Vandalic goldfoil jewellery from the 3rd or 4th century
A 16th century perception of the Vandals, illustrated in the manuscript "Théâtre de tous les peuples et nations de la terre avec leurs habits et ornemens divers, tant anciens que modernes, diligemment depeints au naturel". Painted by Lucas d'Heere
in the 2nd half of the 16th century. Preserved in the Ghent University Library
As the Vandals plundered Rome for fourteen days, renaissance
writers characterized the Vandals as exemplary barbarians
. This led to the use of the term "vandalism
" to describe any pointless destruction, particularly the "barbarian" defacing of artwork. However, some modern historians have emphasised the role of Vandals as continuators of aspects of Roman Culture, in the transitional period from Late Antiquity
to the Early Middle Ages
As the Vandals eventually came to live outside of Germania
, they were not considered Germani
by ancient Roman
authors. Neither other East Germanic
-speaking groups such as the Goths
, nor Norsemen
(early Scandinavians), were counted among the Germani
by the Romans.
Since the Vandals spoke a Germanic language and belonged to early Germanic culture
, they are classified as a Germanic people by modern scholars.
Germanic and Proto-Slavic tribes of Central Europe around 3rd century BC.
Tribes of Central Europe in the mid-1st century AD. The Vandals/Lugii
are depicted in green, in the area of modern Poland
Early classical sources
Tacitus mentioned the Vandilii
, but only in a passage explaining legends about the origins of the Germanic peoples. He names them as one of the groups sometimes thought to be one of the oldest divisions of these peoples, along with the Marsi
but does not say where they live, or which peoples are within this category. On the other hand, Tacitus and Ptolemy give information about the position of Varini, Burgundians, and Gutones in this period, and these indications suggest that the Vandals in this period lived between the Oder and Vistula rivers.
Ptolemy furthermore mentioned the Silingi
who were later counted as Vandals, as living south of the Semnones
, who were Suebians living on the Elbe, and stretching to the Oder.
The Hasdingi, who later led the invasion of Carthage, do not appear in written records until the second century and the time of the Marcomannic wars.
The Lacringi appear in 3rd century records.
The Lugii, who were also mentioned in early classical sources in the same region, are likely to have been the same people as the Vandals.
The Lugii are mentioned by Strabo
as a large group of tribes between the Vistula and the Oder. Strabo and Ptolemy do not mention the Vandals at all, only the Lugii, Tacitus mentions them in a passage about the ancestry of the Germanic peoples without saying where they lived, and Pliny the Elder in contrast mentions the Vandals but not the Lugii. Herwig Wolfram
notes that "In all likelihood the Lugians and the Vandals were one cultic community that lived in the same region of the Oder in Silesia, where it was first under Celtic
and then under Germanic domination."
and Walter Goffart
have noted that Ptolemy seems to distinguish the Silingi from the Lugii, and in the second century the Hasdings, when they appear in the Roman record, are also distinguished from the Lugii.
In archaeology, the Vandals are associated with the Przeworsk culture, but the culture probably extended over several central and eastern European peoples. Their origin, ethnicity and linguistic affiliation are heavily debated.
The bearers of the Przeworsk culture mainly practiced cremation
and occasionally inhumation.
Introduction into the Roman Empire
The Roman empire under Hadrian
(ruled 117–38), showing the location of the Vandilii
East Germanic tribes, then inhabiting the upper Vistula
In the 2nd century, two or three distinct Vandal peoples came to the attention of Roman authors, the Silingi
, the Hasdingi
, and possibly the Lacringi
, who appear together with the Hasdingi. Only the Silingi had been mentioned in early Roman works, and are associated with Silesia
These peoples appeared during the Marcomannic Wars
, which resulted in widespread destruction and the first invasion of Italy
in the Roman Empire period.
During the Marcomannic Wars (166–180) the Hasdingi
(or Astingi), led by the kings Raus and Rapt (or Rhaus and Raptus) moved south, entering Dacia
as allies of Rome.
However they eventually caused problems in Dacia and moved further south, towards the lower Danube area. Together with the Hasdingi were the Lacringi, who were possibly also Vandals.
