en.m.wikipedia.org
United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories
Chapter XI of the United Nations Charter refers to a non-self-governing territory (NSGT) as a territory “whose people have not yet attained a full measure of self-government.” In practice, a NSGT is a territory deemed by the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) to be "non-self-governing". Chapter XI of the UN Charter also includes a "Declaration on Non-Self-Governing Territories" that the interests of the occupants of dependent territories are paramount and requires member states of the United Nations in control of such territories to submit annual information reports concerning the development of those territories. Since 1946, the UNGA has maintained a list of non-self governing territories under member states' control. Since its inception, dozens of territories have been removed from the list, typically when they attained independence or internal self-government, while other territories have been added as new administering countries joined the United Nations or the General Assembly reassessed the status of certain territories.
UN General Assembly
Resolution 66 (I)

United Nations General Assembly Resolution A/RES/66 (I) dated 14 January 1946
Date14 December 1946
Meeting no.Sixty fourth
CodeA/RES/66(1) (Document)
SubjectTransmission of information under Article 73e of the Charter [relating to non-self-governing territories]
ResultAdopted
Since 1961 the list has been maintained by the Special Committee on Decolonization.
History
Chapter XI of the UN Charter contains a Declaration Concerning Non-Self-Governing Territories.[1] Article 73(e) requires UN member states to report to the United Nations annually on the development of NSGTs under their control. From the initial reports provided by eight member states (Australia, Belgium, Denmark, France, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States), a list was compiled in 1946 listing 72 NSGTs.[2][3] In several instances, administering states were later allowed to remove dependent territories from the list, either unilaterally (as in the case of French overseas territories such as French Polynesia),[4][5] or by a vote of the General Assembly (as in the cases of Puerto Rico, Greenland, the Netherlands Antilles, and Suriname).[citation needed]
Map of territories on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.
The list draws its origins from the period of colonialism and the Charter's concept of non-self-governing territories. As an increasing number of formerly colonized countries became UN members, the General Assembly increasingly asserted its authority to place additional territories on the list and repeatedly declared that only the General Assembly had the authority to authorize a territory's being removed from the list upon attainment of any status other than full independence. For example, when Portugal joined the United Nations it contended that it did not control any non-self-governing territory, claiming that areas such as Angola and Mozambique were an integral part of the Portuguese state, but the General Assembly rejected this position. Similarly, Western Sahara was added in 1963 when it was a Spanish colony. Similarly with Namibia, which was seen, due to its former status as a League of Nations mandate territory, as a vestige of German colonial legacy in Africa, until it was removed in 1990 upon its independence. A set of criteria for determining whether a territory is to be considered "non-self-governing" was established in General Assembly Resolution 1541 (XV) of 1960.[6] Also in 1960, the General Assembly adopted Resolution 1514 (XV), promulgating the "Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples", which declared that all remaining non-self-governing territories and trust territories were entitled to self-determination and independence. The following year, the General Assembly established the Special Committee on the Situation with Regard to the Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples (sometimes referred to as the Special Committee on Decolonization, or the "Committee of 24" because for much of its history the committee was composed of 24 members), which reviews the situation in non-self-governing territories each year and reports to the General Assembly. A revised list in 1963 listed 64 NSGTs.
Resolutions adopted
1946
1947
1960
1961
UNGA Resolution 1654 (XVI) regarding the situation with regard to the implementation of the Declaration on the granting of independence to colonial countries and peoples.
1966
1990–2000
2001–2010
2011–Present
Criticism
The list remains controversial in some countries for various reasons:
Referendum
One reason for controversy is that the list includes some dependencies that have democratically chosen to maintain their current status, or have had a referendum in which there were not enough votes for a change of status, or in some cases (such as United States Virgin Islands) simply had an insufficient number of voters participate.
