or Uighur language
, Уйғур тили, Uyghur tili, Uyƣur tili
, IPA: [ujɣur tili]
, Уйғурчә, Uyghurche, Uyƣurqə
, IPA: [ujɣurˈtʃɛ]
: Uyğurçä; formerly known as Eastern Turki
), is a Turkic language
, written in a Uyghur Perso-Arabic script
, with 10 to 15 million speakers,
spoken primarily by the Uyghur people
in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
of Western China
. Significant communities of Uyghur speakers are located in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan and various other countries have Uyghur-speaking expatriate communities. Uyghur is an official language
of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and is widely used in both social and official spheres, as well as in print, television and radio and is used as a common language
by other ethnic minorities in Xinjiang
Say "Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia" in Uyghur
The modified Arabic-derived writing system is the most common and the only standard in China,
although other writing systems are used for auxiliary and historical purposes. Unlike most Arabic-derived scripts, the Uyghur Arabic alphabet has mandatory marking of all vowels due to modifications to the original Perso-Arabic script made in the 20th century. Two Latin and one Cyrillic alphabet are also used, though to a much lesser extent. The Latin alphabets have 32 characters, while Arabic has 28. Arabic alphabets are used in Persian
with the addition of four more characters. Hence, the Persian alphabet has 32 characters.
Robert Barkley Shaw
wrote, "In the Turkish of Káshghar and Yarkand (which some European linguists have called Uïghur, a name unknown to the inhabitants of those towns, who know their tongue simply as Túrki), ... This would seem in many case to be a misnomer as applied to the modem language of Kashghar". Sven Hedin
wrote, "In these cases it would be particularly inappropriate to normalize to the East Turkish literary language, because by so doing one would obliterate traces of national elements which have no immediate connection with the Kaschgar Turks, but on the contrary are possibly derived from the ancient Uigurs".
Probably around 1077,
a scholar of the Turkic languages, Mahmud al-Kashgari
in modern-day Xinjiang
, published a Turkic language dictionary and description of the geographic distribution of many Turkic languages, Dīwān ul-Lughat al-Turk
(English: Compendium of the Turkic Dialects
; Uyghur: تۈركى تىللار دىۋانى
, Türki Tillar Diwani
). The book, described by scholars as an "extraordinary work,"
documents the rich literary tradition of Turkic languages; it contains folk tales (including descriptions of the functions of shamans
and didactic poetry (propounding "moral standards and good behaviour"), besides poems and poetry cycles on topics such as hunting and love
and numerous other language materials.
Other Kara-Khanid writers wrote works in the Turki Karluk Khaqani language. Yusuf Khass Hajib
wrote the Kutadgu Bilig
. Ahmad bin Mahmud Yukenaki (Ahmed bin Mahmud Yükneki) (Ahmet ibn Mahmut Yükneki) (Yazan Edib Ahmed b. Mahmud Yükneki) (w:tr:Edip Ahmet Yükneki
) wrote the Hibat al-ḥaqāyiq (هبة الحقايق) (Hibet-ül hakayik) (Hibet ül-hakayık) (Hibbetü'l-Hakaik) (Atebetüʼl-hakayik) (w:tr:Atabetü'l-Hakayık
Modern Uyghur religious literature includes the Taẕkirah
, biographies of Islamic religious figures and saints. The Taẕkirah is a genre of literature written about Sufi Muslim saints in Altishahr
. Written sometime in the period between 1700 and 1849, the Chagatai language (modern Uyghur) Taẕkirah of the Four Sacrificed Imams
provides an account of the Muslim Karakhanid war against the Khotanese Buddhists, containing a story about Imams, from Mada'in city (possibly in modern-day Iraq) came 4 Imams who travelled to help the Islamic conquest of Khotan, Yarkand and Kashgar by Yusuf Qadir Khan, the Qarakhanid leader.
The shrines of Sufi Saints are revered in Altishahr
as one of Islam's essential components and the tazkirah literature reinforced the sacredness of the shrines. Anyone who does not believe in the stories of the saints is guaranteed hellfire by the tazkirahs. It is written, "And those who doubt Their Holinesses the Imams will leave this world without faith and on Judgement Day their faces will be black ..." in the Tazkirah of the Four Sacrificed Imams
Shaw translated extracts from the Tazkiratu'l-Bughra on the Muslim Turki war against the "infidel" Khotan.