In about 271 AD the Roman Emperor Aurelian
was obliged to protect the middle course of the Danube against Vandals. They made peace and stayed on the eastern bank of the Danube.
In 278, Zosimus
(1.67) reported that emperor Probus
defeated Vandals and Burgundians near a river (sometimes proposed to be the Lech
, and sent many of them to Britain. During this same period, the 11th panegyric
delivered in 291, reported two different conflicts outside the empire wherein Burgundians were associated with Alamanni
, and other Vandals, probably Hasdingi in the Carpathian region, were associated with Gepids
According to Jordanes
, the Hasdingi came into conflict with the Goths
around the time of Constantine the Great
. At the time, these Vandals were living in lands later inhabited by the Gepids
, where they were surrounded "on the east [by] the Goths, on the west [by] the Marcomanni
, on the north [by] the Hermanduri
and on the south [by] the Hister (Danube
)." The Vandals were attacked by the Gothic king Geberic
, and their king Visimar
The Vandals then migrated to neighbouring Pannonia
, where, after Constantine the Great
(in about 330) granted them lands on the right bank of the Danube, they lived for the next sixty years.
In the late fourth century and early fifth, the famous magister militum Stilicho
(died 408), the chief minister of the Emperor Honorius
, was described as being of Vandal descent. Vandals raided the Roman province of Raetia
in the winter of 401/402. From this, historian Peter Heather
concludes that at this time the Vandals were located in the region around the Middle and Upper Danube.
It is possible that such Middle Danubian Vandals were part of the Gothic king Radagaisus
' invasion of Italy in 405–406 AD.
While the Hasdingian Vandals were already established in the Middle Danube for centuries, it is less clear where the Silingian Vandals had been living.
In 405 the Vandals advanced from Pannonia travelling west along the Danube without much difficulty, but when they reached the Rhine, they met resistance from the Franks
, who populated and controlled Romanized regions in northern Gaul
. Twenty thousand Vandals, including Godigisel himself, died in the resulting battle
, but then with the help of the Alans
they managed to defeat the Franks, and on December 31, 405
the Vandals crossed the Rhine
, probably while it was frozen, to invade Gaul, which they devastated terribly. Under Godigisel's son Gunderic
, the Vandals plundered their way westward and southward through Aquitaine
. One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain
: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Vandals
". Encyclopædia Britannica
(11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Migrations of the Vandals from Scandinavia through Dacia, Gaul, Iberia, and into North Africa. Grey: Roman Empire.
On October 13, 409 they crossed the Pyrenees
into the Iberian peninsula
. There, the Hasdingi
received land from the Romans, as foederati
, in Asturia
(Northwest) and the Silingi
in Hispania Baetica
(South), while the Alans
got lands in Lusitania
(West) and the region around Carthago Nova
also controlled part of Gallaecia
. The Visigoths
, who invaded Iberia on the orders of the Romans before receiving lands in Septimania
(Southern France), crushed the Silingi Vandals in 417 and the Alans in 418, killing the western Alan king Attaces
The remainder of his people and the remnants of the Silingi, who were nearly wiped out, subsequently appealed to the Vandal king Gunderic
to accept the Alan crown. Later Vandal kings in North Africa styled themselves Rex Wandalorum et Alanorum
("King of the Vandals and Alans"). In 419 AD the Hasdingi Vandals were defeated
by a joint Roman-Suebi coalition. Gunderic fled to Baetica
, where he was also proclaimed king of the Silingi Vandals.
In 422 Gunderic decisively defeated a Roman-Suebi-Gothic coalition led by the Roman patrician Castinus
at the Battle of Tarraco
It is likely that many Roman and Gothic troops deserted to Gunderic following the battle.
For the next five years, according to Hydatius
, Gunderic created widespread havoc in the western Mediterranean
In 425, the Vandals pillaged the Balearic Islands
, sacking Carthago Spartaria
) and Hispalis
(Seville) in 425.
The capture of the maritime city of Carthago Spartaria enabled the Vandals to engage in widespread naval activities.