Gibraltar
Gibraltar is largely a self-governing British territory on the tip of the Iberian Peninsula with a population of about 30,000 people, whose territory is claimed by Spain. It continues to be listed as an NSGT though its residents expressed a preference in two referendums to retain the status quo. In 1967, they were asked whether to retain their current status or to become part of Spain. The status quo was favoured by 12,138 votes to 44. In 2002, a proposal for a joint British–Spanish administration of the territory was voted down by 17,900 votes to 187. (The "no" vote accounted for more than 85% of Gibraltar's entire electorate).[11] The United Nations did not recognise either referendum, with the 1967 referendum being declared in contravention of previous UN resolutions.[12] The Spanish government does not recognize any right of the current Gibraltar inhabitants to self-determination, on the grounds that they are not the original population of the territory, but residents transferred by the colonial power, the United Kingdom.[13]
Tokelau
The territory of Tokelau divides political opinion in New Zealand.[14] In response to attempts at decolonizing Tokelau, New Zealand journalist Michael Field wrote in 2004: "The UN ... is anxious to rid the world of the last remaining vestiges of colonialism by the end of the decade. It has a list of 16 territories around the world, virtually none of which wants to be independent to any degree."[15] Field further notes that Patuki Isaako, who was head of Tokelau's government at the time of a UN seminar on decolonization in 2004, informed the United Nations that his country had no wish to be decolonized, and that Tokelauans had opposed the idea of decolonization ever since the first visit by UN officials in 1976.
In 2006, a UN-supervised referendum on decolonization was held in Tokelau, where 60.07% of voters supported the offer of self-government. However, the terms of the referendum required a two-thirds majority to vote in favor of self-government. A second referendum was held in 2007, in which 64.40% of Tokelauans supported self-government, falling short of the two-thirds majority by 16 votes. This led New Zealand politician and former diplomat John Hayes, on behalf of the National Party, to state that "Tokelau did the right thing to resist pressure from [the New Zealand government] and the United Nations to pursue self-government".[16] In May 2008, the United Nations' Secretary General Ban Ki-moon urged colonial powers "to complete the decolonization process in every one of the remaining 16 Non-Self-Governing Territories".[17] This led the New Zealand Herald to comment that the United Nations was "apparently frustrated by two failed attempts to get Tokelau to vote for independence from New Zealand".[18]
Falkland Islands
The Falkland Islands is a British Overseas Territory with a population of 2,500 people and an autonomous government, that is also claimed by Argentina. In March 2013, the Falkland Islands government organised a referendum on the status of the territory. With a 92% turnout, 99.8% of Falkland Islanders voted to maintain the status quo, with only 3 islanders favouring a change.[19]
Viability
A lack of population and landmass is an issue for at least one territory included on the list: the British overseas territory Pitcairn Islands. With a population of around 50 and a total area of 47 km2 (18.1 sq mi), it is too small to be realistically viable as an independent state.[20] Four other territories—Tokelau, Montserrat, the Falkland Islands and Saint Helena—are less populous than any UN member state presently.
In addition, some territories are financially dependent on their administering state.
Completely autonomous dependencies
  Currently listed territories
  Formerly listed territories
Another criticism is that a number of the listed territories, such as Bermuda (see Politics of Bermuda), the Falkland Islands[21] and Gibraltar,[22][23][24][25] consider themselves completely autonomous and self-governing, with the "administering power" retaining limited oversight over matters such as defence and diplomacy. In past years, there were ongoing disputes between some administering powers and the Decolonization Committee over whether territories such as pre-independence Brunei and the West Indies Associated States should still be considered "non-self-governing", particularly in instances where the administering country was prepared to grant full independence whenever the territory requested it. These disputes became moot as those territories eventually received full independence.
Removed under other circumstances
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.(February 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Territories that have achieved a status described by the administering countries as internally self-governing – such as Puerto Rico, the Netherlands Antilles, and the Cook Islands – have been removed from the list by vote of the General Assembly,[citation needed] often under pressure of the administering countries.
Some territories that have been annexed and incorporated into the legal framework of the controlling state (such as the overseas regions of France) are considered by the UN to have been decolonized, since they then no longer constitute "non-self-governing" entities; their populations are assumed to have agreed to merge with the former parent state. However, in 1961, the General Assembly voted to end this treatment for the "overseas provinces" of Portugal such as Angola and Mozambique, which were active focus of United Nations attention until they attained independence in the mid-1970s.
Territories have also been removed for other reasons. In 1972, for example, Hong Kong (then administered by the United Kingdom) and Macau (then administered by Portugal) were removed from the list at the request of the People's Republic of China, which had just been recognized as holding China's seat at the United Nations due to the PRC's belief that their status should be resolved by bilateral negotiations.[26]
Change of status
On 2 December 1986, New Caledonia, an overseas territory of France, was reinstated on the list of non-self-governing territories, an action to which France objected. Within France it has had the status of a collectivité sui generis, or a one-of-a-kind community, since 1999. Under the 1998 Nouméa Accord, its Territorial Congress had the right to call for three referendums on independence between 2014 and 2018. The first referendum was held on 4 November 2018, with independence being rejected.