The Turki-language Tadhkirah i Khwajagan
was written by M. Sadiq Kashghari.
Historical works like the Tārīkh-i amniyya
and Tārīkh-i ḥamīdi
were written by Musa Sayrami
Shaw and Christian missionaries such as George W. Hunter
, Johannes Avetaranian
, Magnus Bäcklund
, Nils Fredrik Höijer
, Father Hendricks
, Josef Mässrur
, Anna Mässrur
, Albert Andersson
, Gustaf Ahlbert
, Stina Mårtensson
, John Törnquist
, Gösta Raquette
, Oskar Hermannson, the convert to Christianity Nur Luke
, Harold Whitaker and Turkologist Gunnar Jarring
studied the Uyghur language and wrote works on it, calling it "Eastern Turki". Shaw wrote in his book that it was Europeans at his time who called the language "Uighur" while the native inhabitants of Yarkand and Kashgar did not call it by that name and but called it "Turki" and Shaw wrote that the name "Uighur" was a misnomer when referring to Kashgar's language. A Turkish convert to Christianity, Johannes Avetaranian
went to China to spread Christianity to the Uyghurs. Yaqup Istipan
and Alimujiang Yimiti
are other Uyghurs who converted to Christianity.
The historical term "Uyghur" was appropriated for the language that had been known as Eastern Turki by government officials in the Soviet Union in 1922 and in Xinjiang in 1934. Sergey Malov
was behind the idea of renaming Turki to Uyghurs.
The use of the term Uyghur has led to anachronisms when describing the history of the people.
In one of his books the term Uyghur was deliberately not used by James Millward.
The name Khāqāniyya was given to the Qarluks
who inhabited Kāshghar and Bālāsāghūn, the inhabitants were not Uighur, but their language has been retroactively labelled as Uighur by scholars.
The Qarakhanids called their own language the "Turk" or "Kashgar" language and did not use Uighur to describe their own language, Uighur was used to describe the language of non-Muslims but Chinese scholars have anachronistically called a Qarakhanid work written by Kashgari as "Uighur".
The name "Altishahri-Jungharian Uyghur
" was used by the Soviet educated Uyghur Qadir Haji in 1927.
Early linguistic scholarly studies of Uyghur include Julius Klaproth
's 1812 Dissertation on language and script of the Uighurs
(Abhandlung über die Sprache und Schrift der Uiguren
) which was disputed by Isaak Jakob Schmidt
. In this period, Klaproth correctly asserted that Uyghur was a Turkic language, while Schmidt believed that Uyghur should be classified with Tangut languages
It is widely accepted that Uyghur has three main dialects, all based on their geographical distribution. Each of these main dialects have a number of sub-dialects which all are mutually intelligible
to some extent.
- Central: Spoken in an area stretching from Kumul towards south to Yarkand
- Southern: Spoken in an area stretching from Guma towards east to Qarkilik
- Eastern: Spoken in an area stretching from Qarkilik towards north to Qongköl [zh]. The Lopnor Uighur dialect (also known as Lopluk) that falls under the Eastern dialect of the Uighur language is classified as a critically endangered language. It is spoken by less than 0.5% of the overall Uighur speakers population but has tremendous values in comparative research.
The Central dialects are spoken by 90% of the Uyghur-speaking population, while the two other branches of dialects only are spoken by a relatively small minority.
is common in the northern parts of where Uyghur is spoken, but not in the south.
Uyghur is spoken by about 10 million people in total.
In addition to being spoken primarily in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
of Western China
, mainly by the Uyghur people
, Uyghur was also spoken by some 300,000 people in Kazakhstan
in 1993, some 90,000 in Kyrgyzstan
in 1998, 3,000 in Afghanistan
and 1,000 in Mongolia
, both in 1982.
Smaller communities also exist in Albania
, Saudi Arabia
, United Kingdom
and the United States
(New York City
are one of the 56 recognized ethnic groups in China
and Uyghur is an official language of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
, along with Standard Chinese
. As a result, Uyghur can be heard in most social domains in Xinjiang and also in schools, government and courts.
Of the other ethnic minorities in Xinjiang, those populous enough to have their own autonomous prefectures
, such as the Kazakhs
and the Kyrgyz
, have access to schools and government services in their native language. Smaller minorities, however, do not have a choice and must attend Uyghur-medium schools.