In 428 Gunderic captured Hispalis for a second time but died while laying siege to the city's church.
He was succeeded by his half-brother Genseric
, who although he was illegitimate
(his mother was a slave) had held a prominent position at the Vandal court, rising to the throne unchallenged.
In 429 The Vandals departed Spain which remained almost totally in Roman hands until 439, when the Sueves, confined to Gallaecia moved south and captured Emerita Augusta
(Mérida), the see city of Roman administration for the whole peninsula.
Genseric is often regarded by historians as the most able barbarian leader of the Migration Period. Michael Frassetto
writes that he probably contributed more to the destruction of Rome than any of his contemporaries.
Although the barbarians controlled Hispania, they still comprised a tiny minority among a much larger Hispano-Roman
population, approximately 200,000 out of 6,000,000.
Shortly after seizing the throne, Genseric was attacked from the rear by a large force of Suebi
under the command of Heremigarius
who had managed to take Lusitania
This Suebi army was defeated
and its leader Hermigarius
drowned in the Guadiana
River while trying to flee.
Kingdom in North Africa
The Vandal Kingdom at its greatest extent in the 470s
Coin of Bonifacius Comes Africae
(422–431 CE), who was defeated by the Vandals.
Legends: DOMINUS NOSTRIS / CARTAGINE.
The Vandals under Genseric (also known as Geiseric) crossed to Africa in 429.
Although numbers are unknown and some historians debate the validity of estimates, based on Procopius' assertion that the Vandals and Alans numbered 80,000 when they moved to North Africa,
Peter Heather estimates that they could have fielded an army of around 15,000–20,000.
According to Procopius, the Vandals came to Africa at the request of Bonifacius
, the military ruler of the region.
Seeking to establish himself as an independent ruler in Africa or even become Roman Emperor, Bonifacius had defeated several Roman attempts to subdue him, until he was mastered by the newly appointed Gothic count
of Africa, Sigisvult
, who captured both Hippo Regius
It is possible that Bonifacius had sought Genseric as an ally against Sigisvult, promising him a part of Africa in return.
Advancing eastwards along the coast, the Vandals were confronted on the Numidian
border in May–June 430 by Bonifacius. Negotiations broke down, and Bonifacius was soundly defeated.
Bonifacius subsequently barricaded himself inside Hippo Regius with the Vandals besieging
Inside, Saint Augustine
and his priests prayed for relief from the invaders, knowing full well that the fall of the city would spell conversion or death
for many Roman Christians.
On 28 August 430, three months into the siege, St. Augustine (who was 75 years old) died,
perhaps from starvation or stress, as the wheat fields outside the city lay dormant and unharvested. The death of Augustine shocked the Regent of the Western Roman Empire, Galla Placidia
, who feared the consequences if her realm lost its most important source of grain.
She raised a new army in Italy and convinced her nephew in Constantinople
, the Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius II
, to send an army to North Africa led by Aspar
Around July–August 431, Genseric raised the siege of Hippo Regius,
which enabled Bonifacius to retreat from Hippo Regius to Carthage
, where he was joined by Aspar's army. Some time in the summer of 432, Genseric soundly defeated the joint forces of both Bonifacius and Aspar, which enabled him to seize Hippo Regius unopposed.
Genseric and Aspar subsequently negotiated a peace treaty of some sorts.
Upon seizing Hippo Regius, Genseric made it the first capital of the Vandal kingdom.
The Romans and the Vandals concluded a treaty in 435 giving the Vandals control of the Mauretania and the western half of Numidia. Genseric chose to break the treaty in 439 when he invaded the province of Africa Proconsularis
Carthage on October 19.
The city was captured without a fight; the Vandals entered the city while most of the inhabitants were attending the races at the hippodrome. Genseric made it his capital, and styled himself the King of the Vandals and Alans
, to denote the inclusion of the Alans of northern Africa into his alliance.
His forces occupied Sardinia
and the Balearic Islands
, he built his kingdom into a powerful state. His siege of Palermo in 440 was a failure as was the second attempt to invade Sicily near Agrigento in 442 (the Vandals occupied the island from 468–476 when it was ceded to Odovacer).