French Polynesia was also reinstated on the list on 17 May 2013, in somewhat contentious circumstances. Having been re-elected President of French Polynesia in 2011 (leader of local government), Oscar Temaru asked for it to be re-inscribed on the list; it had been removed in 1947. (French Polynesia is categorised by France as an overseas country, in recognition of its self-governing status.) During the year 2012, Oscar Temaru engaged in intense lobbying with the micro-states of Oceania, many of which, the Solomon Islands, Nauru and Tuvalu, submitted to the UN General Assembly a draft of a resolution to affirm "the inalienable right of the population of French Polynesia to self-determination and independence".
On 5 May 2013, Temaru's Union for Democracy party lost the legislative election to Gaston Flosse's pro-autonomy but anti-independence Tahoera'a Huiraatira party; obtaining only 11 seats against the party of Gaston Flosse, with 38 seats, and the autonomist party A Ti'a Porinetia with 8 seats.
At this stage, the United Nations General Assembly was due to discuss French Polynesia's re-inscription on the list twelve days later, in accordance with a motion tabled by Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and Nauru. On 16 May, the Assembly of French Polynesia, with its new anti-independence majority, adopted a motion asking the United Nations not to restore the country to the list. On 17 May, despite French Polynesia's opposition, and France's, the country was restored to the list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. Temaru was present for the vote, on the final day of his mandate as President. The United Nations affirmed "the inalienable right of the people of French Polynesia to self-determination and independence".
A few hours before the UN review of the resolution, during its first meeting, the new Territorial Assembly adopted by 46 votes to 10 a "resolution" expressing the desire of Polynesians to maintain their autonomy within the French Republic. In spite of this resolution adopted by the parties representing 70% of the Polynesian voters, the UN General Assembly inscribed French Polynesia on the list of the territories to be decolonized during its plenary assembly of 17 May 2013. France did not take part in this session while the United States, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom disassociated themselves from this resolution.[27][28]
List not complete
Main articles: Special Committee on Decolonization and Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
Also controversial are the criteria set down in 1960 to 1961 by the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1514 (XV),[29] United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1541 (XV), Principle 12 of the Annex,[30] and United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1654 (XVI)[31] which only focused on colonies of the Western world, namely Australia, Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, Netherlands, New Zealand, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States. This list of administering states was not expanded afterwards.[32]
Nevertheless, some of the 111 members who joined the UN after 1960 gained independence from countries not covered by Resolution 1541 and were themselves not classified as "Non-Self-Governing Territories" by the UN. Of these that joined the UN between 1960 and 2008, 11 were independent before 1960 and 71 were included on the list (some as a group). Twenty new UN countries resulted from breakup of Second World states: six were part of Yugoslavia, two were part of Czechoslovakia, and 12 were part of the Soviet Union (Ukraine and Belarus already had UN seats before the dissolution of the USSR, whose seat was reused by the Russian Federation without acceding anew). Out of the other nine, seven[which?] (mostly Arab) were colonies or protectorates of the "Western" countries, and one each was a non-self-governing part of Ethiopia (later independent Eritrea) and Pakistan (East Pakistan, later independent Bangladesh). Territories like Tibet (administered by China) and Siberia (or parts thereof; administered by the Soviet Union, later by Russia) have never been on the list. Western New Guinea (also known as West Papua), which was ceded to Indonesia, is also not on the list as well as Sarawak and Sabah, which were handed to Malaya during its territorial expansion through the formation of Malaysia in 1963. In 2018, the government of Vanuatu started seeking international support to have West Papua added to the list in 2019.[33][34]
Current entries