These include the Xibe
In some instances Uyghur parents decide to enroll their children at Mandarin schools over Uyghur schools because of the better quality education offered, leading to many Uyghur children having more trouble learning their native language over Mandarin.
However, according to Radio Free Asia
, Xinjiang's Hotan
government have issued a directive completely banning the use of the Uyghur language at all education levels up to and including secondary school in 2017.
According to reports in 2018, Uyghur script was erased from street signs and wall murals, as Chinese government has launched a campaign to force Uyghur people to learn Mandarin. Any interest in Uyghur culture or language could lead to detention.
Recent news reports have also documented the existence of mandatory boarding schools where children are separated from their parents; children are punished for speaking Uyghur, making the language at a very high risk of extinction.
According to report of Financial Times
in 2019, the only Uighur-language book available in Xinjiang's state-run Xinhua Bookstores was Xi Jinping's The Governance of China
. In Kashgar, the traditional capital of Uighur culture, there were five independent Uighur-language bookstores, only selling novels, cookery or self-help books.
In addition, the Chinese government have implemented bi-lingual education in most regions of Xinjiang.
The bi-lingual education system teaches Xinjiang's students all STEM classes using only Mandarin Chinese, or a combination of Uighur and Chinese. However, research have shown that due to differences in the order of words and grammar between the Uighur and the Chinese language, many students face obstacles in learning courses such as Mathematics under the bi-lingual education system.
The poet Muyesser Abdul'ehed
teaches the language to diaspora children online as well as publishing a magazine written by children for children in Uyghur.
The vowels of the Uyghur language are, in their alphabetical order (in the Latin script), ⟨a⟩, ⟨e⟩, ⟨ë⟩, ⟨i⟩, ⟨o⟩, ⟨ö⟩, ⟨u⟩, ⟨ü⟩. There are no diphthongs. Hiatus
occurs in some loanwords.
Uyghur vowels are distinguished on the bases of height, backness and roundness. It has been argued, within a lexical phonology framework, that /e
/ has a back counterpart /ɤ
/, and modern Uyghur lacks a clear differentiation between /i
/ and /ɯ
Uyghur vowels are by default short
, but long vowels also exist because of historical vowel assimilation
(above) and through loanwords. Underlyingly long vowels would resist vowel reduction and devoicing
, introduce non-final stress, and be analyzed as |Vj| or |Vr| before a few suffixes. However, the conditions in which they are actually pronounced as distinct from their short counterparts have not been fully researched.
The high vowels undergo some tensing when they occur adjacent to alveolars
(s, z, r, l), palatals
(t̪, d̪, n̪), and post-alveolar affricates
(t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ), e.g. chiraq
[t͡ʃʰˈiraq] 'lamp', jenubiy
[d͡ʒɛnʊˈbiː] 'southern', yüz
[jyz] 'face; hundred', suda
[suːˈda] 'in/at (the) water'.
] and [ɯ
] undergo apicalisation after alveodental continuants in unstressed syllables, e.g. siler
[sɪ̯læː(r)] 'you (plural)', ziyan
[zɪ̯ˈjɑːn] 'harm'. They are medialised after /χ
/ or before /l
/, e.g. til
[tʰɨl] 'tongue', xizmet
[χɨzˈmɛt] 'work; job; service'. After velars, uvulars and /f
/ they are realised as [e
], e.g. giram
[ɡeˈrʌm] 'gram', xelqi
[χɛlˈqʰe] 'his [etc.] nation', Finn
[fen] 'Finn'. Between two syllables that contain a rounded back vowel each, they are realised as back, e.g. qolimu
[qʰɔˈlɯmʊ] 'also his [etc.] arm'.