Historian Cameron suggests that the new Vandal rule may not have been unwelcomed by the population of North Africa as the great landowners were generally unpopular.
The impression given by ancient sources such as Victor of Vita
, and Fulgentius of Ruspe
was that the Vandal take-over of Carthage and North Africa led to widespread destruction. However, recent archaeological investigations have challenged this assertion. Although Carthage's Odeon was destroyed, the street pattern remained the same and some public buildings were renovated. The political centre of Carthage was the Byrsa Hill. New industrial centres emerged within towns during this period.
Historian Andy Merrills uses the large amounts of African Red Slip
ware discovered across the Mediterranean dating from the Vandal period of North Africa to challenge the assumption that the Vandal rule of North Africa was a time of economic instability.
When the Vandals raided Sicily in 440, the Western Roman Empire was too preoccupied with war with Gaul to react. Theodosius II, emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, dispatched an expedition to deal with the Vandals in 441; however, it only progressed as far as Sicily. The Western Empire under Valentinian III
secured peace with the Vandals in 442.
Under the treaty the Vandals gained Byzacena
, and the eastern half of Numidia, and were confirmed in control of Proconsular Africa
as well as the Vandal Kingdom as the first barbarian
state officially recognized as an independent kingdom in former Roman territory instead of foederati
The Empire retained western Numidia and the two Mauretanian provinces until 455.
Sack of Rome
During the next thirty-five years, with a large fleet, Genseric looted the coasts of the Eastern and Western Empires. Vandal activity in the Mediterranean
was so substantial that the sea's name in Old English
(i. e. Sea of the Vandals).
After Attila the Hun
's death, however, the Romans could afford to turn their attention back to the Vandals, who were in control of some of the richest lands of their former empire.
In an effort to bring the Vandals into the fold of the Empire, Valentinian III
offered his daughter's hand in marriage to Genseric's son. Before this treaty could be carried out, however, politics again played a crucial part in the blunders of Rome. Petronius Maximus
killed Valentinian III
and claimed the Western throne. Diplomacy between the two factions broke down, and in 455 with a letter from the Empress Licinia Eudoxia
, begging Genseric's son to rescue her, the Vandals took Rome, along with the Empress and her daughters Eudocia
The chronicler Prosper of Aquitaine
offers the only fifth-century report that, on 2 June 455, Pope Leo the Great
received Genseric and implored him to abstain from murder and destruction by fire, and to be satisfied with pillage. Whether the pope's influence saved Rome is, however, questioned. The Vandals departed with countless valuables. Eudoxia and her daughter Eudocia were taken to North Africa.
In 456 a Vandal fleet of 60 ships threatening both Gaul and Italy was ambushed and defeated at Agrigentum
by the Western Roman general Ricimer
In 457 a mixed Vandal-Berber army returning with loot from a raid in Campania
were soundly defeated
in a surprise attack by Western Emperor Majorian at the mouth of the Garigliano
As a result of the Vandal sack of Rome and piracy in the Mediterranean
, it became important to the Roman Empire to destroy the Vandal kingdom. In 460, Majorian
launched an expedition against the Vandals, but was defeated at the Battle of Cartagena
. In 468 the Western and Eastern Roman empires launched an enormous expedition against the Vandals under the command of Basiliscus
, which reportedly was composed of 100,000 soldiers and 1,000 ships. The Vandals defeated the invaders at the Battle of Cap Bon
, capturing the Western fleet, and destroying the Eastern through the use of fire ships
Following up the attack, the Vandals tried to invade the Peloponnese
, but were driven back by the Maniots
at Kenipolis with heavy losses.
In retaliation, the Vandals took 500 hostages at Zakynthos
, hacked them to pieces and threw the pieces overboard on the way to Carthage.
In 469 the Vandals gained control of Sicily but were forced by Odoacer to relinquish it in 447 except for the western port of Lilybaeum (lost in 491 after a failed attempt on their part to re-take the island).