This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: The referendums column has grammatical errors and lacks citations. Please help improve this section if you can.(September 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
See also: Special Committee on Decolonization § Listed non-self-governing territories
The following 17 territories are currently included on the list.[35]
TerritoryAdministering stateDomestic legal statusOther claimant(s)PopulationAreaReferendumsSee also
 American Samoa United StatesUnincorporated​unorganized territoryNone55,519200 km2 (77 mi2)No official referendum has been held.Politics of American Samoa
 AnguillaUnited KingdomOverseas TerritoryNone14,10896 km2 (37 mi2)No official referendum has been held.Politics of Anguilla
 BermudaUnited KingdomOverseas TerritoryNone62,00057 km2 (22 mi2)A 1995 Bermudian independence referendum was held. 74% were against independence. Many pro-independence activists boycotted the vote.Politics of Bermuda
 British Virgin IslandsUnited KingdomOverseas TerritoryNone28,103153 km2 (59 mi2)No official referendum has been held.Politics of the British Virgin Islands
 Cayman IslandsUnited KingdomOverseas TerritoryNone55,500264 km2 (102 mi2)No official referendum has been held.Foreign relations of the Cayman Islands
 Falkland IslandsUnited KingdomDisputed Argentina2,50012,173 km2 (4,700 mi2)Two referendums have been held in 1986 and 2013 on whether the Falklands should join Argentina. Both times Falklanders voted overwhelmingly for continued British control.Falkland Islands sovereignty dispute
 French Polynesia[A]
 France
Overseas countryNone271,0004,000 km2 (1,544 mi2)No official referendum has been held.Politics of French Polynesia
 GibraltarUnited KingdomDisputed
 Spain
29,7526 km2 (2 mi2)There were referendums in 1967 and in 2002, both returning an overwhelming victory for the pro-British side.Status of Gibraltar
 Guam United StatesUnincorporated organized territoryNone159,358540 km2 (208 mi2)Three status referendums have been held, one in 1976 and two in 1982 (one in January and the other in September), with all three of them supporting an improved Commonwealth status under U.S. control.Politics of Guam
 MontserratUnited KingdomOverseas TerritoryNone5,000103 km2 (40 mi2)No official referendum has been held.Government of Montserrat
 New Caledonia
 France
Sui generis collectivityNone252,00018,575 km2 (7,172 mi2)There were referendums in 1987, 2018 and 2020. All three were against independence but the 2018 and 2020 results were close-- partly due to recent, mostly anti-independence and French arrivals not being allowed to vote in referendums.Politics of New Caledonia
 Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno IslandsUnited KingdomOverseas TerritoryNone5036 km2 (14 mi2)No official referendum has been held.Politics of the Pitcairn Islands
 Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaUnited KingdomOverseas TerritoryNone5,396310 km2 (120 mi2)No official referendum has been held.Politics of Saint Helena
 TokelauNew ZealandTerritoryNone1,41112 km2 (5 mi2)There were two referendums on self-determination in Tokelau in 2006 and 2007, with the first coming just shy of the required two-thirds yes margin, and the second returning a landslide defeat for independence.Politics of Tokelau
 Turks and Caicos IslandsUnited KingdomOverseas TerritoryNone31,458948 km2 (366 mi2)No official referendum has been held.Politics of the Turks and Caicos Islands
 Western Sahara[B]
 Spain
(formerly)
Disputed
 Morocco
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
619,060266,000 km2 (102,703 mi2)The UN Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara has attempted to organize a referendum since 1991, but none has been held so far.Political status of Western Sahara
 United States Virgin Islands
 United StatesUnincorporated organized territoryNone106,405352 km2 (136 mi2)A 1993 United States Virgin Islands status referendum was held. The status quo was widely preferred among voters however the result was invalidated due to low turnout.[38]Politics of the United States Virgin Islands
Notes
  1. ^ On 18 May 2013, the United Nations General Assembly voted to place French Polynesia back on the list.[36]
  2. ^ Formerly the Spanish Sahara up to 1976, disputed[37] between Morocco, who controls 80% of the territory and administers it as an integral part of its national territory, and the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, who controls and administers the remaining 20% as the "Liberated territories". The United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara is the United Nations peacekeeping mission to the territory.