Any vowel undergoes laxing and backing when it occurs in uvular
(/q/, /ʁ/, /χ/) and laryngeal
(glottal) (/ɦ/, /ʔ/) environments, e.g. qiz
[qʰɤz] 'girl', qëtiq
[qʰɤˈtɯq] 'yogurt', qeghez
[qʰæˈʁæz] 'paper', qum
[qʰʊm] 'sand', qolay
[qʰɔˈlʌɪ] 'convenient', qan
[qʰɑn] 'blood', ëghiz
[ʔeˈʁez] 'mouth', hisab
[ɦɤˈsʌp] 'number', hës
[ɦɤs] 'hunch', hemrah
[ɦæmˈrʌh] 'partner', höl
[ɦœɫ] 'wet', hujum
[ɦuˈd͡ʒʊm] 'assault', halqa
Lowering tends to apply to the non-high vowels when a syllable-final liquid assimilates to them, e.g. kör [cʰøː] 'look!', boldi [bɔlˈdɪ] 'he [etc.] became', ders [dæːs] 'lesson', tar [tʰɑː(r)] 'narrow'.
Official Uyghur orthographies do not mark vowel length, and also do not distinguish between /ɪ/ (e.g., بىلىم
/bɪlɪm/ 'knowledge') and back /ɯ
/ (e.g., تىلىم
/tɯlɯm/ 'my language'); these two sounds are in complementary distribution
, but phonological analyses claim that they play a role in vowel harmony and are separate phonemes.
/e/ only occurs in words of non-Turkic origin and as the result of vowel raising.
Uyghur has systematic vowel reduction
(or vowel raising) as well as vowel harmony. Words usually agree in vowel backness, but compounds, loans, and some other exceptions often break vowel harmony. Suffixes surface with the rightmost [back] value in the stem, and /e, ɪ/ are transparent (as they do not contrast for backness). Uyghur also has rounding harmony.
Uyghur voiceless stops are aspirated word-initially and intervocalically.
The pairs /p, b/, /t, d/, /k, ɡ/, and /q, ʁ/ alternate, with the voiced member devoicing in syllable-final position, except in word-initial syllables. This devoicing process is usually reflected in the official orthography, but an exception has been recently made for certain Perso-Arabic loans.
Voiceless phonemes do not become voiced in standard Uyghur.
Suffixes display a slightly different type of consonant alternation. The phonemes /ɡ/ and /ʁ/ anywhere in a suffix alternate as governed by vowel harmony
, where /ɡ/ occurs with front vowels and /ʁ/ with back ones. Devoicing of a suffix-initial consonant can occur only in the cases of /d/ → [t], /ɡ/ → [k], and /ʁ/ → [q], when the preceding consonant is voiceless. Lastly, the rule that /g/ must occur with front vowels and /ʁ/ with back vowels can be broken when either [k] or [q] in suffix-initial position becomes assimilated by the other due to the preceding consonant being such.
Loan phonemes have influenced Uyghur to various degrees. /d͡ʒ/ and /χ/ were borrowed from Arabic and have been nativized, while /ʒ/ from Persian less so. /f/ only exists in very recent Russian and Chinese loans, since Perso-Arabic (and older Russian and Chinese) /f/ became Uyghur /p/. Perso-Arabic loans have also made the contrast between /k, ɡ/ and /q, ʁ/ phonemic, as they occur as allophones in native words, the former set near front vowels and the latter near a back vowels. Some speakers of Uyghur distinguish /v/ from /w/ in Russian loans, but this is not represented in most orthographies. Other phonemes occur natively only in limited contexts, i.e. /h/ only in few interjections, /d/, /ɡ/, and /ʁ/ rarely initially, and /z/ only morpheme-final. Therefore, the pairs */t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ/, */ʃ, ʒ/, and */s, z/ do not alternate.
The primary syllable structure
of Uyghur is CV(C)(C).
Uyghur syllable structure is usually CV or CVC, but CVCC can also occur in some words. When syllable-coda clusters occur, CC tends to become CVC in some speakers especially if the first consonant is not a sonorant
. In Uyghur, any consonant phoneme can occur as the syllable onset
, except for /ʔ/ which only occurs in the onset and /ŋ/, which never occurs word-initially. In general, Uyghur phonology
tends to simplify phonemic consonant
clusters by means of elision
A signboard in front of the Military Museum of Xinjiang written in Uyghur (using Arabic script) and Standard Chinese
A sign in Ghulja
, Xinjiang, written in Uyghur (using Arabic script) and Chinese (both Hanzi
The Karluk language started to be written with the Perso-Arabic script (Kona Yëziq) in the 10th century upon the conversion of the Kara-Khanids to Islam. This Perso-Arabic script (Kona Yëziq) was reformed in the 20th century with modifications to represent all Modern Uyghur sounds including short vowels and eliminate Arabic letters representing sounds not found in Modern Uyghur. Unlike many other modern Turkic languages
, Uyghur is primarily written using an Arabic alphabet
, (with 4 alphabets like che-Pe-Zhe and Ga) although a Cyrillic alphabet
and two Latin alphabets
also are in use to a much lesser extent. Unusually for an alphabet based on the Persian
, full transcription of vowels is indicated. (Among the Arabic family of alphabets, only a few, such as Kurdish
, distinguish all vowels without the use of optional diacritics
The four alphabets in use today can be seen below.