In the 470s, the Romans abandoned their policy of war against the Vandals. The Western general Ricimer
reached a treaty with them,
and in 476 Genseric was able to conclude a "perpetual peace" with Constantinople. Relations between the two states assumed a veneer of normality.
From 477 onwards, the Vandals produced their own coinage, restricted to bronze and silver low-denomination coins. The high-denomination imperial money was retained, demonstrating in the words of Merrills "reluctance to usurp the imperial prerogative".
Although the Vandals had fended off attacks from the Romans and established hegemony over the islands of the western Mediterranean, they were less successful in their conflict with the Berbers
. Situated south of the Vandal kingdom, the Berbers inflicted two major defeats on the Vandals in the period 496–530.
Domestic religious tensions
of the reign of Hilderic
. Legends: D[OMINUS] N[OSTRIS] HILDIRIX REX / KART[A]G[INE] FELIX.
Differences between the Arian
Vandals and their Trinitarian
subjects (including both Catholics and Donatists
) were a constant source of tension in their African state. Catholic bishops were exiled or killed by Genseric and laymen were excluded from office and frequently suffered confiscation of their property.
He protected his Catholic subjects when his relations with Rome and Constantinople were friendly, as during the years 454–57, when the Catholic community at Carthage, being without a head, elected Deogratias bishop. The same was also the case during the years 476–477 when Bishop Victor of Cartenna
sent him, during a period of peace, a sharp refutation of Arianism and suffered no punishment.
Huneric, Genseric's successor, issued edicts against Catholics in 483 and 484 in an effort to marginalise them and make Arianism the primary religion in North Africa.
Generally most Vandal kings, except Hilderic
, persecuted Trinitarian Christians to a greater or lesser extent, banning conversion for Vandals, exiling bishops and generally making life difficult for Trinitarians.
According to the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia
: "Genseric, one of the most powerful personalities of the "era of the Migrations", died on 25 January 477, at the great age of around 88 years. According to the law of succession which he had promulgated, the oldest male member of the royal house was to succeed. Thus he was succeeded by his son Huneric
(477–484), who at first tolerated Catholics, owing to his fear of Constantinople, but after 482 began to persecute Manichaeans
(484–496), his cousin and successor, sought internal peace with the Catholics and ceased persecution once more. Externally, the Vandal power had been declining since Genseric's death, and Gunthamund lost early in his reign all but a small wedge of western Sicily to the Ostrogoths
which was lost in 491 and had to withstand increasing pressure from the autochthonous Moors
According to the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia
: "While Thrasamund
(496–523), owing to his religious fanaticism, was hostile to Catholics, he contented himself with bloodless persecutions".
(523–530) was the Vandal king most tolerant towards the Catholic Church. He granted it religious freedom; consequently Catholic synods were once more held in North Africa. However, he had little interest in war, and left it to a family member, Hoamer
. When Hoamer suffered a defeat against the Moors
, the Arian
faction within the royal family led a revolt, raising the banner of national Arianism, and his cousin Gelimer
(530–533) became king. Hilderic, Hoamer and their relatives were thrown into prison.
Emperor Justinian I
declared war, with the stated intention of restoring Hilderic to the Vandal throne. The deposed Hilderic was murdered in 533 on Gelimer's orders.
While an expedition was en route, a large part of the Vandal army and navy was led by Tzazo
, Gelimer's brother, to Sardinia to deal with a rebellion. As a result, the armies of the Byzantine Empire commanded by Belisarius
were able to land unopposed 10 miles (16 km) from Carthage. Gelimer quickly assembled an army,
and met Belisarius at the Battle of Ad Decimum
; the Vandals were winning the battle until Gelimer's brother Ammatas
and nephew Gibamund fell in battle. Gelimer then lost heart and fled. Belisarius quickly took Carthage while the surviving Vandals fought on.
On December 15, 533, Gelimer and Belisarius clashed again at the Battle of Tricamarum
, some 20 miles (32 km) from Carthage. Again, the Vandals fought well but broke, this time when Gelimer's brother Tzazo
fell in battle. Belisarius quickly advanced to Hippo
, second city of the Vandal Kingdom, and in 534 Gelimer surrendered to the Byzantine conqueror, ending the Kingdom of the Vandals.