Former entries
The following territories were originally listed by UN General Assembly Resolution 66 (I) of 14 December 1946 as Trust and Non-Self-Governing Territory. The dates show the year of independence or other change in a territory's status which led to their removal from the list,[39] after which information was no longer submitted to the United Nations.[40]
Change in status by administrating state
Trust / Territory[40]Change in status[40]Current statusAdministering state[40]PopulationArea / km2Area / mi2Year removed[40]See also
 Alaska
Granted statehoodU.S. state United States683,4781,700,130656,4241959Legal status of Alaska
 Netherlands Antilles
Granted more autonomyConstituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands:
 Aruba
 Curaçao
 Sint Maarten

Special municipalities of the Netherlands:
 Bonaire
 Sint Eustatius
 Saba
 Netherlands
225,3699603711951Politics of Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten, and the Netherlands Antilles
 Cocos (Keeling) IslandsVoted to integrate into AustraliaExternal territory of Australia Australia5961451984Shire of Cocos
 Cook IslandsGained self-ruleFree association with New ZealandNew Zealand12,271237921965Politics of the Cook Islands
 Greenland
Incorporated into Denmark as Greenland County (1953). Gained home rule as a Country within the Kingdom of Denmark (1979). Increased autonomy (2009).Autonomous country within the Kingdom of Denmark[41][42]
Denmark
57,5642,166,086836,3301954Politics of Greenland
 Guadeloupe
Became two overseas departments (full integration with the French Republic)Overseas department and region of France:
 Guadeloupe

Overseas collectivities of France:
 Saint Barthélemy
Saint Martin
 France
408,0001,6286291947Politics of Guadeloupe, Saint Barthélemy, and Saint Martin
 French Guiana
Became an overseas department (full integration with the French Republic)Overseas department and region of France
 France
209,00083,53432,2531947Politics of French Guiana
 HawaiiGranted statehoodU.S. state United States1,283,38828,31110,9311959Legal status of Hawaii
 British Hong KongRemoved from the list on request of China[26]Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (since 1 July 1997):
 Hong Kong
United Kingdom7,018,6361,0924221972Politics of Hong Kong
Portuguese Macau
Removed from the list on request of China[26]Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (since 20 December 1999):
 Macau
 Portugal
545,67428111972Politics of Macau
 Martinique
Became two overseas departments (full integration with the French Republic)Overseas department and region of France
 France
401,0001,1284361947Politics of Martinique
 New Caledonia[a]Became an overseas territory (semi-autonomous collectivity of the French Republic)Sui generis collectivity of France
 France
224,82419,0607,3591947Politics of New Caledonia
 NiueGained self-ruleFree association with New ZealandNew Zealand1,4442601001974Politics of Niue
 Northern Mariana IslandsBecame a CommonwealthUnincorporated territory of the United States with Commonwealth status United States53,883168651990Politics of the Northern Mariana Islands
 Panama Canal ZoneRemoved from the list on request of Panama[citation needed]Part of Colón and Panamáprovinces of Panama United States1947Politics of Panama
 French Polynesia[b]
Became an overseas territory (semi-autonomous collectivity of the French Republic)Overseas country of France:
 French Polynesia

Overseas collectivity of France:
 Wallis and Futuna
 France
298,2564,4411,7151947Politics of French Polynesia and Wallis and Futuna
 Puerto Rico
Became a CommonwealthUnincorporated territory of the United States with Commonwealth status United States3,958,1288,8703,4201952Political status of Puerto Rico
 Réunion
Became an overseas department (full integration with the French Republic)Overseas department and region of France
 France
793,0002,5129701947Politics of Réunion
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Became an overseas territory (semi-autonomous collectivity of the French Republic)Overseas collectivity of France
 France
7,044242931947Politics of Saint Pierre and Miquelon
  1. ^ New Caledonia was reinstated on the list in 1986 by the General Assembly Resolution No. A/RES/41/41 of the Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
  2. ^ The United Nations General Assembly voted to reinstate French Polynesia (former French Establishments in Oceania) to the list by General Assembly Resolution A/67/265 on 18 May 2013.
Joined another state
Non-self-governing territory[40]State joined[40]Current statusAdministering statePopulationArea / km2Area / mi2Year removed[40]See also
British CameroonsNorthern Cameroons joined Nigeria
Southern Cameroons joined Cameroon
Adamawa and Taraba states of Nigeria, Northwest and Southwestprovinces of Cameroon United Kingdom1961Politics of Nigeria
Politics of Cameroon
Ifni
Integrated into MoroccoSidi Ifni, Guelmim-Oued Noun, Morocco
 Spain
51,5171,5025801969Politics of Morocco
 Portuguese India
Annexed by IndiaThe Indian state of Goa and the union territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and of Daman and Diu
 Portugal
1961Annexation of Goa
French India
Integrated into IndiaPuducherryunion territory and Chandannagar of West Bengal state of India
