United Nations Security Council Resolution 425
U.N. Security Council Resolution 425 was issued five days after the Israeli invasion of Lebanon on March 14, 1978, in what was referred to as Operation Litani
The stated objective of the operation was to clear out the PLO
bases located inside Lebanon south of the Litani River
, in order to better secure northern Israel and to support the Christian Lebanese militias in the course of the civil war - most notably the Free Lebanon Army
Following Lebanese government claims, the United Nations
, driven by the United States
, began seeking a peacekeeping force for the area that Israel had occupied in order to bring about a withdrawal of the Israeli forces, and to reintroduce the authority of the Lebanese government in southern Lebanon.
These efforts culminated in Resolution 425, during the 2074th meeting of the United Nations Security Council
on March 19, 1978. That led to the formation of UNIFIL
, the objective of which was to confirm Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon, restore international peace and security, and help the Lebanese Government restore its effective authority in the area.
The resolution text
Taking note of the letters from the Permanent Representative of Lebanon and from the Permanent Representative of Israel, Having heard the statement of the Permanent Representatives of Lebanon and Israel, Gravely concerned at the deterioration of the situation in the Middle East and its consequences to the maintenance of international peace, Convinced that the present situation impedes the achievement of a just peace in the Middle East,
- Calls for strict respect for the territorial integrity, sovereignty and political independence of Lebanon within its internationally recognized boundaries;
- Calls upon Israel immediately to cease its military action against Lebanese territorial integrity and withdraw forthwith its forces from all Lebanese territory;
- Decides, in the light of the request of the Government of Lebanon, to establish immediately under its authority a United Nations interim force for Southern Lebanon for the purpose of confirming the withdrawal of Israeli forces, restoring international peace and security and assisting the Government of Lebanon in ensuring the return of its effective authority in the area, the Force to be composed of personnel drawn from Member States;
- Requests the Secretary-General to report to the Council within twenty-four hours on the implementation of the present resolution.
The first UNIFIL
troops arrived in Lebanon on March 23, 1978, just four days after the resolution was passed. Israel withdrew its forces by June 1978.
After continued PLO attacks from south Lebanon, a larger-scale Israeli invasion commenced in June 1982, in which Israeli troops allied with the Lebanese Christian forces and occupied the capital city of Beirut in the 1982 Lebanon War
In May 2000, nearly a quarter century after resolution 425, Israel withdrew its troops from southern Lebanon. Prior to the withdrawal, opposition voices inside Israel pressured the government to withdraw, as they saw no valid reason to stay there and sustain Lebanese attacks.
The Blue Line
covers the Lebanese-Israeli border; an extension covers the Lebanese-Golan Heights border.
The UN Secretary-General concluded that, as of June 16, 2000, Israel had indeed withdrawn its forces from Lebanon, in accordance with resolution 425 (1978).
The border recognized by the UN is known as the "Blue Line
Some Lebanese parties (most notably Iranian proxy Hezbollah
), however, claim that Israel is still keeping Lebanese land under its occupation, mainly in Shebaa Farms
. Israel and the UN concur that Shebaa Farms is part of the Golan (annexed in Israel’s view, occupied in eyes of UN), and therefore it is not included under resolution 425.
- ^ 18 Jun 2000] SC/6878: Security Council Endorses Secretary-General's Conclusion on Israeli Withdrawal from Lebanon as of 16 June
- ^ Security Council Resolutions - 2002
- ^ Resolution 1496 (2003)
- ^ "A/56/898-S/2002/345 of 3 April 2002". Archived from the original on 12 June 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2004.
Last edited on 17 June 2020, at 07:34
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.