North Africa, comprising north Tunisia and eastern Algeria in the Vandal period, became a Roman province again, from which the Vandals were expelled
. Many Vandals went to Saldae
(today called Béjaïa
in north Algeria) where they integrated themselves with the Berbers. Many others were put into imperial service or fled to the two Gothic kingdoms (Ostrogothic Kingdom
and Visigothic Kingdom
). Some Vandal women married Byzantine soldiers and settled in north Algeria and Tunisia. The choicest Vandal warriors were formed into five cavalry regiments, known as Vandali Iustiniani
, stationed on the Persian
frontier. Some entered the private service of Belisarius.
The 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia
states that "Gelimer was honourably treated and received large estates in Galatia
. He was also offered the rank of a patrician but had to refuse it because he was not willing to change his Arian faith
In the words of historian Roger Collins: "The remaining Vandals were then shipped back to Constantinople to be absorbed into the imperial army. As a distinct ethnic unit they disappeared".
Some of the few Vandals remained at North Africa while more migrated back to Spain.
In 546 the Vandalic Dux
, defected from the Byzantines and raised a rebellion with Moorish support. He was able to capture Carthage, but was assassinated by the Byzantines shortly afterwards.
For they all have white bodies and fair hair, and are tall and handsome to look upon...
List of kings
Family tree of the kings of Vandals
All Vandals that modern historians know about were able to speak Latin
, which also remained the official language of the Vandal administration (most of the staff seems to have been native Berber/Roman).
Levels of literacy in the ancient world are uncertain, but writing was integral to administration and business. Studies of literacy in North Africa have tended to centre around the administration, which was limited to the social elite. However, the majority of the population of North Africa did not live in urban centres.
Judith George explains that "Analysis of the [Vandal] poems in their context holds up a mirror to the ways and values of the times".
Very little work of the poets of Vandal North Africa survives, but what does is found in the Latin Anthology
; apart from their names, little is known about the poets themselves, not even when they were writing. Their work drew on earlier Roman traditions. Modern scholars generally hold the view that the Vandals allowed the Romans in North Africa to carry on with their way of life with only occasional interference.
The Vandals' traditional reputation: a coloured steel engraving of the Sack of Rome (455) by Heinrich Leutemann
(1824–1904), c. 1860–80
Since the Middle Ages, kings of Denmark were styled "King of Denmark
, the Goths
and the Wends
", the Wends being a group of West Slavs
formerly living in Mecklenburg
and eastern Holstein
in modern Germany. The title "King of the Wends" is translated as vandalorum rex
in Latin. The title was shortened to "King of Denmark" in 1972.
Starting in 1540, Swedish kings (following Denmark) were styled Suecorum, Gothorum et Vandalorum Rex
("King of the Swedes
, and Wends
"). Carl XVI Gustaf
dropped the title in 1973 and now styles himself simply as "King of Sweden
The modern term vandalism
stems from the Vandals' reputation as the barbarian people who sacked and looted Rome in AD 455. The Vandals were probably not any more destructive than other invaders of ancient times, but writers who idealized Rome often blamed them for its destruction. For example, English Restoration
poet John Dryden
wrote, Till Goths, and Vandals, a rude Northern race, / Did all the matchless Monuments deface
The term Vandalisme
was coined in 1794 by Henri Grégoire
, bishop of Blois
, to describe the destruction of artwork following the French Revolution
. The term was quickly adopted across Europe. This new use of the term was important in colouring the perception of the Vandals from later Late Antiquity, popularizing the pre-existing idea that they were a barbaric group with a taste for destruction. Vandals and other "barbarian
" groups had long been blamed for the fall of the Roman Empire
by writers and historians.
wrote a short story, "The Liberation of Rome," in which a professor of ancient history (mainly Roman) is confronted by a student claiming to be an ethnic Vandal.