 France
973,8294921901947Coup d'état of Yanaon, Puducherry Legislative Assembly
 Netherlands New Guinea
Integrated into Indonesia as Irian JayaPapua and West Papuaprovinces of Indonesia
 Netherlands
420,540162,3711963Act of Free Choice
North BorneoIntegrated into Malaya to form Malaysia[43]Malaysian state of Sabah and the federal territory of Labuan United Kingdom285,00076,11529,3881963Malaysia Agreement[43]
São João Batista de Ajuda
Integrated into the Republic of Dahomey (now Benin)Ouidahcommune, Atlantiquedepartment, Benin
 Portugal
1961Politics of Benin
Colony of SarawakIntegrated into Malaya to form Malaysia[43]Malaysian state of Sarawak United Kingdom546,385124,45048,0501963Malaysia Agreement[43]
British TogolandJoined British Gold Coast colonyVolta, Northern and Upper East Region of Ghana United Kingdom1957Foreign relations of Ghana
Independence
Non-self-governing territory[40]Sub-unit(Independent as)[40]Administering statePopulationArea / km2Area / mi2Year removed[40]See also
Aden Protectorate
 South Yemen
 United Kingdom285,192111,0131967Yemeni unification in 1990
French Algeria
 Algeria
 France
1962
 Portuguese Angola
Angola
 Portugal
1,246,700481,3541975Including the enclave of Cabinda
 British Leeward IslandsAntigua
 Antigua and Barbuda
 United Kingdom1981
 Bahamas The Bahamas United Kingdom13,8785,3581973
 Barbados
 Barbados
 United Kingdom4311671966
Basutoland
 Lesotho
 United Kingdom30,35512,7271966
 Bechuanaland Protectorate
 Botswana
 United Kingdom1966
 Brunei Brunei Darussalam United Kingdom5,7652,2201984
French Cameroun
 Cameroon
 France
1960Trust Territory
 Portuguese Cape Verde
 Cape Verde
 Portugal
4,0331,5571975
 Belgian Congo
Congo Léopoldville
 Belgium
16,610,000[44]2,344,858905,3551960
British Cyprus Cyprus United Kingdom9,2513,5721960
 Dutch East Indies
 Indonesia (excluding Western New Guinea)
 Netherlands
1950
East Timor
 East Timor
 Indonesia
688,71115,0075,7942002Politics of East Timor
Portuguese Timor
 Indonesia
 Portugal
15,0075,7942002Indonesian occupation of East Timor
 French Equatorial Africa
French Congo
 Republic of the Congo
 France
1960
 French Equatorial Africa
French Gabon
 Gabon
 France
1960
 French Equatorial Africa
Ubangi Shari
 Central African Republic
 France
1960
 French Equatorial Africa
French Chad
 Chad
 France
1960
Fiji Islands Fiji United Kingdom1970
Gambia Colony and Protectorate
 The Gambia
 United Kingdom10,3804,0071965
 Gilbert and Ellice Islands Kiribati United Kingdom1979
 Gilbert and Ellice Islands Tuvalu United Kingdom1978
 Gold Coast
 Ghana
 United Kingdom1957
 British Guiana Guyana United Kingdom1966
 Dutch Guiana
 Suriname
 Netherlands
475,996163,27063,0391975Politics of Suriname
 Portuguese Guinea
 Guinea-Bissau
 Portugal
36,12513,9481974
 Spanish Guinea
 Equatorial Guinea
 Spain
28,05110,8281968
 British Honduras Belize United Kingdom145,000[45]22,9668,8671981
 French Indochina
Cambodia
 France
1953
 French Indochina
 Kingdom of Laos
 France
1949
 French Indochina
Democratic Republic of Vietnam
 France
1945Vietnamese unification in 1976
 French Indochina
State of Vietnam
 France
1949Vietnamese unification in 1976
Colony of Jamaica Jamaica United Kingdom11,1004,4441962
Colony of Kenya
 Kenya
 United Kingdom1963Formed by the unification of the Colony of Kenya and the Kenya Protectorate
 British Leeward Islands Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla
 St. Kitts and Nevis
 United Kingdom1983Separated from Anguilla, which is still a non-self-governing territory
French Madagascar
 Comoros
 France
1975
French Madagascar
 Madagascar
 France
1960
 Malayan Union Federation of Malaya United Kingdom132,36451,1061957Later became Malaysia
Colony of Malta
 Malta
 United Kingdom3161211964
British Mauritius
 Mauritius
 United Kingdom2,0407871968
French protectorate of Morocco
 Morocco
 France
1956
 Portuguese Mozambique
 Mozambique
 Portugal
7,300,000[46]784,955303,0731975
Trust Territory of Nauru Nauru Australia2181968
 New Hebrides Vanuatu
Anglo​-​French​Condominium
100,000[47]12,1894,7061980
British Nigeria Nigeria United Kingdom1960
 Northern Rhodesia
 Zambia
 United Kingdom3,545,200[48]752,618290,5871964
 Nyasaland
 Malawi
 United Kingdom752,618290,5871964
 Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Marshall Islands United States68,000180701990Independent states in free association with the United States
 Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Federated States of Micronesia United States111,0007022711990Independent states in free association with the United States
 Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Palau United States20,9564591771994Independent states in free association with the United States
Territory of Papua and New Guinea
 Papua New Guinea
 Australia1975
Ruanda-Urundi
 Burundi
 Belgium
1962
Ruanda-Urundi
 Rwanda
 Belgium
1962
Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe
 São Tomé and Príncipe
 Portugal
1,0013721975
 Seychelles Seychelles United Kingdom4511741976
Sierra Leone Colony and Protectorate
 Sierra Leone
 United Kingdom71,74027,6991961
Singapore Federation of Malaya United Kingdom4,608,1676932681963Singapore first became a state of Malaysia in 1963, before becoming independent in 1965.
