The two-state solution
to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict
envisions an independent State of Palestine
alongside the State of Israel
, west of the Jordan River
. The boundary between the two states is still subject to dispute and negotiation, with Palestinian and Arab leadership insisting on the "1967 borders", which is not accepted by Israel. The territory of the former Mandate Palestine
) which did not form part of the Palestinian State would continue to be part of Israel.
A peace movement
poster: Israeli and Palestinian flags and the words peace in Arabic
. Similar images have been used by several groups supporting a two-state solution to the conflict.
Map of the West Bank
and the Gaza Strip
, 2011. Agreeing on acceptable borders is a major difficulty with the two-state solution.
of the West Bank, controlled by Israel, in blue and red, December 2011
In 1974, a UN resolution on the "Peaceful settlement of the question of Palestine" called for "two States, Israel and Palestine … side by side within secure and recognized borders" together with "a just resolution of the refugee question in conformity with UN resolution 194
The borders of the state of Palestine would be "based on the pre-1967 borders". The latest resolution, in November 2013, was passed 165 to 6, with 6 abstentions;
with Israel and the United States voting against.
The Palestinian leadership has embraced the concept since the 1982 Arab Summit in Fez
Israel views moves by Palestinian leaders to obtain international recognition of a State of Palestine
as being unilateral action by the Palestinians and inconsistent with a negotiated two-state solution.
It was reported in 2009 that although polls had consistently shown Israeli and Palestinian majorities in favor of a negotiated two-state settlement, there was "growing disillusionment" with a two-state solution.
A 2021 report by the RAND Corporation
found that Israelis across the political spectrum opposed a two-state solution, and that Palestinians will likely require international security guarantees for any peaceful resolution.
History of the two-state solution
The first proposal for the creation of Jewish and Arab states in the British Mandate of Palestine
was made in the Peel Commission
report of 1937, with the Mandate continuing to cover only a small area containing Jerusalem
. The recommended partition proposal was rejected by the Arab community of Palestine,
and was accepted by most of the Jewish leadership.
Partition was again proposed by the 1947 UN Partition plan
for the division of Palestine. It proposed a three-way division, again with Jerusalem held separately, under international control. The partition plan was accepted by the Jewish leadership. However, the plan was rejected by the leadership of Arab nations and the Palestinian leadership, which opposed any partition of Palestine and any independent Jewish presence in the area. The 1948 Arab–Israeli War
for control of the disputed land broke out on the end of the British Mandate, which came to an end with the 1949 Armistice Agreements
. The war resulted
in the fleeing or expulsion of 711,000 Palestinians, which the Palestinians call Nakba
, from the territories which became the state of Israel.
Rather than establishing a Palestinian state on land that Israel did not control, the Arab nations chose instead to support the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East
and the Palestinian refugees remained stateless.
UN resolution 242 and the recognition of Palestinian rights
After the 1967 Arab–Israeli war
, the United Nations Security Council unanimously passed resolution 242
calling for Israeli withdrawal from the territories occupied
during the war, in exchange for "termination of all claims or states of belligerency" and "acknowledgement of sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of every state in the area". The Palestine Liberation Organization
(PLO), which had been formed in 1964, strongly criticized the resolution, saying that it reduced the question of Palestine to a refugee problem.:18
In September 1974, 56 Member States proposed that "the question of Palestine" be included as an item in the General Assembly’s agenda. In a resolution adopted on 22 November 1974, the General Assembly affirmed Palestinian rights, which included the "right to self-determination without external interference", "the right to national independence and sovereignty", and the "right to return to their homes and property". These rights have been affirmed every year since.:24
PLO acceptance of two-state solution
The first indication that the PLO would be willing to accept a two-state solution, on at least an interim basis, was articulated by Said Hammami
in the mid-1970s.
Security Council resolutions dating back to June 1976 supporting the two-state solution based on the pre-1967 lines were vetoed by the United States,
which supports a two-state solution but argued that the borders must be negotiated directly by the parties. The idea has had overwhelming support in the UN General Assembly
since the mid-1970s.
The Palestinian Declaration of Independence
of 15 November 1988, which referenced the UN Partition Plan
of 1947 and "UN resolutions since 1947" in general, was interpreted as an indirect recognition of the State of Israel
, and support for a two-state solution. The Partition Plan was invoked to provide legitimacy to Palestinian statehood. Subsequent clarifications were taken to amount to the first explicit Palestinian recognition of Israel.
In 1975, the General Assembly established the Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People. In 1976, the Committee presented two sets of recommendations, one concerned with the Palestinians' right of return
to their homes and property, and the other with their rights to self-determination, national independence and sovereignty. The Security Council discussed the recommendations but failed to reach a decision due to the negative vote
of the United States.:25
After the First Intifada
began in 1987, considerable diplomatic work went into negotiating a two-state solution between the parties, beginning with the Madrid Conference in 1991. The most significant of these negotiations was the Oslo Accords, which officially divided Palestinian land into three administrative divisions and created the framework for how much of Israel's political borders with the Palestinian territories function today. The Accords culminated in the Camp David 2000 Summit
, and follow-up negotiations at Taba in January 2001, but no final agreement was ever reached. The violent outbreak of the Second Intifada
in 2000 had demonstrated the Palestinian public's disillusionment with the Oslo Accords and convinced many Israelis that the negotiations were in vain.
Recognition of Israel only
Recognition of both Israel and Palestinian State
Recognition of Palestinian State only
At the Annapolis Conference
in November 2007, three major parties—The PLO, Israel, and the US—agreed on a two-state solution as the outline for negotiations. However, the summit failed to achieve an agreement.
