"Lect" redirects here. For the commune in France, see Lect, Jura
, a variety
, also called an isolect
, is a specific form of a language or language cluster
. This may include languages
, or other forms of language, as well as a standard variety
The use of the word "variety" to refer to the different forms avoids the use of the term language
, which many people associate only with the standard language, and the term dialect
, which is often associated with non-standard varieties
thought of as less prestigious
or "correct" than the standard.
Linguists speak of both standard and non-standard (vernacular
) varieties. "Lect" avoids the problem in ambiguous cases of deciding whether two varieties are distinct languages or dialects of a single language.
Variation at the level of the lexicon
, such as slang
, is often considered in relation to particular styles or levels of formality (also called registers), but such uses are sometimes discussed as varieties as well.
O'Grady et al. define dialect
: "A regional or social variety of a language characterized by its own phonological
, and lexical
A variety spoken in a particular region is called a regional dialect (regiolect, geolect
); some regional varieties are called regionalects
or topolects, especially to discuss varieties of Chinese
In addition, there are dialect varieties associated with particular ethnic groups (sometimes called ethnolects
), socioeconomic classes
(sometimes called sociolects
), or other social or cultural groups.
is the study of dialects and their geographic or social distribution.
Traditionally, dialectologists study the variety of language used within a particular speech community
, a group of people who share a set of norms or conventions for language use.
More recently, sociolinguists
have adopted the concept of the community of practice
, a group of people who develop shared knowledge and shared norms of interaction, as the social group within which dialects develop and change.
Sociolinguists Penelope Eckert
and Sally McConnell-Ginet
explain: "Some communities of practice may develop more distinctive ways of speaking than others. Thus, it is within communities of practice that linguistic influence may spread within and among speech communities."
The words dialect
are often used synonymously in everyday speech, but linguists define the two terms differently. Accent
generally refers to differences in pronunciation
, especially those that are associated with geographic or social differences, whereas dialect
refers to differences in grammar and vocabulary as well.
Many languages have a standard variety
, some lect that is selected and promoted prescriptively
by either quasi-legal authorities or other social institutions, such as schools or media. Standard varieties are accorded more sociolinguistic prestige
than other, nonstandard lects
and are generally thought of as "correct" by speakers of the language. Since the selection is an arbitrary standard
, standard forms are the "correct" varieties only in the sense that they are tacitly valued by higher socio-economic strata and promoted by public influencers on matters of language use
, such as writers, publishers, critics, language teachers, and self-appointed language guardians. As Ralph Harold Fasold puts it, "The standard language may not even be the best possible constellation of linguistic features available. It is general social acceptance that gives us a workable arbitrary standard, not any inherent superiority of the characteristics it specifies."
Sociolinguists generally recognize the standard variety of a language as one of the dialects of that language.
In some cases, an authoritative regulatory body
, such as the Académie Française
maintains and codifies
the usage norms for a standard variety. More often, though, standards are understood in an implicit, practice-based
way. Writing of Standard English, John Algeo suggests that the standard variety "is simply what English speakers agree to regard as good".
Registers and styles
(sometimes called a style
) is a variety of language used in a particular social setting.
Settings may be defined in terms of greater or lesser formality,
or in terms of socially-recognized events, such as baby talk
, which is used in many western cultures to talk to small children or as a joking register used in teasing
or playing The Dozens
There are also registers associated with particular professions or interest groups; jargon
refers specifically to the vocabulary associated with such registers.
Unlike dialects, which are used by particular speech communities
and associated with geographical settings or social groupings, registers are associated with particular communicative situations, purposes, or levels of formality, and can constitute divisions within a single regional lect or standardized variety. Dialect and register may thus be thought of as different dimensions of linguistic variation
. For example, Trudgill suggests the following sentence as an example of a nonstandard dialect
that is used with the technical register of physical geography:
There was two eskers what we saw in them U-shaped valleys.
Most speakers command a range of registers, which they use in different situations. The choice of register is affected by the setting and topic of speech, as well as the relationship that exists between the speakers.
The appropriate form of language may also change during the course of a communicative event as the relationship between speakers changes, or different social facts become relevant. Speakers may shift styles, as their perception of an event in progress changes. Consider the following telephone call to the Embassy of Cuba
in Washington, DC
Caller: ¿Es la embajada de Cuba? (Is this the Cuban embassy?)
