"Ṣaʿīd" redirects here. It is not to be confused with Saʿīd
: صعيد مصر
, shortened to الصعيد
, Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [es.sˤe.ˈʕiːd]
, locally: [es.sˤɑ.ˈʕiːd]; Coptic
: ⲙⲁⲣⲏⲥ) is the southern portion of Egypt
and is composed of the lands on both sides of the Nile
that extend downriver
and Lower Egypt
in the north.
In ancient Egypt, Upper Egypt was known as tꜣ šmꜣw
literally "the Land of Reeds" or "the Sedgeland
It is believed to have been united by the rulers of the supposed Thinite Confederacy
who absorbed their rival city states during Naqada III
and its unification with Lower Egypt
ushered in the Early Dynastic period
Both Upper and Lower Egypt became imbedded within the symbolism of the sovereignty in Ancient Egypt such as the Pschent
Upper Egypt remained as a historical distinction even after the classical period.
, the White Crown of Upper Egypt
By approximately 3600 BC, Neolithic Egyptian societies along the Nile
had based their culture on the raising of crops and the domestication of animals.
Shortly after 3600 BC, Egyptian society began to grow and increase in complexity.
A new and distinctive pottery, which was related to the Levantine ceramics
, appeared during this time. Extensive use of copper became common during this time.
process of sun-drying adobe
and architectural principles—including the use of the arch and recessed walls for decorative effect—became popular during this time.
Concurrent with these cultural advances, a process of unification of the societies and towns of the upper Nile River, or Upper Egypt, occurred. At the same time the societies of the Nile Delta
, or Lower Egypt
, also underwent a unification process.
Warfare between Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt occurred often.
During his reign in Upper Egypt, King Narmer
defeated his enemies on the delta and united both of the kingdoms of Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt under his single rule,
which endured throughout Dynastic Egypt.
For most of Egypt's ancient history, Thebes
was the administrative center of Upper Egypt. Upper Egypt was represented by the tall White Crown Hedjet
, and its symbols were the flowering lotus and the sedge. Its patron deity, Nekhbet, was depicted by the vulture. After unification of the two kingdoms, the patron deities of both Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt were represented together as the Two Ladies
, to protect all of the ancient Egyptians, just as the two crowns became united throughout the dynasties that followed.
After its devastation by the Assyrians, the importance of Egypt declined. Under the Ptolemies, Ptolemais Hermiou
took over the role of the capital city of Upper Egypt.
In the eleventh century, large numbers of pastoralists
, known as Hilalians, fled Upper Egypt and moved westward into Libya
and as far as Tunis
It is believed that degraded grazing conditions in Upper Egypt, associated with the beginning of the Medieval Warm Period
, were the root cause of the migration.
List of rulers of prehistoric Upper Egypt
The following list may not be complete (there are many more of uncertain existence):
List of nomes
Map of Ancient Egypt with its historical nomes, "Upper Egypt" is in the lower portion of the map
Edel, Elmar (1961) Zu den Inschriften auf den Jahreszeitenreliefs der "Weltkammer" aus dem Sonnenheiligtum des Niuserre
Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen, OCLC 309958651
, in German.
The title was first used by Prince Farouk
, the son and heir of King Fouad I
. Prince Farouk was officially named Prince of the Sa'id on 12 December 1933.
- ^ Ermann & Grapow, op.cit. Wb 5, 227.4-14
- ^ Ermann & Grapow (1982), Wb 4, 477.9-11
- ^ Brink, Edwin C. M. van den (1992). The Nile Delta in Transition: 4th.-3rd. Millennium B.C. : Proceedings of the Seminar Held in Cairo, 21.-24. October 1990, at the Netherlands Institute of Archaeology and Arabic Studies. E.C.M. van den Brink. ISBN 978-965-221-015-9.
- ^ Griffith, Francis Llewellyn, A Collection of Hieroglyphs: A Contribution to the History of Egyptian Writing, the Egypt Exploration Fund 1898, p.56
- ^ See list of nomes. Maten (Knife land) is the northernmost nome in Upper Egypt on the right bank, while Atef-Pehu (Northern Sycamore land) is the northernmost on the left bank. Brugsch, Heinrich Karl (2015). A History of Egypt under the Pharaohs. 1. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 487., originally published in 1876 in German.
- ^ Bard & Shubert (1999), p. 371
- ^ David (1975), p. 149
- ^ Roebuck (1966), p. 51
- ^ a b c d e Roebuck (1966), pp. 52–53
- ^ Roebuck (1966), p. 53
- ^ Chauveau (2000), p. 68
- ^ Ballais (2000), p. 133
- ^ Ballais (2000), p. 134
- ^ Brice (1981), p. 299
- ^ a b Grajetzki (2006), pp. 109–111
- Ballais, Jean-Louis (2000). "Conquests and land degradation in the eastern Maghreb". In Graeme Barker; David Gilbertson (eds.). Sahara and Sahel. The Archaeology of Drylands: Living at the Margin. 1, Part III. London: Routledge. pp. 125–136. ISBN 978-0-415-23001-8.
- Bard, Katheryn A.; Shubert, Steven Blake (1999). Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-18589-0.
- Brice, William Charles (1981). An Historical Atlas of Islam. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 90-04-06116-9. OCLC 9194288.
- Chauveau, Michel (2000). Egypt in the Age of Cleopatra: History and Society Under the Ptolemies. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-3597-8.
- David, Ann Rosalie (1975). The Egyptian Kingdoms. London: Elsevier Phaidon. OCLC 2122106.
- Ermann, Johann Peter Adolf; Grapow, Hermann (1982). Wörterbuch der Ägyptischen Sprache [Dictionary of the Egyptian Language] (in German). Berlin: Akademie. ISBN 3-05-002263-9.
- Grajetzki, Wolfram (2006). The Middle Kingdom of ancient Egypt: History, Archaeology and Society. London: Duckworth Egyptology. ISBN 978-0-7156-3435-6.
- Rice, Michael (1999). Who's Who in Ancient Egypt. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-15449-9.
- Roebuck, Carl (1966). The World of Ancient Times. New York, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons Publishing.
- Shaw, Ian (2000). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280458-7.
- Wilkinson, Toby A. H. (1999). Early Dynastic Egypt. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-18633-1.
Last edited on 2 April 2021, at 23:03
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