By 2010, when direct talks were scheduled to be restarted, continued growth of settlements on the West Bank and continued strong support of settlements by the Israeli government had greatly reduced the land and resources that would be available to a Palestinian state creating doubt among Palestinians and left-wing Israelis that a two-state solution continued to be viable.
In January 2012 the European Union Heads of Mission report on East Jerusalem found that Israel's continuing settlement activities and the fragile situation of the Palestinian population in East Jerusalem, as well in area C, was making a two-state solution less likely.
The Israeli Foreign Ministry rejected this EU report, claiming it was "based on a partial, biased and one sided depiction of realities on the ground."
In May 2012, the EU council stressed its "deep concern about developments on the ground which threaten to make a two-state solution impossible'.
On 29 November 2012, the UN General Assembly voted by 138 to 9, with 46 abstentions to recognize Palestine as a "non-member observer state". On the following day, Israeli PM Benjamin Netanyahu
announced the building of 3,000 new homes on land to the east of East Jerusalem, in an area referred to as "E-1".
The move was immediately criticized by several countries, including the United States, with Israeli ambassadors being personally called for meetings with government representatives in the UK, France and Germany, among others. Israel's decision to build the homes was described by the Obama administration
as "counterproductive", while Australia said that the building plans "threaten the viability of a two-state solution". This is because they claim the proposed E-1 settlement would physically split the lands under the control of the Palestinian National Authority in two, as the extent of the PNA's authority does not extend all the way to the River Jordan
and the Dead Sea
Israel's Labor party has voiced support for the two-state solution, with Isaac Herzog
stating it would be "in Israel's interests".
in March 2015, Netanyahu declared that a Palestinian state would not be established during his administration,
while he also stated that he disapproved the one-state solution
for the ongoing conflict
between two people.
After controversial Jerusalem recognition
by Trump administration in favor of Israel in December 2017, Palestinian officials said the policy change "destroys the peace process" and the decision indirectly meant the United States was "abdicating its role as a peace mediator"
that could no longer act as a mediator in the peace process because the United States had become a party to the dispute instead of neutral intercessor for negotiations.
Settlements in the West Bank
Public opinion in Israel and Palestine
Many Palestinians and Israelis, as well as the Arab League,
have stated that they would accept a two-state solution based on 1949 Armistice Agreements
, more commonly referred to as the "1967 borders". In a 2002 poll conducted by PIPA
, 72% of both Palestinians and Israelis supported at that time a peace settlement based on the 1967 borders so long as each group could be reassured that the other side would be cooperative in making the necessary concessions for such a settlement.
A 2013 Gallup poll found 70% of Palestinians in the West Bank and 48% of Palestinians in Gaza Strip, together with 52% of Israelis supporting "an independent Palestinian state together with the state of Israel".
Support for a two state solution varies according to the way the question is phrased. Some Israeli journalists suggest that the Palestinians are unprepared to accept a Jewish State on any terms.
According to one poll, "fewer than 2 in 10 Arabs, both Palestinian and all others, believe in Israel's right to exist as a nation with a Jewish majority."
Another poll, however, cited by the US State Department
, suggests that "78 percent of Palestinians and 74 percent of Israelis believe a peace agreement that leads to both states living side by side as good neighbors" is "essential or desirable".
In a 2007 poll, almost three quarters of the Palestinian respondents in the West Bank and Gaza Strip approved either a binational or two-state solution; 46% preferred the two-state solution, and 26% preferred the binational solution
Support is lower among younger Palestinians; U.S. Secretary of StateCondoleezza Rice
noted: "Increasingly, the Palestinians who talk about a two-state solution are my age."
A survey taken before the outbreak of fighting in 2014
by the Washington Institute for Near East Policy
found that 60 percent of Palestinians say the goal of their national movement should be "to work toward reclaiming all of historic Palestine from the river to the sea" compared to just 27 percent who endorse the idea that they should work "to end the occupation of the West Bank and Gaza and achieve a two state solution." WINEP says that "this is a new finding compared to similar (but not identical) questions asked in the past, when support for a two-state solution typically ranged between 40–55 percent".
The two-state solution also enjoys majority support in Israeli polls although there has been some erosion to its prospects over time.
A 2014 Haaretz poll asking "Consider that in the framework of an agreement, most settlers are annexed to Israel, Jerusalem will be divided, refugees won't return to Israel and there will be a strict security arrangement, would you support this agreement?", only 35% of Israelis said yes.
Another option is the binational solution
, which could either be a twin regime federalist arrangement or a unitary state,
and the Allon Plan
, also known as the "no-state solution."
The three-state solution
has been proposed as another alternative. The New York Times
reported that Egypt and Jordan were concerned about having to retake responsibility for Gaza and the West Bank. In effect, the result would be Gaza returning to Egyptian rule, and the West Bank to Jordan.
Proposal of dual citizenship
A number of proposals for the granting of Palestinian citizenship or residential permits to Jewish settlers in return for the removal of Israeli military installations from the West Bank have been fielded by such individuals
as Arafat,Ibrahim Sarsur
and Ahmed Qurei
Israeli Minister Moshe Ya'alon
said in April 2010 that "just as Arabs live in Israel, so, too, should Jews be able to live in Palestine." … "If we are talking about coexistence and peace, why the [Palestinian] insistence that the territory they receive be ethnically cleansed of Jews?".
The idea has been expressed by both advocates of the two-state solution
and supporters of the settlers and conservative or fundamentalist currents in Israeli Judaism
that, while objecting to any withdrawal, claim stronger links to the land
than to the state of Israel.
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Last edited on 13 March 2021, at 07:32
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