Receptionist: Sí. Dígame. (Yes, may I help you?)
Caller: Es Rosa. (It's Rosa.)
Receptionist: ¡Ah Rosa! ¿Cóma anda eso? (Oh, Rosa! How's it going?)
At first, the receptionist uses a relatively formal register, as befits her professional role. After the caller identifies herself, the receptionist recognizes that she is speaking to a friend, and she shifts to an informal register of colloquialCuban Spanish
The shift is similar to metaphorical code-switching
, but since it involves styles or registers, it is considered an example of style-shifting.
is defined as "the language use typical of an individual person".
An individual's idiolect may be affected by contact with various regional or social dialects, professional registers and, in the case of multilinguals
, various languages.
For scholars who view language from the perspective of linguistic competence
, essentially the knowledge of language and grammar that exists in the mind of an individual language user, the idiolect is a way of referring to the specific knowledge. For scholars who regard language as a shared social practice, the idiolect is more like a dialect with a speech community of one individual.
- ^ Hudson, Alfred B. 1967. The Barito isolects of Borneo: A classification based on comparative reconstruction and lexicostatistics. Data Paper no. 68, Southeast Asia Program, Department of Asian Studies, Cornell University. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University,
- ^ a b c Meecham, Marjorie and Janie Rees-Miller. (2001) "Language in social contexts." In W. O'Grady, J. Archibald, M. Aronoff and J. Rees-Miller (eds) Contemporary Linguistics. pp. 537-590. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.
- ^ Schilling-Estes, Natalies. (2006) "Dialect variation." In R.W. Fasold and J. Connor-Linton (eds) An Introduction to Language and Linguistics. pp. 311-341. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- ^ Wolfram, Walt; Schilling-Estes, Natalie (1998). American English: dialects and variation. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell. pp. 13–16.
- ^ a b O'Grady, William, John Archibald, Mark Aronoff, and Jane Rees-Miller. eds. (2001) Contemporary Linguistics. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.
- ^ Christopher D. Land (21 February 2013), "Varieties of the Greek language", in Stanley E. Porter, Andrew Pitts (ed.), The Language of the New Testament: Context, History, and Development, p. 250, ISBN 978-9004234772
- ^ Daniel. W. Bruhn, Walls of the Tongue: A Sociolinguistic Analysis of Ursula K. Le Guin's The Dispossessed (PDF), p. 8
- ^ "topolect". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (4th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2010.
- ^ Lave, Jean & Etienne Wenger. (1991) Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- ^ Eckert, Penelope & Sally McConnell-Ginet. (2003) Language and Gender. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- ^ Lyons, John (2002) . Language and Linguistics: An introduction. Cambridge University Press. p. 268. ISBN 0-52-123034-9.
- ^ Fasold, Ralph. (2006) "The politics of language." In R.W. Fasold and J. Connor-Linton (eds) An Introduction to Language and Linguistics. pp. 371-400. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- ^ a b Trudgill, Peter (1999). "Standard English: what it isn't". In Bex, T.; Watts, R.J. (eds.). Standard English: The Widening Debate. London: Routledge. pp. 117–128. Archived from the original on 21 March 2009.
- ^ "Le Dictionnaire". Académie française (in French). Retrieved 20 July 2016.
- ^ Algeo, John. (1993) "What Makes Good English Good?" In L. Miller Cleary and M.D. Lin (eds) Linguistics for Teachers. pp. 473-82. New York: McGraw.
- ^ a b Ottenheimer, Harriet Joseph. (2006) The Anthropology of Language. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage.
- ^ Joos, Martin. (1961) The Five Clocks. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World.
- ^ a b Saville-Troike, Muriel. (1982) The Ethnography of Communication: An Introduction. Oxford and Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell.
- ^ Freeborn, Dennis, Peter French & David Langford. (1993) Varieties of English. Houndsmill and London: MacMillan Press.
- ^ Gregory, Michael and Susanne Carroll. (1978) Language and situation: language varieties and their social contexts. London: Routledge.
- ^ Barber, Alex. (2004) "Idiolects." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 07-01-2009.
Last edited on 17 April 2021, at 13:50
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