British Solomon Islands Solomon Islands United Kingdom28,89611,1571978
 British Somaliland
State of Somaliland
 United Kingdom1960Joined the Trust Territory of Somalia within a week to form Somalia
 French Somaliland
 Djibouti
 France
200,000[49]23,2008,9581977
Trust Territory of Somaliland
 Somalia
 Italy
1960Joined the State of Somaliland to form Somalia
South West Africa
 Namibia
 South Africa
2,088,669825,418318,6961990Foreign relations of Namibia
 Southern Rhodesia Zimbabwe United Kingdom6,930,000[50]390,580150,8041980
 Swaziland
 Swaziland
 United Kingdom17,3646,7041968
Tanganyika
 Tanganyika
 United Kingdom1963Trust Territory. Later joined with the People's Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, now Tanzania
French Togoland Togo
 France
1960Trust Territory
 Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago United Kingdom5,1281,9781962
French Tunisia
 Tunisia
 France
163,61063,1701956
Uganda Protectorate
 Uganda
 United Kingdom1962
 French West Africa
 French Sudan
 Ivory Coast
 France
1960
 French West Africa
 French Sudan
 Mali
 France
1960
 French West Africa
 French Sudan
 Mauritania
 France
1960
 French West Africa
French Guinea
 Guinea
 France
1958
 French West Africa
French Dahomey
 Dahomey
 France
1960
 French West Africa
Colony of Niger
 Niger
 France
1960
 French West Africa
Colony of Niger
 Senegal
 France
1960
 French West Africa
Colony of Niger
 Upper Volta
 France
1960
Western Samoa Trust Territory Western Samoa New Zealand1962
 British Windward Islands Dominica United Kingdom1978
 British Windward Islands Grenada United Kingdom1974
 British Windward Islands St. Lucia United Kingdom1979
 British Windward Islands
 St. Vincent and the Grenadines
 United Kingdom1979
 Sultanate of Zanzibar
 Kenya
 United Kingdom1963Protectorate of Kenya. Formed by the unification of the Colony of Kenya and the Kenya Protectorate.Under Zanzibari sovereignty, administered by the UK[51]
 Zanzibar
People's Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba
 United Kingdom2,6431,0201963Later joined with the Republic of Tanganyika to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, now Tanzania
See also
References
  1. ^ "The Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples". United Nations Treaty Collection. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  2. ^ Simon, Sven (5 June 2014), Walter, Christian; von Ungern-Sternberg, Antje; Abushov, Kavus (eds.), "Western Sahara", Self-Determination and Secession in International Law, Oxford University Press, p. 259, doi​:​10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198702375.003.0013​, ISBN 978-0-19-870237-5, retrieved 5 August 2020
  3. ^ Nations, United. "International Week of Non-Self-Governing Territories". United Nations. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  4. ^ Gonschor, Lorenz (2013). "Mai te hau Roma ra te huru: The Illusion of "Autonomy" and the Ongoing Struggle for Decolonization in French Polynesia". The Contemporary Pacific. 25 (2): 260. ISSN 1043-898X. JSTOR 23725651.
  5. ^ "French Polynesia Battles for Independence". thediplomat.com. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  6. ^ i.e. extenuating circumstance, historical control, longstanding/stagnated issue, etc.
  7. ^ United Nations General Assembly Resolution 64(I)
  8. ^ United Nations General Assembly Resolution 66(I)
  9. ^ "UN Treaty Collection: International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights". Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
  10. ^ UN Treaty Collection: International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
  11. ^ "Q&A: Gibraltar's referendum". BBC News. 8 November 2002. Retrieved 25 November 2011.