with Standard Chinese
is common in spoken Uyghur, but stigmatized in formal contexts. Xinjiang Television
and other mass media, for example, will use the rare Russian loanword aplisin
) for the word "orange", rather than the ubiquitous Mandarin loanword juze
). In a sentence, this mixing might look like:
- Mening telfonim guenji (关机; guānjī), shunga sizge duenshin (短信; duǎnxìn) ewetelmidim.
- My (cell) phone shut down, so I wasn’t able to send you a text message.
Below are some examples of common loanwords in the Uyghur language.
- ^ Uyghur at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- ^ "China". Ethnologue.
- ^ "Uyghur – definition of Uyghur by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
- ^ "Define Uighur at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
- ^ a b c d Eberhard, David M.; Simons, Garry F.; Fennig, Charles D. "Uyghur". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Dallas, Texas: Ethnologue. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
- ^ a b "Uyghur". Omniglot. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
- ^ Engesæth 2009, p. 7
- ^ Hamut, Bahargül. "The Language Choices and Script Debates among the Uyghur in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China". CiteSeerX 10.1.1.692.7380.
- ^ Arik, Kagan (2008). Austin, Peter (ed.). One Thousand Languages: Living, Endangered, and Lost (illustrated ed.). University of California Press. p. 145. ISBN 978-0520255609. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- ^ Clauson, Gerard (April 1965). "Review An Eastern Turki-English Dictionary by Gunnar Jarring". The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (1/2): 57. doi:10.1017/S0035869X00123640. JSTOR 25202808.
- ^ Coene, Frederik (2009). The Caucasus - An Introduction. Routledge Contemporary Russia and Eastern Europe Series. Routledge. p. 75. ISBN 978-1135203023. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- ^ Coene, Frederik (2009). The Caucasus - An Introduction. Routledge Contemporary Russia and Eastern Europe Series (illustrated, reprint ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 75. ISBN 978-0203870716. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- ^ Hahn 1998, pp. 83–84
- ^ a b Mehmet Fuat Köprülü; Gary Leiser; Robert Dankoff (2006). Early Mystics in Turkish Literature. Psychology Press. pp. 158–. ISBN 978-0-415-36686-1.
- ^ Robert Shaw (1878). A Sketch of the Turki Language: As Spoken in Eastern Turkistan ... pp. 2–.
- ^ Sven Anders Hedin; Erik Wilhelm Dahlgren; Axel Lagrelius; Nils Gustaf Ekholm; Karl Gustaf Olsson; Wilhelm Leche; Helge Mattias Bäckström; Harald Johansson (1905). Scientific Results of a Journey in Central Asia 1899-1902: Lop-Nor, by Sven Hedin [1905. Lithographic institute of the General staff of the Swedish army [K. Boktryckeriet, P.A. Norstedt & söner. pp. 659–.
- ^ Dankoff, Robert (March 1981), "Inner Asian Wisdom Traditions in the Pre-Mongol Period", Journal of the American Oriental Society, American Oriental Society, 101 (1): 87–95, doi:10.2307/602165, JSTOR 602165.
- ^ Brendemoen, Brett (1998), "Turkish Dialects", in Lars Johanson, Éva Csató (ed.), The Turkic languages, Taylor & Francis, pp. 236–41, ISBN 978-0-415-08200-6, retrieved 8 March 2010
- ^ a b Baldick, Julian (2000), Animal and shaman: ancient religions of Central Asia, I.B. Tauris, p. 50, ISBN 978-1-86064-431-3, retrieved 8 March 2010
- ^ Kayumov, A. (2002), "Literature of the Turkish Peoples", in C. E. Bosworth, M.S.Asimov (ed.), History of Civilizations of Central Asia, 4, Motilal Banarsidass, p. 379, ISBN 978-81-208-1596-4, retrieved 8 March 2010
- ^ تۈركى تىللار دىۋانى پۈتۈن تۈركىي خەلقلەر ئۈچۈن ئەنگۈشتەردۇر [The Compendium of Turkic Languages was for all Turkic peoples]. Radio Free Asia (in Uyghur). 11 February 2010. Archived from the original on 15 April 2013. Retrieved 15 February 2010.