- ^ "Théâtre de tous les peuples et nations de la terre avec leurs habits et ornemens divers, tant anciens que modernes, diligemment depeints au naturel par Luc Dheere peintre et sculpteur Gantois[manuscript]". lib.ugent.be. Retrieved 2020-08-25.
- ^ "Vandal". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
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- ^ a b c d e f Waldman & Mason 2006, pp. 821–825
- ^ a b Brian, Adam. "History of the Vandals". Roman Empire. Archived from the original on June 23, 2017. Retrieved May 21, 2017.
- ^ Heather 2005, pp. 379
- ^ Contrasting articles in Frank M. Clover and R.S. Humphreys, eds, Tradition and Innovation in Late Antiquity (University of Wisconsin Press) 1989, highlight the Vandals' role as continuators: Frank Clover stresses continuities in North African Roman mosaics and coinage and literature, whereas Averil Cameron, drawing upon archaeology, documents how swift were the social, religious and linguistic changes once the area was conquered by Byzantium and then by Islam.
- ^ a b de Vries 1962, pp. 653–654.
- ^ R. Much, Wandalische Götter, Mitteilungen der Schlesischen Gesellschaft für Volkskunde 27, 1926, 20–41. "R. Much has brought forth a relatively convincing argument to show that the very name Vandal reflects the worship of the Divine Twins." Donald Ward, The divine twins: an Indo-European myth in Germanic tradition, University of California publications: Folklore studies, nr. 19, 1968, p. 53.
- ^ Annales Alamannici, 795 ad
- ^ Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum by Adam Bremensis 1075 ad
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- ^ Lenček, Rado L. (1990). "The Terms Wende-Winde, Wendisch-Windisch in the Historiographic Tradition of the Slovene Lands". Slovene Studies Journal. 12 (2). doi:10.7152/ssj.v12i1.3797. ISSN 0193-1075.
- ^ Wolfram 1997, p. 4 "Goths, Vandals, and other East Germanic tribes were differentiated from the Germans... In keeping with this classification, post-Tacitean Scandinavians were also no longer counted among the Germans...."
- Heather, Peter John (2012). "Vandals". In Hornblower, Simon; Spawforth, Antony; Eidinow, Esther (eds.). The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780191735257. Retrieved January 25, 2020. Vandals, a Germanic people...
- Hitchner, R. Bruce (2005). "Vandals". In Kazhdan, Alexander P. (ed.). The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195187922. Retrieved January 25, 2020. Vandals... a Germanic people
- Darvill, Timothy, ed. (2009). "Vandals". The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780191727139. Retrieved January 25, 2020. Vandals. Germanic people, perhaps originally from the Baltic region, who invaded Gaul in ad 406, and established a kingdom in Spain.
- Bennett, Matthew (2004). "Vandals". In Holmes, Richard; Singleton, Charles; Jones, Spencer (eds.). The Oxford Companion to Military History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780191727467. Retrieved January 25, 2020. Vandals were a Germanic people...
- ^ "Natural History 4.28". Archived from the original on 2013-05-30. Retrieved 2014-01-14.
- ^ "The Geography of Claudius Ptolemy", Book II, Chapter 10: "Greater Germany"". transcript
- ^ Walter Goffart, Barbarian Tides, p.85.
- ^ Walter Pohl, Die Germanen, p.23
- ^ Anderson 1938, p. 198
- ^ a b Wolfram 1997, p. 42
- ^ Waldman & Mason 2006, p. 498
- ^ Pohl, Die Germanen, p.23; Goffart, Barbarian Tides, p.298, footnote 47.
- ^ Orosius (1773). The Anglo-Saxon Version, from the Historian Orosius (Alfred the Great ed.). London: Printed by W. Bowyer and J. Nichols and sold by S. Baker. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
- ^ "Land and People, p.25" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 26, 2007. Retrieved July 30, 2005.
- ^ Merrills 2004, pp. 32–33
- ^ a b Todd 2009, p. 25
- ^ Mallory & Adams 1997, pp. 217, 301
- ^ "Germany: Ancient History". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.Archived from the original on 2013-08-28. Retrieved January 16, 2015.
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