  12. ^ "Resolution 2353" (PDF). UN. 19 December 1967. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 August 2013. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
  13. ^ Self-Determination of Peoples: A Legal Reappraisal, Antonio Cassese, Cambridge University Press, 1995, page 209
  14. ^ Election 2011, Radio New Zealand
  15. ^ Field, Michael (2 June 2004). "Tokelau wonders, 'What have we done wrong?'". Pacific Islands Report. AFP. Archived from the original on 21 December 2007. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  16. ^ "Congratulations Tokelau", National Party press release, 26 October 2007
  17. ^ "Colonialism has no place in today's world," says Secretary General in message to Decolonization Seminar in Indonesia". United Nations press release, 14 May 2008
  18. ^ "Tokelau decolonisation high on agenda". The New Zealand Herald. NZPA. 17 May 2008. Retrieved 25 November 2011.
  19. ^ "Falklands referendum: Voters choose to remain UK territory", BBC News, 12 March 2013
  20. ^ "Brexit will hit Britain's overseas territories hard – why is no one talking about it?". The Independent. 3 October 2017. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
  21. ^ "New Year begins with a new Constitution for the Falklands". MercoPress. 1 January 2009. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
  22. ^ Parliament.uk, UK House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee 2007–2008 Report, pg 16
  23. ^ Telegraph.co.uk, David Blair, Gibraltar makes plans for self-government, Daily Telegraph, 28 February 2002 "GIBRALTAR'S parliament approved an ambitious package of constitutional reform yesterday designed to give the colony almost complete self-government."
  24. ^ "Gibraltar". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 18 August 2009. Gibraltar is an overseas territory of the United Kingdom and is self-governing in all matters but defence.
  25. ^ "Laws of Gibraltar – On-line Service". Gibraltarlaws.gov.gi. Retrieved 13 May 2011.
  26. ^ a b c Carroll, John M. (2007). A Concise History of Hong Kong. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. p. 176.
  27. ^ "Tahiti assembly votes against UN decolonisation bid", Radio New Zealand International, 17 May 2013
  28. ^ "L'ONU adopte une résolution sur la décolonisation de la Polynésie française". Le Monde, 17 May 2013
  29. ^ General Assembly Resolution 1514 (XV)Archived 24 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine adopted by United Nations General Assembly
  30. ^ General Assembly Resolution 1541 (XV) adopted by United Nations General Assembly on the reports of the Sixth Committee
  31. ^ General Assembly Resolution 1654 (XVI)Archived 12 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine adopted by United Nations General Assembly
  32. ^ United Nations Trusteeship Agreements or were listed by the General Assembly as Non-Self-Governing
  33. ^ "Vanuatu will continue West Papua initiative", One PNG, 6 September 2018
  34. ^ "Pacific Forum backs ‘constructive engagement’ over West Papua", Asia Pacific Report, 7 September 2018
  35. ^ "Non-Self-Governing Territories". United Nations.
  36. ^ General Assembly adds French Polynesia to UN decolonization list
  37. ^ CIA's The World Factbook entry for Western Sahara: "Western Sahara is a disputed territory on the northwest coast of Africa bordered by Morocco, Mauritania, and Algeria. After Spain withdrew from its former colony of Spanish Sahara in 1976, Morocco annexed the northern two-thirds of Western Sahara and claimed the rest of the territory in 1979, following Mauritania's withdrawal"
  38. ^ United States Virgin Islands, 11 October 1993: Status Direct Democracy (in German)
  39. ^ United Nations General Assembly Resolution 66 (I)
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Trust and Non-Self-Governing Territories (1945–2002) listed by General Assembly of the United Nations
  41. ^ Infobox image in "History" section of "About Greenland", English version of the official country government website. Accessed online 2008-09-28, Sunday.
  42. ^​http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/paperchase/2009/06/greenland-takes-over-courts-police.php
  43. ^ a b c d See: The UK Statute Law Database: the Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom Malaysia Act 1963
  44. ^ 1960 estimate
  45. ^ 1980 estimate, see: British Honduras#Demographics
  46. ^ 1967 estimate
  47. ^ 1976 estimate
  48. ^ 1963 estimate, see: Northern Rhodesia#Demographics
  49. ^ 1963 estimate
  50. ^ 1978 estimate
  51. ^ "Agreement between the government of the United Kingdom, His Highness the Sultan of Zanzibar, the government of Kenya and the government of Zanzibar", London, 8 October 1963
External links
Last edited on 15 June 2021, at 06:09
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted.
Privacy policy
Terms of Use
Desktop
HomeRandomNearbyLog inSettingsDonateAbout WikipediaDisclaimers
LanguageWatchEdit