- ^ Badīʻī, Nādira (1997), Farhang-i wāžahā-i fārsī dar zabān-i ūyġūrī-i Čīn, Tehran: Bunyād-i Nīšābūr, p. 57
- ^ Thum, Rian (6 August 2012). "Modular History: Identity Maintenance before Uyghur Nationalism". The Journal of Asian Studies. The Association for Asian Studies, Inc. 2012. 71 (3): 632. doi:10.1017/S0021911812000629. Retrieved 29 September 2014.
- ^ Rian Thum (13 October 2014). The Sacred Routes of Uyghur History. Harvard University Press. pp. 113–. ISBN 978-0-674-59855-3.
- ^ Robert Shaw (1878). A Sketch of the Turki Language: As Spoken in Eastern Turkistan ... pp. 102–109.
- ^ C. A. Storey (February 2002). Persian Literature: A Bio-Bibliographical Survey. Psychology Press. pp. 1026–. ISBN 978-0-947593-38-4.
- ^ The Holy Bible in Eastern (Kasiigar) Turki (1950)
- ^ Brown, Keith; Ogilvie, Sarah (2009), "Uyghur", Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World, Elsevier, p. 1143, ISBN 978-0-08-087774-7.
- ^ Hahn 1998, p. 379
- ^ Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs (1991). Journal of the Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, Volumes 12-13. King Abdulaziz University. p. 108. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- ^ J. Todd Reed; Diana Raschke (2010). The ETIM: China's Islamic Militants and the Global Terrorist Threat. ABC-CLIO. pp. 7–. ISBN 978-0-313-36540-9.
- ^ Benjamin S. Levey (2006). Education in Xinjiang, 1884-1928. Indiana University. p. 12.
- ^ Edmund Herzig (30 November 2014). The Age of the Seljuqs. I.B.Tauris. pp. 23–. ISBN 978-1-78076-947-9.
- ^ David Brophy (4 April 2016). Uyghur Nation. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-97046-5.
- ^ Walravens, Hartmut (2006), His Life and Works with Special Emphasis on Japan (PDF), Japonica Humboldtiana, 10, Harrassowitz Verlag, doi:10.18452/6752
- ^ "Did you know Lopnor Uighur is critically endangered?". Endangered Languages. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
- ^ Yakup 2005, p. 8
- ^ Hahn 1991, p. 53
- ^ a b c Dwyer 2005, pp. 12–13
- ^ Hann, Chris (2011). "Smith in Beijing, Stalin in Urumchi: Ethnicity, political economy, and violence in Xinjiang, 1759-2009". Focaal—Journal of Global and Historical Anthropology (60): 112.
- ^ Dwyer, Arienne (2005), The Xinjiang Conflict: Uyghur Identity, Language Policy, and Political Discourse (PDF), Policy Studies, 15, Washington: East-West Center, pp. 12–13, ISBN 1-932728-29-5
- ^ Su, Alice (8 December 2015). "A Muslim Minority Keeps Clashing With the 'China Dream' in the Country's Increasingly Wild West". Vice News. Vice News. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
- ^ "Uyghur language outlawed in schools of the Uyghur Autonomous Region". Language Log. 1 August 2017.
- ^ Ingram, Ruth (28 December 2018). "The Orwellian Life in Xinjiang Campuses". Bitter Winter. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
- ^ Byler, Darren (2 January 2019). "The 'Patriotism' Of Not Speaking Uyghur". SupChina. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
- ^ Sudworth, John (4 July 2019). "China separating Muslim children from families". Retrieved 5 July 2019.
- ^ Shepherd, Christian (12 September 2019). "Fear and oppression in Xinjiang: China's war on Uighur culture". Financial Times. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
- ^ Gupta, Sonika; Ramachandran, Veena (1 November 2016). "Bilingual Education in Xinjiang in the Post-2009 Period". China Report. 52 (4): 306–323. doi:10.1177/0009445516661885. S2CID 157480863.
