to this, 8,297 immigrants
live in Greece.^ h:
These figures only
include the Meskhetian Turks
. According to official census
's there were 38,000 Turks in Azerbaijan
97,015 in Kazakhstan
39,133 in Kyrgyzstan
109,883 in Russia
and 9,180 in Ukraine (2001).
A further 106,302 Turks were recorded in Uzbekistan
's last census in 1989
although the majority left for Azerbaijan and Russia during the 1989 pogroms in the Ferghana Valley
. Official data regarding the Turks in the former Soviet Union
is unlikely to provide a true indication of their population as many have been registered as "Azeri", "Kazakh", "Kyrgyz", and "Uzbek".
only a third of them were recorded as Turks, the rest had been arbitrarily declared members of other ethnic groups.
Similarly, in Azerbaijan, much of the community is officially registered as "Azerbaijani"
even though the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
reported, in 1999, that 100,000 Meskhetian Turks were living there.^ i:
A further 30,000 Bulgarian Turks
live in Sweden.^ j:
"The history of Turkey encompasses, first, the history of Anatolia before the coming of the Turks and of the civilizations—Hittite, Thracian, Hellenistic, and Byzantine—of which the Turkish nation is the heir by assimilation or example. Second, it includes the history of the Turkish peoples, including the Seljuks, who brought Islam and the Turkish language to Anatolia. Third, it is the history of the Ottoman Empire, a vast, cosmopolitan, pan-Islamic state that developed from a small Turkish amirate in Anatolia and that for centuries was a world power."^ k: The Turks are also defined by the country of origin. Turkey, once Asia Minor or Anatolia, has a very long and complex history. It was one of the major regions of agricultural development in the early Neolithic and may have been the place of origin and spread of lndo-European languages at that time. The Turkish language was imposed on a predominantly lndo-European-speaking population (Greek being the official language of the Byzantine empire), and genetically there is very little difference between Turkey and the neighboring countries. The number of Turkish invaders was probably rather small and was genetically diluted by the large number of aborigines."
"The consideration of demographic quantities suggests that the present genetic picture of the aboriginal world is determined largely by the history of Paleolithic and Neolithic people, when the greatest relative changes in population numbers took place."
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