- ^ Mamaitiim, Sagittarm (28 May 2013). "The Research on the Language Problems in Xinjiang Uyghur-Han Bilingual Teaching of Mathematics". Xinjiang Normal University.
- ^ "Google Translate supports new languages for the first time in four years, including Uyghur". The Verge. 26 February 2020.
- ^ "Google Translate adds five languages". Google Blog. 26 February 2020.
- ^ Freeman, Joshua L. "Uighur Poets on Repression and Exile". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 9 November 2020.
- ^ Hahn 1998, p. 380
- ^ Hahn 1991, p. 34
- ^ Vaux 2001
- ^ Vaux 2001, pp. 1–2
- ^ Hahn 1991, p. 89
- ^ Hahn 1991, pp. 84–86
- ^ Hahn 1991, pp. 82–83
- ^ Hahn 1991, pp. 80–84
- ^ Hahn 1998, pp. 381–382
- ^ Hahn 1991, pp. 59–84
- ^ Hahn 1991, pp. 22–26
- ^ a b Engesæth, Yakup & Dwyer 2009, pp. 1–2
- ^ Hahn 1991, pp. 589–590
- ^ Hahn 1998, pp. 394–395
- ^ a b c Thompson, Ashley Claire. Our 'messy' mother tongue: Language attitudes among urban Uyghurs and desires for 'purity' in the public sphere. Diss. University of Kansas, 2013.
- ^ Mi, Chenggang, et al. "Recurrent Neural Network Based Loanwords Identification in Uyghur." Proceedings of the 30th Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation: Oral Papers. 2016.
- Abdurehim, Esmael (2014), The Lopnor dialect of Uyghur - A descriptive analysis (PDF), Publications of the Institute for Asian and African Studies 17, Helsinki: Unigrafia, ISBN 978-951-51-0384-0
- Duval, Jean Rahman; Janbaz, Waris Abdukerim (2006), An Introduction to Latin-Script Uyghur (PDF), Salt Lake City: University of Utah, archived from the original(PDF) on 14 January 2014 ()
- Dwyer, Arienne (2001), "Uyghur", in Garry, Jane; Rubino, Carl (eds.), Facts About the World's Languages, H. W. Wilson, pp. 786–790, ISBN 978-0-8242-0970-4
- Engesæth, Tarjei; Yakup, Mahire; Dwyer, Arienne (2009), Greetings from the Teklimakan: A Handbook of Modern Uyghur, Volume 1 (PDF), Lawrence: University of Kansas Scholarworks, ISBN 978-1-936153-03-9, archived from the original (PDF) on 14 January 2014 ()
- Hahn, Reinhard F. (1991), Spoken Uyghur, London and Seattle: University of Washington Press, ISBN 978-0-295-98651-7
- Hahn, Reinhard F. (1998), "Uyghur", in Johanson, Lars; Csató, Éva Ágnes (eds.), The Turkic Languages, Routledge, pp. 379–396, ISBN 978-0-415-08200-6
- Johanson, Lars (1998), "History of Turkic", in Johanson, Lars; Csató, Éva Ágnes (eds.), The Turkic Languages, Routledge, pp. 81–125, ISBN 978-0-415-08200-6
- Vaux, Bert (2001), Disharmony and Derived Transparency in Uyghur Vowel Harmony(PDF), Cambridge: Harvard University, archived from the original (PDF) on 8 February 2006 ()
- Tömür, Hamüt (2003), Modern Uyghur Grammar (Morphology), trans. Anne Lee, Istanbul: Yıldız, ISBN 975-7981-20-6
- Yakup, Abdurishid (2005), The Turfan Dialect of Uyghur, Turcologica, 63, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 3-447-05233-3
"The Language Choices and Script Debates among the Uyghur in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China". Bahargül Hamut (Ürümqi, China)and Agnieszka Joniak-Lüthi (Berne)
. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.692.7380
Look up Uyghur
in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
- Transliteration of Minority-Language Place Names Using Hanyu Pinyin Letters (少数民族语地名汉语拼音字母音译转写法) (in Chinese)
- Uyghur Scripts Latinization Project (维吾尔文拉丁化方案)  (in Chinese)
Last edited on 14 May 2021, at 19:40
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.